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Sociology 2001

by: Andrea Smith

Sociology 2001 SOCI 2001

Andrea Smith

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Includes: Chapter 6: Groups and Organization Chapter 7: Crime and Deviance Chapter 9: Sex and Gender Chapter 10: Race and Ethnicity Chapter 11: Politics Chapter: 13: Education Chapter...
Intro to Sociology,
Robert O'neil
sociology, o'neil, 2001
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This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Andrea Smith on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SOCI 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by Robert O'neil in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology, in Sociology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 6: Groups and Organizations • Dyad: something that consists of two elements or parts A B C • When a dyad turns into a triad it is know as a shifting dyad o Example: if A and B are playing against either other at C wants to play you can play 2 against 1. Types of groups • Primary Group o Consist of the people we are close to. § Example: Close friends and Family. o In a primary group the relationships are long lasting. They involve an emotional component and because of that the groups tent to be small in numbers. o Diffuse interaction: spread out. Wide variety of activities. o They fulfill our expressive needs • Secondary Groups o Consist of casual acquaintances o Less emotional involvement. Maybe none at all o Tend to be greedy and less specific § Example: Come to school to get a degree and you have casual relationships with some students. Same with clubs. You group for X reasons and along the way you will meet people o They fulfill our instrumental needs § Instrumental Needs: Practical, everyday needs • Reference Groups o Groups we use as a standard of evaluation for your values, attitudes and behaviors. o A group of people you are not truly a part of or belong to § Example: Celebrities Not Groups • Crowds o Large numbers of people that come to the same place at the same time for the same purpose. § Example: Rock concert, Sport Games • Aggregates o Large numbers of people that gather at the same place at the same time for different reasons § Example: People at malls • Social Categories o Large numbers of people who share a common characteristic § Example: Sex, race/ ethnicity, Age, Religious affiliation o We come up with names to name certain categories (Generation X, Generation Y, Middle aged people, ect…) Ethnocentrism • Us vs. Then • A self center view of once ideas • Ethnocentrism leads to xenophobia o Xenophobia: Fear of anything or anyone that is different from us Attribution Theory • Talks about how we judge people differently. We attribute our success to our person characteristics o Example: I got an A on the test because I studied a lot. o Example 2: Our team won the game because were bigger, stronger and that makes us better. • We also attribute our fails to internal thoughts or things that are beyond our control (bad luck) o Example 1: We lost the game because the weather was bad. • When bad things happen to us we want to blame everything except ourselves. • When we are in Not groups we do the exact opposite. o Example: The other team had the home team advantage o Example 2: She acted the test because she belongs to an organization • Negative: Example: The other team lost not because of the weather but because they are a bunch of wimps. Exchange Theory • Benefits analyzes. Explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. If the risk is to high, we will be less likely to take the chance. If risk is low, we are more likely to take the chance o Example: College: We are here to get and education for our job but there are risk. College cost a lot of money and if we don’t make that money back in the long run we are least likely to go to college. • The Norm of Reciprocity o When we get something from someone else, that creates an obligation to give something back. § Example: We live in a country of freedom and because of that we need to pay taxes, play by the rules, ect… o This is true for formal groups and informal groups § Example: Friends: In exchange of a friendship we need to spend time with each other, help each other out when we ned help, ect… Soloman Asch’s Conformity Experiment Would ask individually Would ask 2 people at which line is longer. one time, one being They would get it right some one he told to be wrong and the individual will be right but when 3 people, 2 being wrong, were asked the individual would go along with the wrong answer. GroupThink • Two heads are better than one • Can be broken down into four things o Ethnocentrism which leads us into the Aura of invincibility. § Example: If God is on our side of course were going to win the war § Example Two: If we are the best of course were going to win the game o Xenophobia: Leads us to demonizing out opponents. Because we think we are the best of course the other groups are less of the best. We are the experts why should we listen to them § When we demonize our enemy that allows us to bring harm on them without hurting our conscience. • Example: We took their land away because they didn’t know how to use it anyway o Discouragement of dissent: if you don’t agree with us you don’t know what you’re talking about. People who are on the minority side of things will be heavily criticized. People just go with the majority and when that happens they don’t get the full scoop to make a rational decision o Appearance of Unanimity: everyone wants to think that we all agreed. This makes it easy for people who think something different to hide behind what they really think. Also means that they (politicians, president, governor) don’t have to take personal responsibilities for here decisions • All of this leads to “Risky shift” o _________ engage in risky behaviors than what one individual would do on his own Formal Organizations • Groups that have formal rules for membership (rules about joining, staying, suspension, etc) o Example: College • What are the designed to do? o Utilitarian Organization § gain instrumental value • University o Normative Organization § People join because they