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Anthropology 1003

by: Andrea Smith

Anthropology 1003 ANTH 1003

Andrea Smith

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Includes all the notes thought the semester stopping at Haitian History/ time line
Anth 1003
J. Managan
Anthrology, Cultural, 1003
75 ?




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This 51 page Bundle was uploaded by Andrea Smith on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANTH 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Managan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anth 1003 in Cultural Anthropology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Anthropology 1003 What is Anthropology? • The study of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds understand one another • Website of the American Anthropological Association Website just had information about potential careers, meeting, debates, ect… Goals of Anthropology • Describe, analyze and explain different societies and cultures • Show how groups have adapted to their environments and gave meaning to their lives • Comprehend the entire human experience Anthropology’s Four Fields • Archaeology • Cultural Anthropology • Physical Anthropology • Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology • Study of past cultures through their material remains o Fossils o Tools o Built structures o Waste o Historical archeology: may use written records Types of Research Archaeologist do • Things that archaeologist may study is who first settled in the US? When and were did they come from? o African burial grounds in Manhattan: what was it really like for the enslave and free Africans living in early New York City • Cultural resource management: protection and management of archeological, archival and architectural resources. Physical Anthropology • Study humans from a biological perspective o Paleoanthropology: Biological processes of human adaptation o Human Variation: Physiological differences among modern humans o Primatology: Study of apes for clues about the human species o Forensics Types of Research Physical Anthropologist do • Study and identification of skeletized or badly decomposed human remains • FACES lab at LSU (Forensic Anthropology)…….. Cultural Anthropology • The study of human society and culture o Culture- the set of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of a given society or community o Society- any more or less complex group of people aka a community o Today we tend to refer to the group as a society and use culture to refer to beliefs…… Topics of interest to Cultural Anthropology • What does it mean to be middle class in America? • How do community members in rural Bolivia create kinship ties through everyday practices? • How do young Indian- American teenagers think about and express their identity? Linguistic anthropology • Interdisciplinary • Cultural beliefs about language • Culturally- patterned ways of using language • Language use in context • Speakers as social actors Some topics linguistic anthropologist study • How do we greet people? • What can words tell us: first lady, African American • Language myths, language attitudes: Who speaks the best X (English, French, etc…) • Language shift and revitalization Other Subfields/ Specialties • Medical anthology • Visual anthropology: Ethnographic film and anthropology of media • Museum studies Applied Anthropology • Analyzes social, political and economic problems and develops solutions • Often involves collaboration with community members • Can involve any subfield and anthropology o Example: Cultural anthropologists have been instrumental in promoting the welfare of tribal and idigeus people One Famous Applies Anthropology • Paul Farmer • PhD in medical anthropology plus an MD • Conducted research from dissertation on AIDS in Haiti o Looked at members of one small village began to understand AIDS at it first emerged o Studied local beliefs about AIDS, local treatments, but also explained how that emergence and prevalence of AIDS in Haiti is related to poverty, which has roots in Haiti’s history (fought and gained independence from France in 1804 involvement of the U.s) and discusses how Haiti’s economy is connected to the world economy o Created an organization called Partners in Health Why Study Anthropology? • Fulfills a general education at LSU • Helps one understand other groups of people, other cultures (important given increasing cultural diversity in US and increasing globalization more generally) • Helps one understand what it means to be human • Can help us understand important issues society faces (poverty, homelessness, violence, war, disease, pollution) • Can be useful for one’s career (an anthropologist Or any job where it is useful to know about people and society) • Knowing facts about other cultures provide great topics for party conversations (“Did you know there is a group in Indonesia that has 5 genders?”) What makes Anthropology distinctive in the Social Science • Characterized by a comparative, field-based, evolutionary, holistic approach Holistic Approach • Considers culture, history, language, economics and biology as essential to a complete understanding of society • Distinguishes anthropology from many other disciplines • Anthropology seeks to understand human beings as a whole organism who adapt to their environments. Ethnocentrism • Belief that one’s way of doing things is the best/ more natural way to do things • Most humans are somewhat ethnocentric • Measures other cultures by the degree to which they live up to one’s own cultural standards • Racism- the belief that some human populations are superior to others because of inherited, genetically transmitted characteristics. Cultural Relativity • Understanding values and customs in terms of the culture of which they are a part • Looking for the cultural logic in which certain practices make sense • BUT: are all cultural traditions of equal worth? What about slavery? Female circumcision? Torture? Emic vs. Etic • Emic o Insider’s view o How people in a given community view their society and culture o Describes the organization and meaning a culture’s practices have for its members • Etic o Outsider or analyst’s view o How the anthropologist views a given community’s social beliefs and practices o Tries to determine the causes of particular cultural patterns that may be beyond the awareness of the culture being studied o May involve comparison with researcher’s society and culture or other known societies and cultures • Goal as a cultural anthropologist is to bridge both the emic and etic views What sociocultural anthropologists do • Ethnography- the description of a society or culture • Fieldwork (living among a group of people to study them) • Participant observation (participating in given society but also observing social behavior and cultural beliefs- combines subjective and objective views, etic and emic perspectives) How do anthropologist study culture • Fieldwork • Participant