CLT3370 Second week notes
CLT3370 Second week notes CLT3370
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Date Created: 09/06/16
CHAPTER 4 NOTES MYTHS OF CREATION 1 Hesiod’s Theogeny is what is known as a cosmogeny or a story that explains the origin of the world o Hesiod had the ability to tell this story through the muses THE CHILDREN OF CHAOS The meaning of theogeny is still debated widely First came Chaos, a being who is not exactly defined Then came Gaea, or the mother of earth, The foundation of the world Then Tartarus, a being mistaken for a place in the underworld, however Hesiod defines him as one of the primordial beings Mountains Uranus Pontus Erinyes Giants Gaea Tartarus Thyphoes Eros Aether Erebus Hemer a Chaos Moerae Nyx Nemesi s After Chaos appeared Eros, the sexual force in nature and produce more and change The fact that Erebus and Nyx came from Chaos suggests that other beings possibly did as well THE CHILDREN OF GAEA: THE TITANS AND THEIR COUSINS From the host of beings the most important are the titans, s the cyclops and Hecatonchires The first beings that Gaea bore was Uranus, asexually, as well as the mountains and then Pontus, of the sea From Uranus and Gaea was born the six male and female titans, including the last, Cronus Gaea + Uranus Aphrodite 12 Titans... Cronus Cyclopes Hecatonchides Oceanus Uranus covered Gaea and they were constantly in perpetual sex Oceanus and Tethys who gave birth to all the god and were of the oceans o They gave birth to 6,000 oceanids With Uranus after the titans gaea gave birth to three cyclopes and the Hecatonchires, or people of a hundred hands o The Cyclopes were the smiths of the gods and made the ultimate weapon: lightning o Beings with a hundred hands sprouting from all over and could crush any should they choose too HYPERIONS CHILDREN: THE SUN.MOON, AND DAWN Better known for being the father of Helius, the sun god, Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn One of Helius’ son Phaethon didn’t believe thathe was the son, so when he went to his fathers temple Helius allowed him one wish.. To his horror, Phaethon asked to drive the chariot across the sky. While it went ok at first after the horses realized they had an inexperienced driverthey took off. The son died in a river Eos had many loves and when she fell in love Tithonos, a Trojan prince she stayed with him. However, he was not immortal and he aged. Eventually being locked in a room and turning into a cicada. CRONUS AGAINST URANUS Uranus hated all of his children and kept them with Gaea In her womb Cronus was the only one of the children ready to kill his father for Gaea. She gave to him a sickle made of pure steel When Uranus went to have sex with Gaea, Cronus took hold of his genitals and cut them off forever separating Gaea from Uranus, throwing them into the sea By separating Uranus an gaea Cronus brought the sky and land to where they were meant to be Through the blood from Uranus injury was born the furies or Erinyes From other drops of this blood was born the gaints THE BIRTH OF APHRODITE, MONSTERS AND SEA DIETIES Aphrodite born of the sea foam seeping from Cronus genitals, who was then escorted from the seas by Eros while she seeped of sexual desire and appeal o She represents the unyielding force of cosmic sexual desire Monster originally meant “to that which you point to in surprise”, and the Egyptians used this as a physical embodiment of their dead, while the Greeks saw the hybrids of humans like the harpies and harbingers of evil Gaea +Pontus Nereus Ceto Thaumas Gorgons(Me tis+Peleus) Achillies Graeae dusa + iris Harpies Posiedon) Pegasus(Ch rysanid)ce Geryon(Echi dnaeus)ho Echidna+Pr htus Cerberus hydra Chimera Sphyinx Sirens song leads sailors to their deaths Cerberus was a fifty headed or three headed dog who guarded the gates of hell Chimera is considered to be any form but was depicted as a sake butt, and goat head The Greaeae were the grey ones of the deep The nereids were to represent the calmness of the sea, The best known was Thetis ZEUS AGAINST CRONUS: THE BATTLE WITH THE TITANS Cronus was the first king of the world and ruled as a tyrant over the complex realm Because Cronus was warned that one of his children would over throw him he swallowed his children as they entered the world. These children were Hestia Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon and Zeus In order to save one of her children Rhea, their mother, hid Zues in a cave where he was raised by Nymphs Hesiod does not specify what happens other than Cronus vomits up his children and Zeus defeated him With zeus the new king of the gods, the titans were not happy and rebelled and attacked the Olympians Knowing that Zeus would need help to defeat them, he released the Hecatonchires and the cyclops from tartarus, in return for their release they made Zeus his thunderbolt Thus with the new power, Zeus wins and send the titans back to tartarus Atlas, who either a titan or a Giant was condemned to keeping Uranus and Gaea separated Unhappy with the outcome, Gaea