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Middle East Patterns - Ch 1, 2 notes

by: Amber Herrle

Middle East Patterns - Ch 1, 2 notes Geog 3154

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Amber Herrle

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Notes from chapter 1 and 2 of Middle East Patterns.
Dr. Jensen
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Amber Herrle on Monday September 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geog 3154 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Jensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Course: Geography of the Middle East Date:  Topic: Tricontiental Junction Questions/Cues Notes: ● The world is tied to the Middle East  ● Arabia felix ● World­Island ● Steppe ○ The region has historically been a global crossroads ● CSW/CSA  ○ Seas penetrate deeply into the land and alternate with (climate types) peninsulas and land bridges around the Syrian­Meosopotamian core ● Alluvial soils ● Cradle of Civilization ● Seaways of  ○ Fertile cresent ­ fertile land that extends along the  MENA levant and around the Syrian desert to the Gulf and particularly  ● Fertile cresent ● Russification ­  through the Mesopotamian Basin ● Religious Societies process through  ○ The Middle East gave rise to the three major  which the USSR  monotheistic religions became Russian ■ This shows the cultural richness of the  ● Coopen  Middle East climate systems  ○ The Middle East remains the heartland of Islam  ● Salinization ­  because it is the cradle of the religion and the corollary culture of  process of the soils  Islam becoming salty  ○ Islamic civilization is the most pervasive unifying  overtime. factor in the Middle East ­­ population data  ● Twenty First Century Importance ○ Main issues sheet pdf  ■ Unequaled petroleum resources ■ Arab Israeli conflict ■ Terrorism ■ Rivalries among leaders and states Petroleum / oil ■ Extremism among Muslims, Jews and  Chrisians. ○ Petroleum ■ About 30% of the world’s oil comes  from the Middle East ■ Interdependence has increased as  industrialized countries seek stable energy supplies ○ Arab Israeli conflict ■ 1949 exodus ■ 1956 ■ 1967 ■ 1973 ■ 1982 ■ 2006 ■ Lol so many ● The Middle East: definition and delimitation ○ The fertile cresent is the nucleus of the Middle East  (the core region being Northeast Africa to South Asia ○ The Maghreb and the Mashriq ■ Maghreb : Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia,  Libya and Sudan (all are Arab and Muslim) Maghreb ● Subject to direct  European colonization in the 19th century Mashriq ■ Mashriq : East of Libya ● This region has had  Colonial rule more intimate relations with Turks and Persians ○ There is unity in the core states and it lessens in  periphery ● Regional Unity of Empires ○ Power foci: the major empires were focused in four  focal points: mesopotamia, Asia Minor, The Nile Valley and the  Iranian Plateau ○ These empires together have ruled just about every  part of the Middle East ○ During periods of expansive empire rule there was a  greater interchange of ideas and thus adding to a unifying identity ● Summary: The middle east is diverse, significant and artfully interwoven with the rest of the  world. Look for in the reading ● Arabia felix ● Steppe ● CSW/CSA (climate types) ● Alluvial soils ● Seaways of MENA ● Russification ­ process through which the USSR became Russian ● Coopen climate systems  ● Salinization ­ process of the soils becoming salty overtime. ­­ population data sheet pdf  Course: Geography of the Middle East Date:  Topic: Chapter 2 Questions/Cues Notes: ● Forms of the Land ○ General Patterns ■ Lands: land and sea alternate. Five seas  penetrate the land.  ● The Iranian Plataeu extends into  Asia proper ● Arabian Peninsula ■ Seas:  ● Largest ­ meiterranean Sea on  the west ● The black sea (to the north of  Asia Minor) lies between Turkey and the five littoral states ● The Caspian sea (northeast)  The seaways  actually doesn’t have an outlet provide major  ● The Persian / Arabian Gulf  routes for trade  occupies the area between Arabia and Iran and movement of  ● The Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and  people. Aqabah, and Gulf of Aden ● Consequences of the seas  pentrating the land ­ the seas intersperse sources of moisture  in areas that would be far more desertic without them. The  large amount of seas creates a great deal more coastline  which in turn increases the opportunities for human contact  with the outside world. ● The seaways provide major  routes for trade and movement of people ■ Plates and Faults ● Local tectonic movements,  erosian by water or wind and combined wind erosian and  deposition are some typical factors of plate movements. ● The deserts are just sand blown  from other places ■ Wind and Water ● Running water is limited in the  Middle East because of modern development ● Streams have helped develope  the land but there is now a LOT less running water ■ Quakes and Volcanoes ● Quakes: Anatolia, Iran and  Hamadah Cyprus, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan Salinization ● Middle East soil patterns ○ The area from the Syrian desert to eastern Iran is so barren  that ti lacks either true soil or appreciable vegetation ○ Large areas of Lithosols (rock soil) extend along the east side  of the Levant rift system ■ Hamadah ­ common in this area, an extensive  plain with barren rock  ○ True soils in the desert ­ soils with developed profiles and  vegetation cover ■ Desert soils are ligh grey or light brownish gray, are low in organic matter and closely overlie calcium containing  Steppe material ○ Alluvial soils ­ typical near Nile and Delta of Euphrates ○ Most of the cultivated and agriculturally productive soils of the  Middle East are in Asia minor ● Vegetation patterns ○ Desert shrubs ○ Grasslands (steppes) ­ equipped to survive a drought ○ Mediterranean Zone ­ take advantage of Winter rain ○ Forests ­ mostly gone due to human interference but forest  clothed slopes used to exist ■ Reforesting ­ remenants of some forests in the  Levant area exist ● Animal Life ○ History fuced some things up (crocs are gone, lions, tigers,  leopards and cheetahs are also gone. ○ Small mammals ○ Birds ○ Insects Summary: Physical environment of fundamental significance in any region: landforms, water bodies, climate,  soils, vegetation and animals all form a natural domain with which human activity interacts. Each affects all of the  others. The long human drama unfolds on this reactive stage. Many natural features of historical importance and  familiarity: Tigris, Euphrates, Jordan, Nile Rivers, Galilee, Dead Sea, Sinai Peninsula and Samarian Hills. Many  specific names and data provide a relative basis for understanding desert and steppe, steppe and Mediterranean  climate, foehn and monsoon winds. 


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