observation • Other methods Fieldwork • Begin with entrance into a new society (or must set self up as anthropologist to study own community) • Many experience culture shock: feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from rapid immersion in a new and different cultural • Involves the acquisition of fundamental grounding knowledge of culture and adaptation to new culture • Develop network of informants (respondents, consultants, friends)- people from and/ or with whom anthropologist gather data • Record observations in field notes • Different types of data collection Methods of Data Collection • Interviews (structured, open-ended) • Surveys • Census • Kinship charts • Mapping • Video and audio recording (also internet, YouTube…) • Photography • Measurement and statistical data (incl. social network, GIS) • Silent observation • *PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION Participant Observation • Hallmark of sociocultural anthropology • Participating in a given society but also observing a social behavior and cultural beliefs • Combines subjective an objective views, etic and emic perspectives • Malinowski’s study in Trobriand islands becomes the model History of fieldwork in Anthropology (Overview) • Armchair anthropologist • Boas • Malinowski • Post-1960s trends o Feminist anthropology o Postmodernism o “Native” anthropology o Collaborative anthropology Armchair anthropology • Early anthropology (armchair anthropologists): Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward Tylor o Late 19 century o Other Travelers o Evolutionary Theories o Societies classified on basis of technology, social institutions Weaknesses of Evolutionary Theory • Exotic characteristics • Justified European intrusion • Mold data to fit the theory • NOTE: discredited within anthropology, but still common today (lost tribes, stone age people) Franz Boas o 1858-1942 Born in Germany, Jewish (influence research) o Began in physics and geography, conducted ethnographic research on Baffin Island o Became interested in non-western cultures and switched focus to anthropology o Conducted ethnographic fieldwork, but usually fairly short-term and focused on elicitation of data (i.g interviews, word lists) o Cultural relativity Malinowski • Did fieldwork in Trobriand Islands (Torres Straits) - BBC Tales from the Jungle • Was prevented from returning to Europe when WWI broke out- spent 4 years • Revolutionized fieldwork while in Trobriand Islands o Spent years studying culture o Learned native language o Learned cultural patterns of thought Malimowski’s Intro to Argonauts • Science, holism, but also everyday details/tone o The organization of the tribe, the anatomy of its culture o Imponderabilia of everyday life (diary/fieldwork) o Corpus inscriptionum (transcriptions of events, rituals, ect-word-for-word) o Final goal “grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vison of his world”- you should go for an emic perspective Clip from Tales from the Jungle • Context: Empire-making, notions of primitive emerge through contact • Science • Must observe, can’t rely on what people say • Kula*- System of exchange- shells and necklaces- the exchange that takes place really tells you about power and relation • “Native” just like you and me- They have the same needs and urges we all do • Functionalism- all people have the same basic need we all do they just handle it in a different way Feminist Anthropology • Until the 1970s in anthropology, there existed a systematic gender bias in anthropological data • Women and women’s issues are now more at the forefront of anthropology • Also more attention to gender and sexuality generally (i.g: What is masculinity in a given society?) Postmodernism • Argues that all knowledge is influenced by the observer’s culture and social position • No such thing as objectivity. Everything must be done subjectively. • Cultural construction depend on: frame of reference, power, history • Most ethnographies are now more sensitive to differences of: voice, power, portrayal • “Native” anthropology- anthropologist are studying there own society and culture • Collaborative anthropology- antho recognize that the people are experts in there own society Adventure Travel vs. Anthropology • Programs like LIVING with the Kombai • Journalists, travel writers, adventures, travelers • Anthropology tries to set itself apart in part through its theories. Writing down findings ect…. AAA Code of Ethics • Anthorpologist researchers must be open about what it is they are doing. What your studing, impacts of the people, ect… • Researcher must utilize there results of their work………… • Anthropological reasearchers have ………….. 2012 Guidelines • Do not harm • Be open and honest regarding your work • Obtain informed consent and necessary permissions (notes issue of visual media) • Weight competing ethical obligations due collaborators and affected parties (research participants primary) • Make your results accessible (but consider issue of cultural heritage and/or tangible or intangle cultural……….. • ………. Chapter 1 — Begin with entrance into a new society: first contact involved a sort of test, then acceptance — Develop network of informants (respondents, consultants, friends) – people from and/or with whom anthropologists gather data: ended up working with Gebusi because some were guides, became friends although very different from each other (p.21) — Involves the acquisition of fundamental grounding knowledge of culture and adaptation to new culture: o Initially accepted made efforts to speak language, ate local food, came as a couple o Came to understand concept of kogway (heart of Gebusi culture) o Came to share “exchange names” with people in community o BUT: Gebusi desired contact and the goods that Europeans and Americans brought Kogwayay — How Gebsui understand anthropological concept of culture — A key symbol of Gebusi society — Togetherness, talk, cheering (p.18) - value of social unity — BUT, has a negative side as well: controlled by men - songfests about women’s sexuality, things women in Gebusi society would be beaten if did Cultural relativity and Gebusi — Issue of male control bothered researchers, conflicted with their feminist leanings, — culture shock, ethical tensions — p. 19-20: anthropology appreciates cultural diversity and seeks to understand, not judge other ways of doing things, thinking about things — BUT: what do we do in the face of real inequality? — How did Gebusi view male control of kogwayay and husbands beating wives? o Cultural relativity- culture all have values and beliefs so we if we want to try to understand there culture we can’t relate it back to our culture. Colonization and Gebusi — Little known about that area of PNG at time of research — Australian govt officials took censuses, brought trade goods, “pacified” — Gebusi neighbors Bedamini became object of pacification, left Gebusi alone — IRONY: colonization allowed Gebusi and their traditions to flourish, seemed “pristine” but this a