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Anatomy, Ch. 3 Notes Cells

by: Lauren Zuniga

Anatomy, Ch. 3 Notes Cells BIO 65

Lauren Zuniga
Fresno State

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About this Document

covers the basics of the structure of cells along with other cellular processes
cells, transcription, translation, Plasma, membrane, cytoplasm
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Zuniga on Monday September 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 65 at California State University Fresno taught by Chooljian in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Physiology in Biology at California State University Fresno.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Cells: The Living Units – Part 2 Plasma Membrane: Generation of Resting Potential • Membrane Potential: o DEF: The voltage across the membrane • Resting Membrane Potential (REM) o Ranges from 50-100 mV o Causes the cell to be polarized ! Inside is negative ! Outside is positive • Electrochemical Gradients o Ions recognize the effect of both chemical and electrical gradients • Maintained by the sodium-potassium pump Plasma Membrane: Cell-Environment Interactions • Roles of Cell Adhesion Molecules o Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) ! Act as: " 1. A way for cells to anchor to one another " 2. “Arms” that cells use to migrate past one another " 3. Indicators of infected or injured areas " 4. Stimulate synthesis or breakdown of membrane junctions " 5. Transmitter intracellular signals that direct cell migration, proliferation, and specialization • Roles of Membrane Receptors o Membrane receptors: ! DEF: The group of integral proteins and glycoproteins that act as binding sites o Contact Signaling ! DEF: Actual coming into contact and touching of cells – a means of cells to recognize each other o Chemical Signaling ! Ligands " DEF: Signaling chemicals that bind specifically to plasma membrane receptors ! G-protein linked receptors " Exert their effect indirectly thru a G-protein ! G-Protein " Acts a middle man to activate or inactivate a membrane-bound enzyme or ion channel ! Second Messengers " DEF: Intracellular chemical signals " EX: Cyclic AMP (cAMP) • Activates protein kinases • Process: st o 1. Ligand (1 messenger) binds to the receptor ! Receptor activated and changes confirmation o 2. The activated receptor binds to a G-protein and activates it ! During activation G-protein changes shape and releases from GDP ! Binds to GTP o 3. Activated G-protein activates (or inactivates) effector protein by causing it to change shape o 4. Activated effector enzymes nd catalyse reactions that produce 2 messengers in the cell o 5. Second messengers activate other enzymes or ion channels o 6. Kinase enzymes transfer phosphate groups from ATP to specific proteins and activate other proteins to trigger various cell responses o Role of Voltage-Sensitive Membrane Channel Proteins ! Electrical signaling " DEF: When channel proteins (voltage-gated channels) respond to changes in membrane potential by opening or closing their channels The Cytoplasm • Cytoplasm o DEF: Cellular material between the PM and the nucleus • Cytosol o DEF: The viscous, semi-transparent fluid in which cytoplasmic elements are suspended • Cytoplasmic Organelles o DEF: The metabolic machinery of the cell • Inclusions o DEF: Chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on the cell type • Organelles o 1. Mitochondria: ! “Power house” of the cell " Make most of the cell’s ATP ! Structure: " Enclosed by two membranes • Outer membrane • Inner membrane o Cristae ! Folds of the inner membrane ! Increase surface area " Contain their own DNA and RNA o 2. Ribosomes: ! Function: Protein synthesis ! Types: " 1. Free Ribosomes • Make soluble proteins that function in the cytosol or are sent to the mitochondria / other organelles " 2. Membrane-Bound Ribosomes • Either incorporated into the membrane ot exported from the cell o 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): ! DEF: Extensive system of inter-connected tubes and parallel membrane enclosing cisternae " Cisternae: fluid-filled cavities ! Rough ER (RER): " Studded with ribosomes " Functions: • 1. Manufactures all proteins secreted from the cell • 2. Creates integral proteins and phospholipids for the PM " Found in high amounts in: • Antibody producing cells • Liver cells ! Smooth ER (SER): " No