Animal Science with Jennifer Larson
Animal Science with Jennifer Larson ADS 1113
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ADS 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Animal Science in Animal and Dairy Science at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Chapter 6: Wool and Mohair Learning Objectives o Outline the factors affecting the value of wool o Describe the classes and grades of wool o Overview the production and processing of wool and mohair Fibers o Hair=cattle pigs, horses, dairy goats o Wool=sheep o Fur=mink, non-angora rabbits o Angora= angora rabbits o Mohair=Angora Goats o Most hair has little commercial value o Wool and the rest have value, but it varies Factors affecting value o Two factors that the producer controls affects the quality Nutrition Amount of energy and protein are important Breeding Selection for increased clean fleece weight, staple length (length of the wool), fineness (how thin each strand is), and uniformity of length (each strand is a similar length) Classes and Grades of Wool o Class and grade determine value of wool o Class=determined by staple length (length of wool fibers) Staple, French combing, clothing o Grade=determined by fineness of fibers Determined by 1 of 3 methods Spinning count (higher number=more fine) American grade (fine, ½ blood, ¼ blood, etc.) Micron diameter (most accurate, lower number=more fine) Fine wool breed=Merino and Rambouillet Medium wool breed=Columbia, Hampshire, Suffolk Dorset, etc. Course Wool Breeds=Cotswold, Lincoln, and Romney Production of Wool and Mohair o Greasy Wool=fleece shorn once each year from sheep o Scoured Wool=washed and rinsed to remove grease, dirt, etc. o Wool and Mohair production in US is decreasing: 88 mil lb shorn wool in 1990 to 27 mil lb in 2013 14.5 mil lb mohair in 1990 to .8 mil lb in 2013 o Most sheep in the US is in Western states Summary o Wool, mohair, and hair from animals provide useful human products o Wool value is determined by fleece weight, cleanliness staple length, and fineness (fiber diameter) o Mohair production from Angora goats is concentrated primarily in Texas. o Cotton, synthetic fibers, and wool imports have provided stiff competition for domestic wool production. Questions: 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11 Possible Essay Questions: 8 Rachel’s Elevator Speech: Certified Angus Beef-1978 Does not have to have angus genetics but has to have a predominately black hide 10 certifications o Modest high marbleing o Marble texturing o A maturity o 1050 hot carcaas weight or less o Superior muscling o No dark cutters o No neck hump can exceed 2 inches All cattle are grass fed All beef raised by farmers and ranchers Chase’s Elevator Speech: Sporting goods made for livestock products Pigskin football-not actually pigskin-actually cowhide 1 cowhide can make 20 footballs Baseball-gloves, cleats, and baseballs themselves It takes one cowhide to make 200 baseballs. Also made out of wool. 1 sheep’s wool can make about 50 baseballs. Chapter 7 Animal Science: By-products of Meat Animals Learning Objectives: o Identify the major edible and inedible by-products from livestock o Describe the role of international by-product trade o Explain the role of the rendering industry o Discuss the options and challenges with dead livestock disposal By-Products o Products f less value than the major product o Can be 8-10% the value of a fed steer…so not significant o In US, Primarily hides, fat, bones, internal organs o In some other countries, primary products might be work, milk, hides, and skins Meat itself might be the by-product (especially in older animals) o Classified into edible and inedible Important to know that animals that die during their productive life do ot go into human edible products o Hide is often the most valuable by-product o Use of by-products increases sustainability and efficiency (minimizes wastes and increases output of same input) Edible by-products o Variety meats Liver, hear, cheek meat, oxtail, pigs feet, tongue, tripe, chitlins, sweet bread o An average slaughtered steer can produce 45 lb of variety meats o US per capita consumption is 9lb, thus some are exported o Fats used to produce lard and tallow Inedible tallow and greases are used in soaps, lubricants, feed, and fatty acids Also a large export market Inedible by-products o Tallow, hides, inedible organs are higher-valued inedible by-products o Pharmaceuticals Many made from animal products and many made synthetically List of pharmaceuticals is interesting but will not ask specifics o Hides are often exported US export market yields $1.3 billion on a yearly basis Many things affect value of a hide, skin, including brands, insects, stains Shoe leather is a primary use o Pet food $8 billion worth of by-products used annually o Rendered fats and oils Biodiesel Rendering Industry o Recycles offal, fat, bone, meat scraps, and entire animal carcasses o Sources include packing and processing plants, butcher shops, restaurants, supermarkets, farmers, and ranchers o Animal fat and animal protein are two primary products Fatty acids used in plastic consumables, cosmetics, lubricants, paints, deodorants, polishers, cleaners, asphalt, inks, etc. Protein supplements for livestock: meat and bone meal, blood meal Usually monogastric animals because of their need for high quality protein Rendering of Poultry by-products o After slaughter, offal is immediately transferred to rendering facility where it is cooked to destroy all pathogenic organisms o Passed through presses to remove fat o Remaining material becomes poultry by-product meal which is high in protein and fat Dead Livestock o Careful attention must be paid to avoid cross-contamination of disease to humans or other livestock, to assure environmental quality, and to avoid odor o Acceptable disposal methods: Removed by licensed rendering company Compost the carcass Burn the carcass in an incinerator Bury the carcass at least 4 ft. deep o These options differ in cost and ease and there are differing laws regarding their use Summary o Hides, fat, bones, and internal organs are the primary by-products with hides usually having the highest value. o Variety meats (liver hear, tongue, tripe, etc.) are examples of edible by-products, while hides and other internal organs are inedible o Numerous inedible by-products produce useful human products-for example, pig hear valves (human heart valves), pig skin (human graft skin), hides and skins (leather bone buttons, china, etc.) and many pharmaceuticals (corticosteroids, epinephrine, heparin, insulin, thyrotropin, etc.) o Hides, fats, and variety meats are the by-products that comprise most of the total value of US livestock exports. Questions: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 Possible Essays: None
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