result of contact Participant Observation in The Gebusi — Object of study: spirit mediums — Bruce took part in spirit séances and other male gatherings and activities — His wife Eileen took part in women’s activities and spent time with children (less fun) My Research — 1999-2001, fall 2011, plus summers 1998, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014 — Dissertation: understand the impact of language and cultural revalorization movements on how Guadeloupeans use French and Kreyol and think about these 2 languages and conceptualize their identity - Worked with 3 voluntary organizations — Current Research: Guadeloupean Creole Comedy, language choice and social stereotypes Ethnography of Second Life • Boellstorff’s methods • Comparison of study of Second Life (virtual worlds) to study of other societies • Culture of second life What is culture? • Kottak: Distinctly human; transmitted through learning; traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs. • Tylor: Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. (Tylor 1958 [1871]: 1) • Other aspects of culture o something that is distinct from nature (nature versus nurture) o shared knowledge o a symbolic system (Geertz “webs of significance”) o a tool/ mediating object o a system of practices o habitual actions (Bourdieu’s habitus) Characteristics of Culture • made up of learned behaviors • involve the use of language, classification systems and symbols • patterned, integrated and shared by members of a group • adaptive and subject to change o Characteristics of Culture: Learned Behavior § Almost every aspect of our lives is layered with learning § We learn continuously and throughout life, but it is concentrated in our childhoods § We learn through enculturation (the process of learning to be a member of a specific cultural group) § Culture and Personality theorists focused on child rearing as the way to best study enculturation. Culture and Personality Theorists • Popular approach from 1920s to 1950s • culture as the principal force in shaping the personality of a society • Assumed that each society had a distinct culture and personality (homogenous, usually national, culture) • Margaret Mead’s (1928) Coming of Age in Samoa • Ruth Benedict’s (1946) Chrysanthemum and the Sword on Japanese culture • Remains important today, although we today tend to view societies as being less culturally homogeneous o Characteristics of Cultural: Classification Systems § Creation of shared mental models applied to perceptions and experiences in order to: • Organize • Classify • Understand § Ethnoscience is a theoretical perspective that focuses on recording and examining ways that members of a society use language to classify and organize their cognitive world, for example: • Study of color classification systems • Ethnobotany (study of plant classification systems) • Ethnozoology (study of animal classification systems) o Characteristics of Culture: Symbols § Symbols stands for something else - enable us to store information and condense meaning § Examples: Mac or PC Team mascots § Symbolic anthropology is a theoretical perspective that focuses on understanding culture by discovering and analyzing a culture’s symbols: • Key symbols reflect deep concerns of a culture • Example: Victor Turner’s study of the Ndembu of East Africa (mudyi tree) • Example 2: Geertz on cockfights in Bali o Characteristics of Culture: Patterned, Inter Grated, Shared § organic analogy- the comparison of societies to living organisms § Strengths • Allows us to understand society as composed of different elements • Implies that anthropologists should describe these elements and the ways that change in one affects the others § Weaknesses • It implies that properly functioning societies should be stable and conflict-free • In socially stratified societies, different groups have different interests and this creates conflict § Functionalism: theory focused on finding general laws that identify elements of society, how they relate to each other, and how they maintain social order - looks for laws of cultural behavior (Radcliffe- Brown and Malinowski) § Focus on kinship structures, political structures, religious structures, ect how they maintain social order § Today, many anthropologists focus on the conflicts within the system (influenced by Karl Marx and Max Weber) o Subculture vs. Dominant Culture § Subculture: A system of perceptions, values, beliefs, and customs that are significantly different from those of a larger, dominant culture within the same society § Dominant culture: the culture of the group that controls greater wealth and power in a society and can thus impose its understanding of the world on subcultures Culture and power • Anthropology began primarily as an endeavor of the powerful studying the powerless via colonization • Power is- the ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence o Through influence alone o Or due to threats • Often think power as seated in an individual- your boss, your parents, the president- power is often controlled by cultural institutions o Religious institutions o Schools • Not always a matter of aggressive power Subsistence Strategies • Ways of transforming material resources of the environment into food and basic material requirements of life • Classifications: based on technology which determines the productivity of any given environment • Began with foraging, evolved over time in many places in include other strategies Major Subsistence Strategies • Foraging (Also known as Hunting and Gathering) • Pastoralism • Horticulture • Agriculture • Industrialism Foraging • Rely on food naturally available in the environment (fishing, hunting and collecting vegetable food) • Also known as hunting and gathering • Limits population growth • Strategy for 99% of the time humans have been on earth • Includes modern-day examples such as the Inuit (Artic), the Mbusi (Central African rainforest), aborigines (Great Australian Desert), Ju/’ hoansi (Kalahari Desert) o Ju/’ hoansi (also known as San) § lived in the Republic of Botswana, Namibia, and to a lesser degree in Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Kalahari Desert) § Traditionally a nomadic foraging society (hunter-gatherers, moved from place to find depending on season and locations of food and water) § N!ai,The Story of a !Kung Woman: film change over time - As many moved into settlements, they came to rely on government rations (of mealie meal - type of corn) and their access to land for hunting was severely limited – Ju/’hoansi cultural commodification, popular culture (The Gods Must be Crazy) o Innuit (some call the Eskimos but it is not preferred) § In Arctic regions of Canada, Alaska and Greenland § Live primarily from hunting whales, caribou, seal, polar bears, seal, birds § Diet high in fat, little plant matter (almost non in winter) § Shift to snowmobiles (snow machines in AK, ski-does in Northern Canada) Pastoralism • Caring for domesticated animals which produce both meat and