believe in the goals of the organization • Example: Charity Organizations o Coercive Organization § Forced to become a member of § Controls how long you need to be a member and when you become a member • Example: Prisons, Mental Institutions • Formal Organizations become large enough to where they become bureaucracies: large high structures o Example: LSU; Louisiana Government • Max Weber o Modern relational bureaucracies: they were way more rational than the once of the ancient days • Bureaucracies characteristics o We see high specialization and a high Division of Labor o Hierarchy of authority: certain people at the top (principle), and under (vice principle, dean of students, ect) o Detailed rules and regulations o Impersonal Client relationships: they don’t want to know your name. They want to know your number. To the Bureaucracies you are a number. This is so everyone can get treated the same • Bureaucracies are designed this way because it creates: o Efficiency § Example: many people go to LSU so in order to make sure everyone is getting their degrees on time a bureaucracy is formed o Predictability: § everyone needs to know what they need to be doing and how they need to be doing it o Calculability § Need to be able to calculate things • Example: How only do I have to go to college to get my masters degree and do what I want to do in life o Control § Have a grip on what is going on within the society. • These features make a bureaucracy more rational it does not in turn mean it is 100% rational. Problems: o No flexibility o Move really slow o Very little room for creativity o Create alienation: workers stop caring about job or organization. It loses it’s meaning. o Goal Displacement: They no longer believe in the goals of the organization o Ritualism: people just go through the motions without caring o CYA (Cover your ass): Make sure you can’t get blamed is the goal eventually • Bureaucracies Continued o Bounded Rationality § Constraints on decision- making: • Time: You are a business own who is losing millions a day so you got to get a problem taken care of right now • Money • Available Information • Incremental Risk: We don’t want to make big chances, they are risky. What if the change doesn’t work Companies don’t like to take big risk so thy take tiny steps. If that doesn’t work it is easier to back out of small baby steps than a big risk. o They settle for satisfying solutions: The first solution they come across that makes everything a little bit better. I.G Social Networks • When you enter into a relationship with a person you are not just in a relationship with them you are entering into a network of relationships. I.G When people get together they also get together with each others families and friends. o Sociograms: People who study social networks use sociograms. Two kinds of sociograms § Egocentric: looks at relationships form a certain entity (one person, corporation, ect) • Stanley Milgrams “Small World Experiment: Got packs in boston and they would pass it around all of boston. When they got them they had to sign it of…..???? He said that people are only 5 or 6 degrees or people away from being connected. • Conclusion: The social distance is…???? § Sociocentric: Look at the relationships from the stand point of the group rather than individually • The little dots are nodes. They can be people, dogs, companies, ect • The lines are ties. They show what kind of connect you have with that person, ect… o We can talk about ties in a number of different ways: § Strong ties: Ties that involve an emotional component. Normally they last a long time. § Weak ties: Lower intensity and lower deration. More topical with our acquaintances, third cousins, ect • Mark Granovetter “The Strength of Weak Ties”: He got a few people who changed jobs and they ask how they found out about the new job. Most people used there weak ties to find the job. o Conclusion: Weak ties can give you a bunch of information. • We can also look at they way the person is connected o Uniplex ties: Evolves one relationship. They are weak ties. I.G John and Dave work together. If Dave gets a job somewhere else the connection is broken o Multiplex Ties: Many different strains and kinds of connection I.G John and Ken work together but they also play softball together, go to church together, they are neighbors and their kids go to the same school. If ken gets another job somewhere else the work connection is broken but they still have all those other connections. o Bridging Ties: When someone belongs to two separate networks they for a bridging tie. When this happens they can control what gets communicated, what is told to the other network, ect. • Structural Equivalence: is the idea people who similar opinions in similar but separate networks. Tend to be affected by things in similar ways. o Example: Farmers o Example 2: There are many ways in which actors could be defined as "equivalent" based on their relations with others. For example, we could create two "equivalence classes" of actors with out-degree of zero, and actors with out- degree of more than zero. Indeed, a very large number of the algorithms we've examined group sets of actors into categories based on some commonality in their positions in graphs. Mater Status • A master status is a component of someone’s identity that will affect how other people interact with them in almost all situations o Example: Sex, gender, race, social class, ect… Chapter 10: Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity • Race (social definition): A category of people treated as distinct based on physical characteristics to with social importance has been assigned. In other words, physical characteristics that causes us to treat someone differently (not a biological definition) • Primarily: Skin color, eye color and hair color and some how this tells us something different about the person • Our concepts of race are social that have little or no bases in biology nor history. This definition can change because of it. • Race (biological definition): Interbreeding population with genetic characteristics that differ from other populations o Example: Zebras may look the same to us but to a biologist they are many different kinds that