because Zeus’ greatest enemy and with tartarus made Typhoeus or thypon Thypon was supposed to be the most powerful and scary monster with the heads of dragons and wings and the body of a snake To hide the Olympians fled to Egypt and hid as animals, thus why Egyptian gods are part animals Originally the monster defeated Zeus and severed his hands and feet and kept them in jars. o Luckily one of his children found him and restored him With a renewed rage Zeus tracked thypoeus down and flung thunderbolts until his blood covered the mountain ZEUS’S BATTLE WITH THE GIANTS To stop the prophecy Zeus married the Oceanid of cleverness, however because she was already pregnant with Athena, Zeus decided to eat his new wife and gave birth to Athena through his head. Thus Athena was solely the child of Zeus, female in sex, but virgin in body and masculine in thought and behavior. Zeus was able to defy the prophesy by thwarting the biological lagic according to which only females give birth. Popular classical art tells of the giants, another enemy of Zeus, who were conceived from the blood of Uranus’ genitals and urged on by Gaea attacked Olympus in the Gigantomachy, “battle of the Giants,” by hurling rocks and burning trees into the sky. Eventually, the Giants were overcome, and the three male gods, Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, cast lots to divide the world among them. Zeus took heaven, Poseidon the gray sea, and Hades the dark mist at the world’s end. However, the earth and heights of Olympus were common to all. PROMINENT THEMES IN THE GREEK CREATION STORY The Greek creation story is what is called a divine myth, where its subject is the actions of gods and the description of grand events and their consequences. Folktale has gods acting as ogres and tricksters, goddesses behaving as sexual victims, dangerous enemies, and beneficent protectors. Stories made to explain how Zeus came to rule the world. Eros propelled the expanding creation and change While Gaea remains a solid force in the universe because she is the base of everything she remains dormant in her domain o Crete had their own male god who controlled the sky and to differentiate s=they called him the Cretan Zeus The titans then came to symbolize the unyielding forces of nature The Hecatonchites came to serve as mercenary soldiers of Zeus Because he cannot kill Typhoeus, Zeus imprisons him under MT. Etna EASTERN CREATION STORIES We do not know how the eastern creation stories crossed the language barrier but they did The Babylonian Enuma Elish is a creation story of the god Marduk, who was the son of Ea and was born powerful and ready to fight, In order to face Taimat he demand ultimate power from the gods and they granted it. He is much like the Babylonian Zeus OBSERVATIONS In myth Dragon combat and cosmology can be one in the same For example the Hittite kingship of heaven poem while different in story also has very clear relation to the Greek cosmology They basically mirror each other in the themes o of over throw o and women being victims o The children betraying the father CHAPTER 3 NOTES BEGINNINGS OF GREEK MYTHOLOGY While the greek society grew in the Balkans, much of their cultural influence is actually from the societies around Mesopotamia Beginnings of Greek Myth Statues found in the museums across Europe have enlarged sex organs and are believed to be depictions of the god and goddess of fertility o Due to the amount of of statues like this one may believe that they also were meant to bring new life to the dead Artemis is often depicted amongst powerful animals in nature and thus was called Potnia theron, or lady of the beasts Greek myths can also be derived and constructed from the Indo-European myths o Zeus name is similar to that of the Indo-european sky god o We also see similarities in the myths about twins in both cultures o Many of the Greek gods and goddess’ are listed by name on the linear B tablets Thus we are able to conclude that some of the goddess’ were known in the Mycenaean age Myths presented by the Aoidoi, were a form of entertainment , and were preformed by illiterate singers This language was presented in and unconscious rhythm, diactylic Hexameter One example would be that of Hesiod and Demodocus and the quarrel between odysseus and Achilles o Because of this myth we believe that some of the battles occurred in the late bronze age The influence near eastern myth While most Greek myths were about the battle of the gods to manage the world, the others myths are not involved in that In 1700, on of the writings that was common among the area was named Cuneiform by an Italian scholar o After they were able to decipher it to some degree they discovered the Genesis book and thus began to questions the original intent for the myth as religion or Divine myth Sumerian Myth The sumerians have an unknown race and and spoke a language related to any other language They Survived on Irrigation agriculture , in being able to sustain on this they were able to build full-fledged city-states o Each city