milk. • Involves a complex interaction among animals, land, and people. • Often nomadic • Does not require direct competition with other groups for the same resources. • Found along with cultivation or trading relations with food cultivators o Masai § Live in Kenya and Tanzania § Subsist primarily on milk and blood of cows, also keep sheep and goats § Changing diet, more maize, TOURISM Horticulture • Production of plants using non-mechanized technology • Plants and harvest with simple tools (hoe, digging stick), without use of animals, irrigation or plows • Does not use fields year after year, but allows them to recover through fallow • Produces a lower yield per acre and uses less human labor than mechanized agriculture • Does not produce surpluses for a wider market system with nonagricultural populations. • a mixed subsistence strategy - several crops • May involve hunting, fishing, or raising domesticated animals o Sweden Cultivation (slash and burn) § Common in horticultural societies § A form of cultivation in which a field is cleared by felling the trees and burning the brush Agriculture • Production of plants using plows, animals and soil and water control. • Associated with: o Sedentary villages, the rise of cities o Occupational diversity o Social stratification • Peasants: Food-producing populations that are incorporated politically, economically, and culturally into nation-states (early modern Europe, contemporary Haiti) Transitions to Industrial Economy • Industrialization: mechanization on of the production (of food and other products) • Had an effect on many aspects of society: o Population growth o Expanded consumption of resources o International expansion o Occupational specialization o Shift from subsistence strategies to wage labor The Gebusi • Complicate subsistence strategy classifications • Sedentary but semi-nomadic • Horticulture but also foraging and hunting • Semi-domesticated pigs • Sahlins “Original Affluent Society”- Have all of this leisure time that we don’t have • Leisure, but question of health • Relationship with the land vs. objective categories, etic classification Characteristics of Religion • Composed of sacred stories that members believe are important • Makes extensive use of symbols and symbolism. • Proposes the existence of beings, powers, states, places, and qualities that can not be measured scientifically. • Includes rituals and specific means of addressing the supernatural Sacred Stories and Symbols • What are some examples of sacred stories in religions you know? o The Great Flood o Creation Story • What are some examples of religious symbols you are familiar with? o Cross o Star of David o Greek gods and goddess have certain animals they are associated with God(s) • Term used for a named spirit believed to have created or to control some aspect of the world • Monotheism- one God • Polytheism- multiple gods Supernatural states • Many religions believe not only in supernatural beings, but also supernatural states o Buddhist enlightenment o Hindu nirvana o Christian sainthood Ritual • Patterned, repeated behavior, often filled with symbolic meaning o Examples: Rites of Passage • Religious rituals: Patterned acts involving the manipulation of religious symbols o Examples: Going to Mass, Baptism, Making the sign of the cross Rituals for Addressing the Supernatural • Prayer • Sacrifice • Divination • Magic • * Liminal objects are often used in religious rituals because they represent a link or border between the scared/ godly and humans Prayer • Communication between people and spirits or gods. • People believe results depend on the spirit world rather than on actions humans perform • Prayer may involve a request, a pleading, or merely praise for the deity. • Often prayer takes the form of talk or recitation/chanting, but it can also includes acts like Buddhist tradition of hoisting flags or spinning wheels with prayers on them Sacrifice • People try to increase their spiritual purity or the effivacy of their prayers by making offerings to gods or spirits o Example: sacrifice of fruits of a harvest, animal lives or even human lives • Also, personal sacrifice: Lent Divination • A religious ritual performed to find hidden objects or information • Scalpulomancy- Divination using the shoulder blade of an animal o Example: Oracles of Azande Magic • In imitative magic, the procedure performed resembles the result desired (imitating what they want to happen) • Examples: performing a ritual dance imitative of the growth of food in an effort to secure an abundant supply, Peruvian Indians molded images of fat mixed with grain to imitate the persons whom they disliked or feared, and then burned the effigy on the road where the intended victim was to pass (burning his soul) • Contagious magic is the belief that things once in contact with a person or object retain an invisible connection with that person or object • Examples: lucky charms, rabbit’s foot, Relic Baseball Magic • Compare baseball magic to magic used by Trobriand Islanders for fishing • Hitting and pitching involve uncertainty and chance • Magic helps provide confidence and increase concentration • Baseball magic involves: o Ritual (note his def) o Taboo o Fetishes Ritual • Prescribed behaviors, no connection between means and end • Personal • Developed when had good performance • Public view • Examples: Wade Bogg’s chicken ritual • Different Example: free throw rituals in basketball Taboo • Prohibition (Polynesian) • [NOTE how this differs from common usage] • Out of public view • Develop from failure • Examples: o Personal: Gmelch’s pancake taboo (Had pancakes before a game and lost so he stopped eating pancakes before the game) o General: don’t say no hitter while one in progress Fetishes • Material objects believed to embody supernatural power that can aid or protect the owner • Examples: good luck charms, wearing same clothes day after day Shaman • Individual who is recognized as having the ability to mediate between the world of humanity and the world of gods or spirits but who is not a recognized official of any religious organization. • May treat illness • Often found in foraging and tribal societies • Examples: !Kung healers, the bissu among Bugis in Indonesia (we’ll see later) Priest • One who is formally elected or appointed to a full-time religious office. • Generally found in state societies where formal religious institutions exist • Examples: Jewish rabbis, Muslim imams, Catholic priests, Christian ministers Witchcraft • The ability to harm others by harboring malevolent thoughts about them; the practice of sorcery. • Evans-Pritchard on Azande: witches have a physical substance in them called mangu - may cause harm unintentionally - the Azande look to witchcraft to understand why bad things happen (9:30 - 13:00) • Witch v. sorcerer: sorcery involves in the conscious manipulation of the supernatural to cause harm or good • Witchcraft accusations can serve to keep people in societies in line • Wiccan - A member of a new religion