can’t breed with each other • The only breeding barrier we have are geographic fences and social bearings • Humans are a single race really. We may vary based on geographic characteristics (long limb theory and what not) but other than that were the same • The Big Three Folk Classifications of Race o White/Caucasian/ Indo-European o Negroid- “African” skin tone o Mongoloid – copper skin tone • Epicantic Fold: Slant in the eyes • U.S Census Folk Classification o White/ Caucasian o African American o Asian- American o Native American/ Eskimo/ Alent o Pacific Islander/ Native Hawaiian • Genes- pairs of loc • Alleles- fits of protein that carry genetic information o O (recessive),A(dominate),B (dominate) : § O- two alleles for O § A- two alleles for O or an A allele and a O allele- European- provided high resistance for the black pleage § B- two alleles for B or an B allele and a O allele- less common every were. Some resistance for the black pleage and small pocks but none for syphilis § AB- One allele for A and one allele for B o All of them are an example of natural selection • Evolutionary forces (there are 4 of them that affect humans) o Natural selection: any physical characteristic that provides an advantage. Over time it will become more common than other characteristics within that population o Genetic Drift: Occurs when your gene pool is unstable. § Natural disaster: wipes out a big number of your population § Founder’s effects: When a small group gets separated from the larger population and they find a new population to live among o Gene Flow: Natural proses in with individuals pass on the genetic characteristics to there offspring so the move from one generation to another. Doesn’t really change the characteristic for the population § Swamping: Opposite for the founder’s effect. Where a very small population exists close to a big population. If breeding takes place the characteristics in the smaller population will become rare in the larger population. § 1-Way Gene Flow: where inter breeding occurs in a group. Not a natural occurrence and only happens because of social patterns § 1-Drop Rule: Said anyone with any black within them they would be classified as black. o Mutation: is a change in the chemical processing of the allele there for changing the gene and characteristic. They wont change the population unless they provide a natural selection advantage. Most of the time it is a disadvantage so they die out of the population • Melanin: is little brown sustains that is produced in skin, eyes, hair, ect… o Melanocytes: everyone has the same number of them in there body. Weather it is shown or not is determined on the grain size of the melanocytes • Protects our body from the sun Ethnicity • Set of attitudes related to a since of ancestral identification with some segment of the worlds population Racial/ Ethnic Groups in U.S • Whites 64.9% • Afro Amer 12.1% • Hispanic 15.8% • Asian- Amer 4.5% • Native American .6% • First Migration: People came during the ice age • Second Migration: People from Europe started to come over to Africa (west), cape code, southern asia and eventually came to South America and North America. They came to set up colonies, gain land and explore. o Spain was the first to establish colonies in North America and wanted to establish a military base (make sure this is right)*** o France was the most advance country during this time and no one wanted to leave to go to America o British: They were large and expanding, have religion wars, had a lot of religious groups. They were really the only group that looked/ needed to go out and search for new colonies. They kept occupy native American land so native Americans started to hate the British because of it. This lead to wars between the British and Native Americans • Third major migration: Afro slaves that were bought here by force. Brought by the geeses first. This was before Columbus came. When sugar plantations developed more and more slaves were needed. o In the early 1800 the cotton gen was invented and then cotton was big and required more slaves o Soon had no need for slaves and it was soon abolished by for some reason people still wanted and had them • Most of the immigration in southern and eastern Europe--- looking for freedom of religion, more jobs, more economic freedom, ect… • The people from china were welcomed at first because of the intercontinental railroad and what not. Soon the unemployment rate when up and everyone blamed it on the Chinese immigrants and a law was passed that stopped them form coming to America. • 1980s: Our economy was failing again and once again it was blamed on the immigration • 1990: Unemployment was at normal levels and no one said anything about immigration o Conclusion: When economy is fine or whatever, everyone wants all the employees they could get and they don’t care where they come from but when the economy gets bad they want to blame it on the immigrants. It is a cycle that repeats itself over and over again. • Hispanic- 1970s- by Larasa who wanted to create an identity for all Spanish speaking people around the united states so they could have a political say. • Ports are not immigrants: it is a U.S territory. • Cuba: A part of the U.S (1898’) but later the U.S traded it. Castro (59’) The U.S had to shut off acceptance from cuba because of the communist government Castro established • Mariel Boat Lift: Mental pat., people who were in jail, ect • “On Average” o Hispanics and Afo Amers are “on average” are close together o Native Americans “on average” are not better off § Some off these ‘theories’ can’t be explained simply without discrimination Racial/ Ethnic Groups in U.S: Ethnocentrism and Xenophobia • Stereotypes: a belief that member of certain group share a common characteristic o White men can’t jump o Irish people like to drink o Black people like fried chicken • Prejudice: Making judgments about people without factual knowledge based solely on the group they belong to o This is a mindset or attitude • Discrimination: Treating someone different basic solely on there membership in a social category. When we put the prejudice to action • Racism: Is a belief that certain social group a superior biologically and others