Animal Science with Jennifer Larson
Animal Science with Jennifer Larson ADS 1113
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ADS 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Animal Science in Animal and Dairy Science at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Notes Chapter 4 Animal Science-Poultry and Egg Products Learning Objectives o Describe the composition of poultry meat and eggs o Describe the processing of poultry and eggs o Quantify poultry and egg consumption trends o Overview the marketing of poultry and eggs Chicken Meat and eggs- Nutrition and relatively expensive 2 types of chickens: meat production (broilers) and egg production (layers) Turkeys, roaster chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, and guinea hens Meat o 60%+ of broilers leave the processing plant as cut-up chickens o 60% of broilers are further processed beyond the ready-to-cook carcass or parts stage Nuggets, diced, canned or ground This amount of processing is increasing (response from consumer demand for processed, value added products) About half of all food service chicken is sold via fast food outlets Eggs o Shell eggs o Pasteurized liquid eggs, dried eggs, etc. o Egg-breaking plants Wash and sanitize shells Break eggs for individual inspection Separate yolks from whites-all automatically Up to 50,000 eggs per hour Other Products o Feathers and down, primarily from ducks and geese Down: layer of small, soft feathers found beneath the outer feathers Most down in the U.S. is imported o Goose livers Pate de foie gras Force-feeding corn 3 times a day for 4 to 8 weeks produces an enlarged, fatty liver Considered a delicacy o Poultry by-products Hydrolyzed feather meal included in some livestock rations Consumption o In U.S. per capita consumption of poultry meat ins 100 lbs Accounts for half of red meat and poultry consumed (half sold is red meat, half is poultry) Has increased at expense of red meat consumption Because of cost (relative to beef and pork) and convenience o In U.S. per capita consumption of eggs is 251 eggs 70% consumed as shell eggs Relatively inexpensive item Marketing o Most is processed in commercial facilities o Primary drivers for demand are taste, convenience of preparation, perceived health benefits o Many value-added products Chicken strips, nuggets, rotisserie-roasted chicken, wings Boneless, skinless chicken breasts preferred item in retail groceries o Niche markets Free-range, natural, organic, produced without hormones, antibiotic-free, fresh Summary points o Poultry meat and egg products are nutritious and relatively inexpensive animal products used by humans throughout the world. o Poultry meat and eggs are excellent sources of protein, vitamin A, and several B vitamins for human nutrition. o Annual per-capita consumption of broilers is 84 lb and has been increasing rapidly over the past several years. Per-capita turkey consumption is 18lb and stabilizing. Egg consumption has been increasing and currently is 257 eggs per year. o Increases in demand for chicken and turkey have been created largely by price and competitiveness compared to other meats, ease of preparation, and convenience. Questions 1, 6, 8, 9 Essay Question 9 Chapter 5: Milk and Milk Products Learning Objectives o Describe the composition of milk o Quantify the production of milk and dairy products o Describe the processing of milk and dairy products o Describe the consumption patterns of milk and dairy products o Overview the marketing of milk products Milk Production o Most from cows, water buffalo, goats, and sheep o Dairy cows produce over 80% of world fluid milk o Nature’s “most nearly perfect food” o Nutrient dense o U.S. dairy herd is less than half of what is was in 1956 o Production per cow is almost 4 times what it was o Milk and milk products from 1 cow “feeds” 60+ people Milk Composition o Milk Fat: 34% 48% of the total calories Fatsoluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) Most of the flavor components (thus, skim milk has less flavor) o Carbohydrates: 4.8% lactose 30% of the total calories Milk is only natural source of lactose o Proteins: 3.3% protein 22% of the total calories High quality Casein: found only in milk, ~82% of the total milk protein o Vitamins All vitamins essential in human nutrition are found in milk Milk is usually fortified with vitamin D o Minerals Good source of calcium Poor source of iron Milk Products in the United States o 80% of milk is marketed as fluid milk, cream, cheese, and butter US: 57 billion lb of fluid milk and cream US: 11 billion lb of cheese US: less than 1 billion lb of ice cream o Milk fat determines how much milk to takes to produce each product 1 lb of butter takes 22 lb of whole milk 1 gallon ice cream takes 12 lb of whole milk o Whole milk must contain more than 3.25% milk fat Skim milk must contain 0.5% milk fat o Homogenized and pasteurized (heated to kill bacteria) Milk Processing o Milk taken from cow (100 F) via sanitized milking machine o Rapidly cooled in holding tank to 40 F o Tank truck hauls to plant, while maintaining temperature o Milk is pasteurized at plant Exposing milk to ta temperature that destroys bacteria but neither reduces nutritional value nor causes it to curdle Ultrapasteurized or ultrahightemperature processing is 280 F for 2 seconds o After pasteurizing, milk is homogenized to break up milk fat o Cooled again to less than 45 F Cannot sell milk if it hasn’t been pasteurized Milk Consumption o In 2005, US per capita consumption was 205 lb of total dairy products o Increase in consumption of skin products, and decrease in whole milk o Yogurt and cheese has increased over past 30 years o Generally, there is overproduction of milk and milk products which keeps prices low. Milk Pricing o Most milk is marketed via cooperatives o Prices are established by organizations set prices that processors must pay farmers (statebystate) Goal is to ensure adequate milk supply o Price determined by milk classes and grades Grade A: fluid milk Grade B. manufacturing milk Class II: Grade A milk for cottage cheese, cream, and frozen desserts Class III: surplus Grade A and B milk used for butter or cheese Summary Points o Most of the 1,661 billion lb of world milk production is contributed by cows 1,379 billion lb, water buffalo (215 bil lb), goats (39 bil lb), and sheep (22 bil lb). o In addition to fluid milk for drinking and cooking, cheese, butter, and dessert dairy products are important consumer dairy products. o Dairy products contribute significant amounts of protein, calcium, phosphorous, and riboflavin to the human diet. o Sales of cheese, lowfat skim milk, and yogurt have increased in recent years while whole milk and cottage cheese have experiences decreased percapita sales. Review Questions: 1, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12 Possible Essay Questions: 11
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