that claims descent from pre-Christian nature worship. Gebusi Witchcraft • Natural deaths assumed to be result of sorcery • 2 types of sorcery: o Bogay: imitative magic, parcel sorcery, slow death o Ogowili: assault sorcery, cannibal attack by magical warriors, sudden deaths, accidents, suicides • What caused Dugawe’s death? o Suicide o Assumed caused by sorcerer (ogowili sorcery) • How did the Gebusi proceed after Dugawe died? o First assume wife Sialim at fault o Funeral o Weeks later, sorcery investigation : spirit séances, look for ogowili “footprint” o Sialim married Swamin (shaman) Gebusi Witchcraft: Etic Account • Dugawe’s death brought to light many different aspects of Gebusi society and culture o Women responsible for mourning o Burials and funerals involve visitors, hostility and hospitality o Male spirit mediums o Death and sorcery beliefs, what observed o Death, sorcery and social relations, reciprocity (see segments of Knauft’s online presentation at: %202e%20Flash%20Presentation/index.html (esp slide 28-32) Syncretism • Merging two or more religious traditions and hiding the beliefs, symbols, and practices of one behind similar attributes of the other • Example: Haitian vodou o Enslaved Africans Haiti in combined African religion, Catholicism, and French spiritualism to create a new religion, vodou. o African deities, called lwa, identified with Catholic saints. Vodou • Like many religions in Latin American and the Caribbean, product of syncretism • Related religions in region: santeria (DR), hoodoo, lucumi (Cu), macumba (Br), candomblé (Br), Umbanda (Br), Quimbanda (Br), orisha (Tr), obeah (Ja) • NOTE: despite popular belief (and what you find in stores in the French Quarter), “voodoo dolls” are not part of Haitian religious tradition • Bondyé - God • Lwa - gods • Rada: benign, benevolent spirits, some argue derived from ancestral West Africa • Petro: fiery, malevolent spirits, some argue derived from Central African and Creole traditions (New World gods) • Houngan (priest), mambo (priestess), hounfo (temple) o Voduou: Lwa § Legba/Mèt Kafou: god of the crossroads, the mediator between the world of the spirits and the world of humans, Thus, he is the first lwa called on in a service. Usually associated with St. Peter § Erzuli: god of love, may take many forms including lasiren (mermaid), often represented as the Mater Dolorosa § Gede: (also called Baron Samedi): god of the cemeteries and the dead. He controls the crossroad between life and death. Gede is also the spirit of sexuality § Ogun: a warrior god, associated with iron and metal-working § Damballa: the serpent god § Many others, also varies by region Comments on Divine Horsemen • Note the use of different forms of prayer, sacrifice, ritual • Going beyond the film: vodou and Haitian society o Karen MacCarthy Brown’s Mama Lola: Vodu and the Iwa reflect Haitian society o Influence on politics with Papa Doc (François) Duvalier o Zouzin Zaka and present farming o A new Iwa in the US, responding to different needs (new Gede, Geadalia, a woman) Other examples of syncretic religions or religious beliefs/practices • Macumba/ condomblé (Brazil) • Nahuatl compadrazgo ritual • Rastafarianism (recent emergence, somewhat different than other examples) • Catholic and Protestant religions as practiced in Latin America and the Caribbean o Examples: Examples: Virgin of Guadelupe, Virgin Mary of Potosi What is Kinship? • Kinship is a social network of relatives within which individuals have rights and obligations • One’s kinship status determines these rights and obligations • Kinship is especially important in societies where institutions such as a centralized government, a professional military or financial banks are absent or ineffective. Relatedness • Cultures make many decisions about who we are related to • Biology play a definite role • Most societies consider marriages to result in the construction of a new set of relatives, including any children that might result, includes children from adoption. • Judging who you are related to involves more than simple biology o Example: Among the Langkawi in Malaysia, kinship is created by sharing meals prepared in the family hearth and living together in the same house. Our Father is Donor 150 • our conceptions of kinship can be more complicated than you might first imagine • Example: NYT story about women conceived from anonymous donor sperm, different mothers, one male donor • Many years later the two women, as adults, learned of their shared father, were able to meet one another, greeting each other as sisters. • When their story was published by The New York Times, their biological father also learned the story. • A year later all three were reunited, a father and his two daughters. • Discussion Questions: Do you think the meeting of these three people is a meeting between a father and his daughters? • Does our notion of fatherhood involve more than DNA? • Are two women who have never met before truly sisters? Kin Relations • Consanguineal kin o Relatives by birth; so-called “blood” relatives. • Affinal kin o Relatives by marriage. Kinship as Language • Societies often conceive of family in very different ways. • Some cultures have very general kinship terminologies while others are more specific. • Consider the terms “aunt” and “uncle” in American culture, used jointly for both your mother’s and father’s brothers and sisters. • But other kinship systems have distinct terms for Father’s brother and Mother’s brother, i.e., paternal uncle and maternal uncle. • Other kinship systems can be even more general. o Example, your parents may take the same kinship term as their siblings: your father, your father’s brother, and your mother’s brother may all be called by the same term (Uncle, Father, or something in between). • Also fictive kin o Example: Youth in Southall, outside London, call one another “cousin” to build connections across boundaries of ethnicity, religion, and race. Kinship Roles and Responsibilities • As kinship terminology systems fluctuate, so too, do kinship obligations and responsibilities. • In some cultures, married children do not set out to start a new home. • Instead they are obliged to live with the new husband’s family. • Or, the new wife’s family • They become an integral part of that family, helping to care for both new babies and the elderly. What kinship concerns • How individuals reproduce legitimate group members (birth and adoption) • How live after marriage (residence rules) • How establish links between generations (descent or adoption) • How to pass on social position (succession) • How pass on wealth and material goods (inheritance) Kinship Diagram • Anthropologists use diagrams to illustrate kinship relationships. What are Descent Groups? • A descent group is a kind of kinship group in which being in the direct line of descent from a real or mythical ancestor is a criterion of membership. • Members share descent from a common ancestor through a series of parent-child links. Descent Groups • Unilineal