are inferior biologically Reason Why Prejudice Persists (pg.148): • Stereotypes= result of Categorization • Maintenance of power can use social divisions to maintain their power. There at the top often to keep people down. If everyone was equal, then they are no better than someone else • Ingroup Solidarity: create the perception of a raillery then that brings your group closer together. (Family guy episode with the principle, Jeff and Hayley) o These railleries create unity and togetherness • Personal advantage: something (such as a good position or condition) that helps to make someone or something better or more likely to succeed than others • Scapegoating: blaming someone else for there problems Stratification • Unequal distribution of recourses. Some people get more some people get less • There are two basic forms of stratification: Caste system and Class System o Caste System: The position is based on an ascribed status. You can’t change the position of your caste and you are born with the status I.G: Indian Caste System o Class System: Based on achieved status. Unlike the caste system the class system has social mobility and can be changed. o There are other kinds of mobility besides social mobility § Intergenerational Mobility: Tendency for children to do better than their parents § Structural Mobility: Where an expanding economic creates opportunity and there for people have better chance of doing better • Karl Marx was the first person to take a look at class. To him the relation was based on his or her relation to the means of production. As in what the person can do for the society. Do you make your money off the person that work for you or do you have to make your own production, sell it and making it that way? o The bourgeoisie (the capitalist): the ruling elite who own the means of production o The Proletariat: The working class. They have to sell there labor to the bourgeoisie (capitalist) § Karl Marx eventually said the the proletariat would eventually over throw the bourgeoisie. • Socio-economic status (SES): index of social standard based on income, education and occupation prestige • Human Capital o describes the individual recourses that a person brings to a job I.G education, work experience, special skills, intelligence, creativity, communication, motivation, ect… • Social Capital o the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively. • Cultural Capital o Describes our cultural knowledge and artifacts. is the ideas and knowledge that people draw upon as they participate in social life. Everything from rules of etiquette to being able to speak and write effectively can be considered cultural capital Chapter 11- Politics Political systems • is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. o We need to…. o Allows us to engage into self defense. It’s a way to engage in planning for the future. It’s also a way of sharing a cost for these different functio s. • Some will give up their freedom to follow a group so in a away the government is a contract • When we set up a government we are giving people the right to have power over us o Power: ability to get other people to do what you want them to do weather they want to or not. There are contain sources of power § Use of Force: I.G Give me your lunch money or I will beat you up. • Force generates resentment and there is always the threat that someone can use more force than you • Control of resources: I.G I have something you want. I can say what I want from you and you can give it to me and I will give you what you want o Can be tangible (metals) or not (knowledge) o If thy don’t like your terms they can go somewhere else for a better deal (Shark Tank) • Control over people: I.G Bush told the army men to go to middle east, find Hissan and kill him. Some army men thought it was okay and others thought it wasn’t but they couldn’t object to it o Commander-in-chief: The prez of the U.S is the commander in chelf of the U.S. So that means that the prez can tell the troops what to do but congress is the only group that can declare war and this is in the constitution • Authority: The legitimation of power. When someone gains authority they have the right to tell us what to do. There are two common types of authority and two other kids that are acc epted o Tradition authority: based on ways that things have been done for a long time. It was being like this for years, I.G someone gets to be king because there father was a king. If you are not in the royal family most likely you will not become a king § Problems: Always open to question and can always be challenged I.G What happens if a family doesn’t have a male to rule next as King? So it doesn’t work well in large societies o Charismatic authority: based on "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctit y, heroism, or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him". I.G MLK, Ghandi; they don’t hold a government position but they are widely respected by everybody § Problems: What happens when the that person is gone? Sometimes there is a person who follows right behind them but that is not always the case. o Rational- Legal Authority: Based on written laws written about how long a leader can hold the positions, what the leader can do and how much power the leader has, ect… o Expert Authority: Based on specialized knowledge or skill most people don’t have I.G if you broke your leg you would probably go to a doctor who probably studied bones more closely than a doctor who studied eyes • Types of authority can be transferred Types of Political systems • Authoritarian systems o Systems when leadership and government polices are not based on ruling people. favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom. § Monarchies: government that is ran by monarch § Juntas: ran by military § Theocracies: government is ran by a religious elite § Dictatorships: one person rules a government § Totalitarians government: absolute control of the government by one political party or group (Nazi) • Democratic system o People get to vote on wo they want to run the government. The y can choose the directly or indirectly o They normally operate over something that was already determined like the constitution. § Political