ribosomes " Functions: • 1. Lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis • 2. Synthesis of steroid based hormones • 3. Absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats • 4. Detoxification of drugs, etc. • 5. Breakdown of glycogen into glucose • 6. Calcium ion storage / release in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells " Low amounts in all cells except: • Liver cells • Skeletal and cardiac muscle cells o 4. Golgi Apparatus ! “Post office” of the cell ! Function: " Modify, concentrate, and package proteins and lipids from the RER ! Secretory vesicles " DEF: Vesicles containing proteins that will be exported out of the cell o 5. Lysosomes ! “Suicide sacs” ! Contain digestive enzymes ! Abundant in: " Phagocytic cells ! Functions: " 1. Digestion particles taken into the cell " 2. Degrading worn-out / non-functional organelles " 3. Performing metabolic functions " 4. Breaking down nonuseful tissues " 5. Breaking down bone to release calcium ions into the blood ! Autolysis " DEF: When lysosomes rupture and the cell digests itself o Endomembrane system: ! DEF: A system of organelles (ER Golgi, & Lysosomes) that work together to produce, store, and export biological molecules and to degrade potentially harmful substances Cells: The Living Units – Part 3 o 6. Peroxisomes ! Contain enzymes that oxidize free radicals " Free radical • DEF: Highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can mess up the structure of biological molecules o 7. Cytoskeleton ! DEF: An elaborate network of rods running thru the cytosol ! Functions: " 1. Supporting the cell’s structure " 2. Provide a “highway” for various cell movements ! Components: " 1. Microtubules • Largest • Hollow tubes of tubulins • Function: Act as “railroad tracks” for motor proteins " 2. Intermediate Filaments • Tough, insoluable protein fibers constructed like woven ropes • Function: Resist pulling forces exerted on the cell " 3. Microfilaments • Smallest • Strands made of actin • Functions: Involved in cell motility and cell shape changes o 8. Centrosome ! “Cell center” ! Function: Microtubule organizing center o 9. Centrioles ! Paired ! Small, barrel-shaped organelles oriented at right angles to one another ! Function: " Generating microtubules " Organizing the mitotic spindle during cell division ! Cellular Extenstions " Cilia • Motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the surface of certain cells • Move substances in one direction over the surface " Flagella • Similar to cilia, but more elongated and in fewer number " Basal bodies • DEF: Centrioles that form the bases of cilia and flagella " Microvilli • DEF: Minute, fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free, or exposed, cell surface The Nucleus • Nucleus o The control center of the cell that contains DNA o Multinucleate ! More than one nucleus ! EX cell: Skeletal muscle o Anucleate ! No nucleus ! EX cell: Erythrocyte o The Nuclear Envelope ! Double membrane barrier separated by a fluid-filled space " Outer membrane is contiguous with the RER • Studded with ribosomes " Inner membrane lined by nuclear lamina • Nuclear lamina o Maintains the shape of the nucleus o Acts as a scaffold to organize DNA ! Nuclear pores " Form channels that regulate entry and exit of molecules and large particles into/out of the nucleus ! Nucleoplasm " Just like cytosol, but in the nucleus o Nucleoli ! Dark-staining bodies in the nucleus ! Function: Ribosome assembly o Chromatin ! DNA + histone proteins ! Nucleosome " DEF: Fundamental units of chromatin ! Histone Proteins " Aid in packing the long DNA molecules " Play a role in gene regulation ! Chromosomes " Condensed chromatin Cell Growth & Reproduction • Cell Life Cycle o DEF: The Series of changes a cell goes thru from the time it is formed until it reproduces o Two major periods ! 1. Interphase ! 