descent o Descent that establishes group membership through either the female or the male line. • Matrilineal descent o Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership. • Patrilineal descent o Descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership. • NOT the same thing as matriarchal and patriarchal Patrillineal Decent Groups???????????????????????????????????????????? • Male members trace their descent from a common male ancestor. • A female belongs to the same descent group as her father and his brother. • Authority over the children lies with the father or his elder brother. • Example: The Nuer The Nuer of Southern Sudan • boys and girls inherited membership in their father’s lineage. • But only the boys could pass on membership in the lineage to their own future children. • Any children born by these girls would in turn belong to their husbands’ lineages. • also recognized clan structures (a single lineage or multiple): 1 village, 1 patriclan. • Practiced exogamous marriage (must marry outside of your group vs. endogamous) • young men and women would find marriage partners from other clans (i.e., other villages). • Males, as full clan members, who would sire new clan members, stayed within their village, bringing their new wives home to that village. • Females, however, would move to a new clan village. • Any children the wife bore would be members of the new clan, and thus be raised amongst fellow clan members. Matrilineal Descent Groups • Descent is traced through the female line. • Does not confer public authority on women (≠matriarchy), but women have more say in decision making than in patrilineal societies. • Authority is often in hands of mother’s brother • Common in societies where women perform much of the productive work. • Example: Akan of West Africa Akan Kinship and Politics • An ethnic group of West Africa who today live primarily in Ghana, but also in Côte d’Ivoire • practice lineage exogamy and prefer village endogamy • prefer cross cousin marriage (marry the child of one’s mother's brother, or child of one’s father's sister) - creates a circulating system of exchanges among all the lineages in a particular town • the maximal lineage constitutes a fundamental corporate group with religious, political, social and economic functions. • Lineages also serve religious functions (ancestor worship) • Matrilineages have leaders, who manage the assets and responsibilities of the group. • each lineage is subject to the authority of a family elder, a male, along with a female counterpart • property and status transferred from mother's brothers to sister's sons, with generational seniority • Society traditionally had kingdoms, which still exist and serve a political function • Chiefs and co-reigning queen mothers are chosen from the royal lineage • Ashanti subgroup, golden stool: Bilateral Kinship • Kinship is traced through both male and female lines. • Kin links through males and females are perceived as being similar or equivalent. • Bilateral kinship is used by most Americans and Canadians. Marriage • The customs, rules and obligations that establish a special relationship between sexually cohabiting adults, between them and any children they take responsibility for, and between the kin of the married couple. • Every society has rules that govern sexual access. • CULTURE Incest Taboo • The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent-child and sibling relations at a minimum. • Found universally, although the specific prohibition varies • In the United States, most states have some law preventing marriage between parents and children, siblings and certain cousins (e.g., first or second cousins) Forms of Marriage • Monogamy • Polygamy o Polygyny* o Polyandry • Within the above rubrics, we find two additional forms of marriage (this is not an exhaustive list, there are others): o Cousin marriage (a type of endogamy) o Arranged marriage o Same-sex marriage Polygyny • Marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time; a form of polygamy. • Commonly found in Africa, but exists in many other parts of the world • Example: certain members of the Mormon church in the United States Na (Mosuo) “walking marriage”: • Have lived in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of southwest China for about 2000 years What’s Love Got to do with It? • In the US and Europe, we focus on love as a basis for marriage (“Compassionate Marriages”) • In many societies, marriage is viewed as the construction of a valuable kinship relationship between families and marriages are arranged by parents or relatives (often with the help of match-makers) • The Western emphasis on Romantic Love has led many people to view arranged marriages as oppressive. • Members of societies that practice arranged marriage have different opinions • Also, even in contemporary American culture there are cultural pressures regarding who one should marry. • For example, your parents may have very specific ideas about who a good spouse would be for you. • What would happen if you brought someone home someone from a different religious, racial or ethnic group? • American society has traditionally favored endogamy: marriage within a group, rather than exogamy, marriage outside of a group. The Gebusi Kinship Puzzle • For many of us, kinship might seem unimportant or boring and kinship charts dry and confusing • But Knauft’s ethnography shows how knowledge about kinship can help illuminate cultural practices that might otherwise seem odd or irrational • Knauft’s puzzle: why did Gebusi society have such as high rate of homicide? • Compare kinship to game, clans and lineages to teams • Cooperation and conflict associated with kinship and marriage Gebusi Clan Exogamy • NOTE: Patrilineal descent • Lineage live together in settlement, clans do not • A type of incest taboo • NOTE: Endogamy = Marriage within a particular group or category of individuals (e.g, lineage, clan, village), Exogamy = Marriage outside the group. • Gebusi marry outside of own patriclan • Clans are larger than lineages, so this means that also marry outside of own lineage Preferential Sister Marriage • A principle by which when a woman marries into a clan, a “sister” of the husband should marry into her family in exchange • Especially strong preference within patrilineage • Not always a sister in our sense • Sisters: all females in your patriclan, brothers all males in your patriclan • BUT can be somewhat creative in defining sisterhood • The woman may object Gebusi Kinship, Marriage and Violence • Sorcery accusations are especially common in cases where patrilineages linked by a marriage that has not been reciprocated (sister exchange) • Sorcery accusations often lead to homicide • Gebusi society has a very high rate of homicide Sex and Gender - Anthropological Perspectives • Sex o The biological differences between male and female – BUT to some extent, this categorization is influenced by cultural beliefs about sex and gender • Gender o The social classification