Parties:is defined as an organized group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office. • Two party system: is a party system where two major political parties dominate politics within a government. One of the two parties typically holds a majority in the leg islature and is usually referred to as the majority party while the other is the minority party. • One party systems: Totalitarian government system - you get the same political party. One political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. I.G: like in the south at one point. • Multiparty system: system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government The Pluralist View • sociol a theory of society as several autonomous but interdependent groups which either share power or continuously compete for power • the existence in a society of groups having distinctive ethnic origin, cultural forms, religions, etc The Power- Elite View • Wright Mills 1956: there are certain individuals that come from certain over lapping…. The break the top of American society who are raised from birth in hopes that some day they will be making decision that affect million of people. They will have there own interested but they all have some interest in common: The don’t want to pay taxes , ect… like they people who want to break from England. Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward • Regulating the poor: Policies always tend to favor the rich. The only time they try to fix it is if the status que is threatened. • Government polies during the great depression • Statistical abstracts Economies • Every society needs to have some way to produce and distribute goods • There are wide variety of ways to do so: o Barter system: Goods are exchanged or traded for other goods § The other person must have need for your item to make a successful trade o Money Economies § Trade of silver coins, colored shells or paper money. You trade money to buy what you want and in turn they get the money and use it for something they want § It is easier to carry § There are many kinds of money economies • Command Economy: The government plays a strong role in economic activity. The government determines what goods should be produced, how much should be produced and the price at which the goods will be offered for sale • Key in communist society o Feudalism: society was based on the ownership of land (peasants at the bottom and king at the top) o Mercantilism: France, Spain, England, ect. Belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism. A system in which a country attempts to amass wealth through trade with other countries, exporting more than it imports and increasing stores of gold and precious metals. Only imports the most necessary things. o Socialism: economic systems in which workers own and control the means of production § Communism: When the workers own and control the means of production • Free Market Capitalism: Any individual can engage in economy activity as long as it is legal. • The only thing that should be illegal in the free market system: If your hurting someone else • Free Market economy should carry own without any government activity or involvement at all • People who believe in this system often quote Adam Smith but he never said that there shouldn’t be any government activity o Regulating financial institutions to prevent f raud secondly…. And third investing in infrastructure. o Pure capitalism doesn’t work because § It abuses, greed and workers are exploited and usually results in monopolies and oligopolies rather than a free market that encourages competition § People don’t want it o Pure Socialist doesn’t work because § Competition and individual profits are forbidden but government officials, to athletes and high ranking officials enjoy more freedom, larger apartments, higher incomes and greater access to education and other resources than the rank and file. • Problems with Capitalism o It is the most efficient way to produce goods. There is no better system to do that but the distribution of goods is based on ….. and the system is based on profit o Boom and Bust Cycles: a process of economic expansion and contraction that occurs repeatedly. During the boom the economy grows, jobs are plentiful and the market bring high returns to investors. During the Bust the economy shrinks, people lose their jobs and investors lose money. o Employers will always try to exploit the employees. They will try to pay the workers as little as possible. o Require a large number of producers and consumers and this can cause some companies to try and become monopolies. o Socialism was designed to fix some of these problems but it didn’t. It created more problems • Problems with Socialism o Monopoly:….. o Monopolies are really bad and not efficient at all o With monopolies you don’t have any comp. o Government Monopoly:….. o No incentive for innovation - no one around will come up with a better product if you’re the only game in town o Requires bureaucracies o Never supported variation?????? o Very difficult for governments to compete in a global market place Sectors of an Economy • Primary Sector o Part of the economy that produces raw materials § I.G Agriculture, timber, mining, fishing • Secondary Sector o Magnifatuing sector. Part of the economy that takes these raw materials and turns them into something § I.G Processing plants • Tertiary Sector o Servicing economy. Part of the economy that provides services to other people § I.G Doctors, Lawyers, Government Officials, Teachers, ect… • Underground/ Shadow o Informal Economy. Part of the economy that includes people who engage in criminal activity or economy activates that would be legal if they were not laws § I.G Drug dealers, Street walkers, Murderers, unlicensed day care centers and auto mobile shops, ect… • The growth of education, sales and other things; most people made there money thought service eventually and because the most “used” sec tor • Financial sectors -stock- have become a thing in the last 25 years. Chapter 13 Education • Manifest Function of Education: To teach knowledge and skill to new generations of peop e • The Nature of Goods and Services o For any good or service, we can look at it in two