2. Mitotic Phase (Cell Division) o Interphase ! Period from cell formation to cell division ! Cell is carrying out daily activities ! Subphases: " 1. G1 phase • Cell is metabolically active & growing rapidly • Variable in length " 2. G0 phase • Quiescent cells (no division ever) " 3. S phase • DNA replication phase " 4. G2 phase • Enzymes and other proteins important for division are synthesized ! DNA Replication " Process (Abridged) • 1. DNA unwinds from from histones • 2. DNA untwists itself o EZ: Helicase o Replication Fork ! Y-shaped site of separation • 3. RNA primers formed with the aid of primase bind to the DNA template • 4. Once the prime is in place, DNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides along the template o Leading strand: ! Synthesized continuously following the replication fork o Lagging strand: ! Synthesized in segments in the opposite direction • 5. Segments of DNA are spliced together using DNA ligase " Result: • 2 DNA molecules • Semiconservative replication o Each new DNA molecule has one new strand and one old strand of DNA o Cell Division (M Phase) ! Events: " 1. Mitosis • DEF: Division of the nucleus • Prophase o Early: ! Chromatin condenses ! Sister chromatids appear ! Mitotic spindle begins to form o Late: ! Nuclear envelope fragments ! Spindle begins to attach to sister chromatids via the kinetochore " DEF: Structure on the centromere • Metaphase o Centrosomes on opposite poles of cell o Sister chromatids lined up on metaphase plate • Anaphase o Sister chromatids separated and pulled toward opposite poles • Telophase o Chromosomes uncoil o Nuclear envelope reassembles " 2. Cytokinesis • DEF: Division of cytoplasm • Begins during late anaphase & ends at the end of telophase • Process: o PM over the center of the cell is drawn in and forms a cleavage furrow o Furrow deepens until the cell is pinched into two o Control of Cell Division ! Two groups of proteins involved: " 1. Cyclins " 2. Cdks ! Checkpoints " 1. G1 checkpoint (Restriction point) • Most important " 2. G2 checkpoint • High amount of MPF protein is required to exit this phase and enter M phase Cells: The Living Units – Part 4 2/3/12 11:39 AM Protein Synthesis • Gene o DEF: A segment of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain o Exons ! Amino acid (AA) specifying informational sequences o Introns ! Non-coding regions o The Role of RNA ! Messenger RNA (mRNA) " Involved in transcription ! Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) " Part of the ribosomes ! Transfer RNA (tRNA) " Involved in translation o Transcription ! DNA ! RNA ! Occurs in the nucleus ! Phases: " 1. Initiation • RNA polymerase pulls apart the strands of DNA so transcription can begin at the promoter o Promoter: Special DNA sequence that begins transcription " 2. Elongation • RNA polymerase aligns RNA nucleotides with complementary DNA nucleotides • DNA-RNA hybrid o DEF: DNA hydrogen bonded to mRNA " 3. Termination • mRNA pulls away from DNA template when the RNA polymerase reaches the termination sequence o mRNA Processing ! Introns spliced out leaving only exons in the mRNA transcript o Translation ! RNA ! Protein ! Genetic code: " Three bases of mRNA nucleotides (codon) specify a single AA ! Occurs in the cytoplasm ! Process: " 1. mRNA binds to ribosome " 2. tRNA recognizes the complementary codon on the mRNA in the A-site " 3. AA added to the peptide chain in the P-site " 4. tRNA leaves in the E-site ! Initiator tRNA " Charged with methionine " Binds to P-site " Begins translation ! Process continues until the stop codon enters the ribosome ! Signal sequence " DEF: A short “leader” peptide that tells the ribosome to attach to the membrane of the RER • Other Roles of DNA o 1. Antisense RNAs ! Can intercept and bind to mRNA & prevent it from being translated o 2. MicroRNAs ! Small RNAs that can be used to interfere with and suppress mRNAs o 3. Riboswitches ! Folded RNAs that code for a particular protein; contain a region that acts as a switch to turn protein synthesis on or off • Cytosolic Protein Degredation o Ubiquitins ! DEF: Mark proteins for degredation o Proteosomes ! DEF: Enzymes that hydrolyze Ubq tagged proteins Extracellular Materials • DEF: Any substances contributing to boddy mass that are found outside the cells • 1. Body Fluids o EX: Blood • 2. Cellular Secretions o EX: Saliva • 3. Extracellular Matrix o Most abundant extracellular material Developmental Aspects of Cells • Cell Differentiation o DEF: The development of specific and distinctive features in cells • Apoptosis o DEF: Programmed cell death o Cancer cells do not undergo this process • Hyperplasia o DEF: Accelerated growth of bone marrow when you have anemia • Atrophy o DEF: Decrease in size of an organ or body tissue, can result in a loss of normal stimulation • Telomeres o Strings of nucleotides that cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from fraying or fusing with other chromosomes


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