of masculine and feminine, based on cultural beliefs Why gender and gender relations are central to society • Contribute to: o Build culture and society o social relations of power - power is often unevenly distributed along gender lines - gender plays a role in social power o individual and groups identities - gender intersects with other social identities o Formation of kinship and other groups-ideas abot gender and gener roles contribute to who and how one marries and how one contributes to kin relations o social meaning and value - our concepts of gender and gender roles influence other concepts (strength, beauty, power, authority, family…) Margaret Mead • Masculine and feminine traits are patterned by culture. • Key findings in New Guinea: o Arapesh: both sexes are expected to act in ways Americans consider “feminine,” both sexes cared for children and were nurturers, neither sex was aggressive o Mundugamor: both sexes were what American culture would call “masculine,” both sexes were aggressive, neither sex was nurturing to children o Tchambuli: Sexes had “opposite” tendencies, Women had a major economic role, men were more interested in aesthetics • Mead argued that society and culture create gender Gender is a cultural construct • Gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic, and political forces acting within each culture • Concepts of masculine and feminine vary among cultures, and change over time • Different cultures incorporate different genders and go beyond man and woman Intersex • People born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female. • The very public discussion of Caster Semenya: o World Athletic Championships in Berlin and International Association of Athletics Federations controversy o Competed in 2012 Olympics and carried the South African flag in the opening ceremonies • IOC gender testing: o 1960s, “nude parades” o Genetic testing (not everyone XX or XY) o Abandoned o After Semenya case, decided to investigate other methods: testosterone levels (BUT these can vary also) o Avg adult male: 270-1,070 v. avg. adult female 15-70 Transgender • People who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male—female gender construction. • This term is much more common within the LGBT community than intersex. Cultural Construction of Gender • The idea that gender characteristics are not inborn but rather constructed within each culture. • All societies recognize (minimally): o Two sexes: male and female. o Two genders: masculine and feminine. • There is cultural variation in: o Number of sexes and gender a society constructs. o Ways in which sex and gender are defined. Alternative Gender Roles • Genders that are neither man nor woman have been described for many societies: • Two-spirit or berdache - a man living as a woman and considered to have supernatural powers in many Native American societies. • Hijra - an alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man nor woman. Bugis • An ethnic group that lives in South Sulawesi, Indonesia • Predominantly Muslim, like much of Indonesia • Research on Bugis gender by Sharyn Davies Overview of Sex and Gender Categories of Bugis • acknowledge three sexes: o female, male, hermaphrodite (intersex) • Believe there are five genders: o women, men, calabai, and calalai, and a fifth meta-gender group, the bissu Bissu • tends to be translated as 'transvestite priest', but this implies cross-dressing, whereas bissu have their own distinctive clothing • Moreover, bissu do not go from one gender to another; they are a combination of all genders. • To become a bissu, one must be born both female and male, or hermaphroditic • the Bugis believe that a bissu who appears externally male is internally female, and vice versa • This combination of sexes enables a 'meta-gender' identity to emerge • Bissu serve an important in Bugis society and are often called on to conduct religious ceremonies and giving blessings • They are able to act as mediators between humans and spirits (dewata) because they are considered neither male nor female, and neither woman nor man, but a mix of all four of these • Bugis are Muslim and view Allah as the one and only God • BUT many believe that Allah has helpers, called dewata. The bissu contact, the dewata who descend and take possession of the bissu. This allows bissu to bestow blessings on the person for whom the ceremony is performed Calalai • anatomical females who take on many of the roles and functions expected of men • people are not harassed for identifying as either calalai or calabai (or bissu) • On the contrary, calalai and calabai are seen as essential to completing the gender system • BUT Calalai are rare Calabai • anatomical males who, in many respects, adhere to the expectations of women. • do not consider themselves women, are not considered women. • Nor do they wish to become women, either by accepting restrictions placed on women such as not going out alone at night, or by recreating their body through surgery. Calalai Example: Rani • Rani works alongside men as a blacksmith, shaping kris, small blades and other knives. • Rani wears men's clothing and ties hir sarong in the fashion of men. • Rani also lives with hir wife and their adopted child, Erna. • While Rani works with men, dresses as a man, smokes cigarettes, and walks alone at night, which are all things women are not encouraged to do, Rani is female and therefore not considered a man. Nor does Rani wish to become a man. • Rani is calalai. Rani's female anatomy, combined with hir occupation, behavior, and sexuality, allows Rani to identify, and be identified, as a calalai. Calabai: Bugis Wedding Planners • whereas calalai tend to conform more to the norms of men, calabai have created a specific role for themselves in Bugis society: wedding planner • The calabai will be responsible for many things: setting up and decorating the tent, arranging the bridal chairs, bridal gown, costumes for the groom and the entire wedding party (numbering up to twenty-five), makeup for all those involved, and all the food. • On the day, some calabai remain in the kitchen preparing food while others form part of the reception, showing guests to their seats. Gender Roles • Cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including the division of labor. Gender hierarchy/ Gender Stratification • The ways gendered activities and attributes are related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society. Gender Dominance in Society • Patriarchy: male-dominated society in which men hold all important public and private power • Matriarchy: female-dominated society in which women hold all important public and private power o May be explicit or implicit o Never exists in extreme dominance the way patriarchy can Gender and Power • Gender is a point of significant power struggles across the globe - many societies are patriarchal • Women face significant challenges in the modern world, simply because they are women. o Six out of 10 of the world’s poorest citizens