different ways: how is it consumed and how is it paid for § Private Goods: User pays I.G If you want a car you buy the car § Public Goods: Others Pay I.G Taxes • Kinds of Consumption o Common Pool Goods: Available to everyone. Can only be with public goods § I.G With public goods: Air, Fish o Joint Consumption Goods: One person’s use is not diminished the amount available to there people. They can be public or private goods § I.G Private Goods: Cable TV § I.G Public Goods: Broadcast radio and TV o Individual Consumption Goods: One’s person use does reduce the amount available to other’s § I.G Private Goods: The car you drive, TV, Radio’ U.S Health Care § I.G Public Goods: Socialized Health Care, K-12 Education • In the 1800’s they wanted to change K-12 Education form a private good to a public good. When we do that we are creating a “worth good.” • Worth Goods o Fredrick Taylor § Pioneered the idea of time and motion studies § He would look at the motions the workers had to go through. § He had a Dutch man as his helper and was said to be 10 times stronger than the average worker. He would use him to show factor workers how hard they should work. He worked him to his death. § Here with industrialization they owners wanted more education from there workers so everyone was trying to figure out what they need to do to meet the needs. They came up with the Gary plan 1903 § The Gary Plan 1903 • Platoon of Studies with come into a room. Lea rn and then they will leave and then another group of studies will come in and take the same class. (we still do it today!) • Also know as Platoon school • They wanted to do it 24 hours a day because it would have been very efficient but that would have cost a lot. o Two ways to increase efficiency § Increase your outputs by holding ur input steady § Reduce your inputs to maintain the same out puts • Economies of Scale o The more you buy and produce the less it cost per unit Education continued • Besides teaching knowledge and skills to people: o the education system also keeps people out of the working field. o Not only do we keep them in school longer and longer we are putting kids in school earlier and earlier- so schools are our babysitter’s now • 25%- college degree • 80%- high school diploma • 66%- some college o Schools teaches us cultural values - I.G Pledge of Allegiance and Prayer o Our education system is teaching us to be “good little wage workers” I.G - sent to office for this and that. They want to figure out who is capable to what task o teaches social skills, dating (prom), ect… • Conflict Theorist: Functional for whom? o Tracking and Labeling: Education systems start making decisions about students based on their abilities. Some put on college prep and gifted progra ms. They are put there and they learn more about whatever. It is called self -fulfilling prophecy § Self-fulfilling Prophecy: when someone makes a prediction about someone else and it changes the way people interact with that person and that intern changes that way that person acts around other people. It is these changes that causes these predictions to come true. o Standardized Tests: minory good to predict how someone is going to do in college for white males. For women and minorities it is complete useless o Credentalism: favors people who are already privileged in a society. Produced to reproduce the inequality in the system o Vouchers: government certificate built to pay for tuition k -12 school. Tax payer pays. Saying that it creates smart completion between schools • Public Schools: Funded those taxes • Equalization rates: Chapter 13- Religion • Emile Durkheim • Religion: Unified set of beliefs and values related to sacred things • Religiosity: how seriously you take religion • 5 major religions o Christianity is the most popular religion (32%), o Islam is the second most popular (23%). Islam is also the most fastest growing mainly because it is part of countries where population is growing fast (India). o Third is Hinduism (15%) o Buddhist is the fourth (7%). o Chinese folk religion is fifth (6%) also know as confousus • Judism (.2%) • 16% is unaffiliated • Main goal is to find answers t o big questions (how will it end, How did it start, what happens when we die) • Religion also provides a purpose of living in many peoples lives. • 3 parts of belief system o Cosmology: beliefs about the divine and the material universe. What is the purpose of human beings? (Cosmology is the only one that sociologist are concerned with) o Eschatology: explanation of the “last things” How will the world as we know it come to an end? o Soteriology: salvation scheme. when these last things come to pass, how do we ma ke sure we’re on the right side • Religions by Cosmology o Animism/Nature religions § There are little spirits in plants and animals and they have some kind of protection powers. § They belief that everything on Earth is infused with power and can be used for good or evil if treated right or wrong. § If treated wrong, then the force can hurt you o Polytheistic Religions § Religions that believe in many gods § They are very uncommon § Anthropomorphism: Attributing animal or human form to abstract ideas. I.G The energy we see in storms is form the rain god. Death= Grim Reaper • Kinda comes from animism/ nature religion o Monotheistic Religions § Religions that believe in one supreme God o Ethical Religions/ “Religions of the way” § Basic on good behavior and ways § I.G: In Budisum, you go through certain things in life and eventually reach nirvana • Rituals and Ceremonies o Virtually all religions have certain rituals and ceremonies that the followers would have to partake in o Birth of death of founder or there would have to be some big event that they celebrate o In general, these rituals and ceremonies bring the followers together o The create a moral consciousness: a belief that we are right and our beliefs are the right beliefs and our ways are right as well. o Civil religions: the worship of a political entity (patriotism).; our nation is the most important as are our ways • Moral “established” Religions (another way sociologist look at religion : o Ecclesia: State religions a particular religion is declared in a certain state. Bec ause of