are women or girls. o Young women aged 15 to 25 are contracting HIV/AIDS at a rate three times higher than men in the same age group. o Less than 16 percent of the world’s government officials are women. • US culture is no exception • EXAMPLE: high school students in Pascoe’s “fag” discourse study. o Male students were accepting of other gay males, as long as they acted masculine. o Only if these gay men acted feminine were they subjected to gender bullying behavior. o Femininity was considered to be the problem, not sexual orientation. • In the United States, 1 in 4 women will experience domestic violence in their lifetime: 1 in 4! • These statistics show a clear and distinct difference in economic and political power between men and women. • Early anthropologists generally supported the idea that male dominance was nearly universal throughout the world. • Thus they fell back on the idea that male dominance was rooted in biology. • Yet, as anthropologists have become more aware of their own biases (remember our earlier discussion of anthropologists and reflexivity), anthropologists have realized that they were coming from a patriarchal culture. • Thus their own views were biasing their interpretations. Revisiting Early Research on Male Dominance • Annette Weiner returned to the Trobriand Islands to reconsider Malinowski’s work • Malinowski argued that economic exchange as well as ritual exchanges were dominated by males. o Men traveled between islands exchanging food stuffs and ritual objects (kula) o Women did not take part in these exchanges. o Thus, Trobriand Islands were home to a male-dominated culture. • Weiner returned to the islands in the 1970s o Found that side by side with the exchanges observed by Malinowski, women were exchanging ritual clothing, created in the memory of deceased ancestors. o This exchange is a vital part of the ritual system on the Trobriand Islands. o Malinowski had overlooked it entirely, perhaps because as a man he was not able to fully participate in women’s cultural actions. • Weiner’s study truly demonstrated the necessity of multiple points of view if we want to understand a culture. Gender Ideology • Gender ideology: the totality of ideas about sex, gender, the natures of men and women, including sexuality, and the relations between genders • Most societies view males and females as distinct, especially regarding sexuality Gender ideology is a culture product • Gender ideology may become a basis for gender stratification o Seclusion of women, Cultural emphasis on honor and shame for females, Male control over social institutions related to sexuality o Law, Religion, Marriage, Divorce, Adultery, Concepts and treatment of rape, abortion • Example: public/private dichotomy • Gender ideology expressed through the use of space in homes and public areas. • women’s status is lowered by their cultural identification with the home and children • Men are identified with public, prestigious economic and political roles • Example: Abu-Lughod’s work on Egyptian Bedouin Gender Stereotypes and Ideology • Underlying gender stratification are gender stereotypes based on cultural gender ideologies. • Within American culture, there are numerous stereotypes about how men and women will behave, supported by cultural ideologies about how men and women should behave. • In contemporary American culture it is often believed that gender ideologies are supported by biology, that men and women are inherently different. • The attitude of “Boys will be Boys, and Girls will be Girls” is thought to be inherent in nature. • We want to look here at how these notions of biologically influenced gender roles are actually not supported by scientific research. Anthropological Bias: Man the Hunter, Woman the Gather • Often argued that early in human evolution, men were hunters and women were gatherers, placing men in an aggressive and violent position, and portraying women as passive, staying largely at home and not moving. • ASSUMPTIONS: innate male traits of aggression, public interaction, and defense of one’s family arose from partaking in hunts. • Female traits of nesting and passivity came from the gatherers staying largely within the home range, not interacting with outsiders and largely waiting for males to return with food. • There are multiple problems with this conception: • In general it holds the role of hunter as being superior to gatherer. • BUT: studies of living groups that subsist through hunting and gathering, it has been repeatedly shown that a majority of calories come from gathered food, sometimes as much as 80 percent. • Meat is only an occasional addition to the diet. • Further, the remains left by our earliest ancestors show that foraging/gathering was a primary source of calories, not meat [So much for the arguments about paleo diet!] • Furthermore, anthropologists have routinely found that there is not a sharp sexual division of labor around the world – women gather and hunt • flexible labor standards help people survive in hard time • The “Man the Hunter, Woman the Gather” conception has fueled cultural gender ideologies. • The truth is, gender stratification develops out of stereotypes and ideologies, not biology. Gender Ideology and Science: Rethinking How Egg and Sperm Interact • Emily Martin explored how gender ideology influences way this biological process is described, surveyed high school biology textbooks • Martin found that students were being taught gender ideology instead of biological process. • Textbooks explain that the egg is fertilized by the sperm, rather than 2 gametes meeting in a mutual process • The male gamete given an active role and the female gamete is given a passive role • The actual biological process is quite different: the tail of the sperm does little more than allow it to change direction and Eggs play an active role in fertilization, drawing sperm in past their membrane. The nucleus of an egg will even move toward the sperm, thus hastening the fertilization process. • Gendered misunderstandings of the biology of reproduction have long led people to argue that male and female natures are inherent. Enforcing Gender Roles through Violence • Domestic Violence • Gender Violence on Campus o Young women at colleges are more frequently victims of sexual assault and/or rape than both all women combined, and women in the same age bracket – rarely reported and rarely convicted • Violence against Gays and Lesbians o Example murders of of Bandon Teena in Nebraska in 1993, Matthew Shepard in 1998 – spurred hate-crime laws • Structural Gender Violence o Women make 78 cents for every male dollar Challenging Gender Ideologies and Stratification: CO- MADRES- Mothers of “The Disappered” • Response to Civil War in El Salvador (1970s -1990s) El Salvador – many “disappeared” • CO-MADRES formed in resistance • After war, CO-MADRES continued to work in aid of victims, and to support mothers in particular. • Beyond its success in advocat


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