this, the religion affects how the government is ran o Churches: large religion organization that has been declared the official religion of the society but other organizations are also allowed to take and make their own church with the same religion o Denominations: Minor groups within a major religion. They may have small differences from one another but they over all believe in the same dogma • Less “established” Religions: may have fewer followers and may have not been around as long o Sects: small religious groups that are part of a larger church but they have some beliefs or practices that are rejected by mainstream societies I.G Jehovah Witnesses o Cults is a religious or social group with socially deviant or novel beliefs and practices I.G unification church o Every major religion today began as a cult or a sect • Religion is often used as an excuse for ethnic cleansing, wars, ect • People also have been seen that religion is against science of any kind (not really true) • Religion provides some good as well: provide answers for the unkno wn, provide meaning, ect but they do so much more • Churches don’t always….. the status qou. They fight for justice (Liberation theology). People have fought for there lives because of a religion. • Many scientific discovers have been made because of religion actually so it is not against science. Taught people to read and write as well • Religion has inspired artist and musitions • Religious organization provide many social services for the public Chapter 7- Crime and Deviance • Deviance: any act that will bring about social sanctions • Crimes: any that brings about formal legal sanctions • Sanctions: various methods that societies use to control their member’s behavior o Internalizations of norms: we try to get people to internalize norms; teach right from wrong (Informal sanction) maybe o Gossip: when we talk about someone behind there back but it has a way of getting back around to you. (informal sa nction) o Social approbation: when we express our disapproval to the person’s face. I.G Hey! You’re not suppose to do that (informal sanction) o Shunning: Refuse to interact with a person (Informal sanction) o Economic sanctions: If you harm someone in the wallet they will change their actions (maybe) I.G If you speed you have to pay a fine (formal sanction) o Legal Sanctions: Punishment for dissepiment is officially written somewhere. The government uses the force I.G Jail (Formal sanction) § Informal sanctions are more effective than formal sanctions • Emile Durkheim o He worked on deviance and noticed several things § Every society has deviance. They also have people engaging in these acts. They must serve some function for the society : • Deviance brings about change • Allows society to define acceptable behavior “we need to draw a line in the sand” I.G You need to correct your behavior or we will correct it for you • If we didn’t have deviance, we would invent it. o “A cloister of Saints”: In these societies, what we consider ‘large deviance’ wouldn’t be conducted. They will see small things like eating to much soup or not saying your prayers as deviant • Deviance changes as the society changes. If the society is diffe rent from another, deviance will also be different • Juvenile Delinquency o Consist of two types of acts: § Acts that would be crimes if they were committed by adults i.g robbery, assault, ect. Juvy is a Civil system. • Draw Back: They do not have the right to a n attorney. Far less standrzation (little sentence or long sentence; no official time) • Kinds of offenses o Status Offenses: legal for some people but illegal for other people. (Age differences). You have to be a certain age to do certain things. I.G Buy al cohol, get drivers license. They wanna show everybody that they an engage in adult behavior and most of the time it is illegal o Instrumental Offenses: Purpose is to gain something material I.G Selling drugs, robbery , writing bad checks o Expressive Offenses: The reward is in the act itself I.G assault and battery, homicide, using drugs • Deterrence: rational choice o Our justice system is based on deterrence o There are different kinds of deterrence § Specific Deterrence: Aimed at the individual offended I.G you broke the law so we will punish you § General Deterrence: aimed at the general public I.G if someone else see a person committing a crime and see how they were punished maybe it will stop them from committing that same crime o Exchange theory: If you gain so mething from it you are most likely to do it but if you don’t gain anything from it or get punished for it you are less likely to do it. This is the whole idea behind deterrence o Increasing the effectiveness of deterrence: § The severity of punishment: How h arsh is the punishment § Certainty of punishment: if you do it how likely are you going to get caught and punished § Celerity (swiftness): if you do ge t caught how long will it take to deal with it (court dates, how long will trial last, ect…) o The problem with the justice system running on the deterrence system is that it kind of forces people to make these three calculations before they actually commit the crime. • Official crime statistics o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) § Every month police departments need to issue the crime reports (crimes that were committed) to the FBI. They take the information and group them by states and look at “crime rates” (assault, arson, murder, ect) § They are published as the # of crimes per 100,000 people and helps us make comparisons. (city to city, state to state, ect.) o Problems with Uniform Crime Reports § Reports are perused if I Is important to the police § Definition of crime can change over time § Rape is increasing in report (normally the lowest reported crime). So it is not that rape is increasing but people are seeing that it Is important to report it. § Assault is increasing as well because of ….. file cases. Police want very little to do with domestic violence and how will the family survive if you put the bread winner behind bars but women are starting to take care of themselves. o Reports also have to do with: § Hiding publicized crimes • When we look at jail records o U.S has the highest incarnation rates 100,00/ 716 of them are behind bars o Crime is dropping by the amount of people who end up in jail is still very high. There are many reasons why. § Requiring judges to put people behind bars for a certain number of years and to allow people to get out on good behavior. § Prison-Industrial complex: prisons are big businesses. Major employ er to local governments. #2 employers across the country. Schools are shut down just to build jail houses. § Privatization: prison being bought and operated by private cooperation’s • C.C.R (Corrections Corporation of America) is the largest one • These companies hire people with less training, no protection, ect. § Differential Law Enforcement: transformation in law enforcement styles • Law Enforcement Styles o The Traditional/Fraternal Model: § Most officers have a high school Diploma § Officers are recruited locally § They have a precinct organization • The operate relatively independently § Philosophy- Public Order and crime control and doing what ever it takes to accomplish these goals • Abuse of power is seen in this and they have more dis cretion on how to handle the situation § With this style you have smaller arrest and there for little to report o The Professional Model § Most officers have a college degree § Officers are recruited outside of there own city. Recruitment happens around the United States § Centralized Organization • There is a stricted hyarcey of authority • Philosophy- due process o They want to make sure they are following the law § With this style you have larger arrest and far less discretion than the traditional model • 90% of people I jail are minorities and or poor people. They are more likely to commit serious crimes • The Funneling Process o Only 10% of the people who commit the crimes wind up going to jail ARRAIGMENT RECORD OFFENDER JURY POLICE # OF ACTS DISCOVERY • Victimization Surveys: The FBI will randomly call up people and ask they if they committed a crime in the past what ever months o Problems with victimization Surveys § Telescoping: reports incidents outside the time of what you actually wanted to know • Self Report Survey: They just ask have they done a crime but never got caught o Problems with self report surveys § Social desirability bias: People want to always seem bette r than what they really are § Sample bias Theories of Deviance • Biological Theories o Ceasae Lumbroso: Said that criminals are distinguished from noncriminal by multiple physical anomalies § “Atavistic Man”: He used the term atavism and used it for persons who were not fully evolved o Glueck and Glueck: They took pictures of m en in prison and from these pictures, t hey determine that men with muscular body types are more likely to end up in jail. • Medicalization of Deviance: attempted to find some kind of psychological or biological cause for all unwanted behavior o Downside to the medicalization of deviance § It reduces the capability for their actions. “It is not my fault that I committed this crime. I have a mental disabilit y”. This is also why we treat juvy kids different as well. If some one is bad , we can throw them in jail but if they are sick and bad we can’t blame them. We have to treat them and that way people make money. • Structural-Functional Theories o Shaw and McKay: They looked at various areas of cities. Social disorganization: Cities tended to have pretty similar make up. Central Business District: Government offices, big stores, major retailers. MFG:???? Low income houses: Lower/ working class people move to. Upscale Housing: Wealthier people live Suburbs: communities live here. They saw that the highest crime rate was in the low income area year after year and it didn’t matter what race the person was, the low income area had the highest crime rate. Also, people in to his area only live here for about 2 to 3 years. They try to save up money to move to nicer areas. The low income area is knowing as zone in transition. This area is never able to develop a social organization because people move in and out. o Robert Merton: Wanted to take an individual approach to all of this. Strain Theory or “Anomie theory”: He said that every society have cultural goals. (Things that people are trying to strive for) Some people reach their goals through approved or legitimate means but some people don’t reach there goals this way. If they don’t reach, there goals thought legiment means they do it through illigeitment means (just as long as they get there what does it matter how they got there) • Social Process Theory or cultural Transmis sion: o Learned behavior. People learn to be deviate through other people. They learn by simply watching what is around them. o When you look at the inner center kids who do these people have as role models?Who are the symbols of success? Drug dealers, bookies. Theses are the people they look up to because they see them as successful. These are the only people they have. • Labeling Theory- Howard Becker o When we label someone we think it tells us something abo ut the person. We interact with people based on the labels we give them and this, intern, changes the way the person interacts with others. This leads to self -fulfilling prophecy o Groups of power create deviance. (I.G Rules determine deviance) o The labeling theory only explains secondary deviance. o It does not explain primary deviance (initial deviance act that made the person earn that deviant label in the first place). It also doesn’t explain desistance (when someone is not deviant). § The label theory says that is a person is labeled deviance then they will continue to be deviant which means that they never stop being deviant and will never stop. • Travis Hirschi’s Social Control Theory o Provides a better explanation of why people a re deviant and why they stop being deviant. o Deviance exist mostly in teens and people in the earlier 20s. Least when they are children and adults in the 60s. (The graph) o There many points to Social Control Theory § Importance of Social Bonds • Why does it work: Strong the bonds are to the social society the more like they are to follow the social norms. There are the people who care


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