had its own protective diety that managed their fortunes and triumph o An was their sky god Had a daughter Inanna who was the goddess of sexual love and war o Anitu was another and the gods came down from the sky o Enlil was inversely the god of the storm He also had control of the tablet of destiny o Enki was the lord of the earth and fertilization He was also the trickster of the gods as well as magic and wisdom o Ki was the mother of earth and is similar to demeter o Ereshkigal was the queen of the great below and is similar to persephone o Royal privileges were granted from heaven These god often appeared as human shape Most Sumerian myths are divine and posses super human abilities Semitic Myth o They were a nomadic people and followed the Hebrew bible o Known as the Akkadians and took over southern Sumerians o Due to the lack of organization and thus the map was reorganized o Moses was a great leader that lead them to was the firs to record the comandments o Moses the lead the people to invade Canaan and the philistines , upo this the people stayed in Babylon and fell under the influence of the Mesopotamian culture Due to their time in captivity it lead the to grow faith in a new god called Yahweh Thus they wrote down their new faith and created the old testament, written in the pheonician alphabet Other sources o The Hittites controlled Anatolia o They inherited cultural traits from the Hittites o Another sourceof mythology Is the Egyptians o Most importantly the murer of Osiris and his resurrection through the magic of Isis Homer o The earliest Greek Literature is those of Homer, who was the first to write what is known as a epic o The greek Alphabet made this possible o The Iliad is set during the tenth year of the Trojan war Despite the massive cultural significance in the this poem, shcolars cannot find out what their purpose was These are called the Homeric questions o Homer knows very little about the Bronze age o Due to the social and rethgious tendancies, we can conclude that Homer was alive in the 8 century Hesiod o Theogony reflects a bit of Hesiods time period in the addressing of moral treatise and almanac o His first poem is o o inspired by the Muses and it id the muses wh gifted hum the power of song o Hesiod sang in funeral games o Euboeans were the first possessors of the Greek alphabet The Homeric Hymns o These epics that come from the archaic period are called the cyclic poems that surround the Odessey and The Iliad o Another source during the Archaic period is the Homeric Hymns o A series of Orally transmitted These epics that come from the archaic period are called the cyclic poems that surround the Odessey and The Iliad o Another source during the Archaic period is the Homeric Hymns A series of Orally transmitted hymns, that are believed to be told by homer himself Four are told to the gods, Demeter, Apollo, Hermes, and Aphrodite They are mythic narrative They were only performed by the specially trained Aoidoi Greek myths in the classical period: Tragedy Humanism lies in the heart of western civilization culture Rhapsodes are memorized oral texts that were performed with a staf Because of this ew access to all members of society, myths became very popular With the new age, new forms of literature emerged such as lyric poetry and choral song Performed by twelve or more boys and girls The most impactful piece of literature is the Tragedian plays All of the actors are male and wore masks Pisistraus encouraged the production of plays to encourage the growing mercantile class These plays go from higher power to a dramatic turn of power through a catastrophe, often through the Harmatia Hubris translated as violence not pride Aeshylus – We have 7 plays that survive and he is the earliest known tragedian Sophocles- Work coincides with the political dominance of Athens, 7 surviving plays Euripides-plays often include deflated heroes, 19 plays survive He is the most modern of the writers Tragedy cares little for the mythic cycle No possibillity is omitted While these plays were being written, the worlds first attempt at science was coming around Greek myth in the Hellenistic period In 331 BC Alexander the great founded Alexandria in Egypt, where all the greatest and cherished texts were kept and preserved o These texts included myths, math, astronomy, medicine These myths then were read from the actual papyrus that it was recorded on Alexandrian scholars wrote poems based on mythic topics Apollonius of Rhodes wrote the epic of the Argonauts and Jason Mythographers collected the information for Alexandria The Roman Appreciation of greek myth When Rome took over Greece they took the political side, Greek culture stayed true and Rome adopted Greek culture Roman Author Aeneus wrote the epic the Aeneid, describing the underworld Poetry of the Ovid is our most important source from the Roman Empire They also wrote Metamorphoses, because to all generation it is ever changing Romans myth is characterized by the extreme violence and savage emotion We struggle to diferentiate myth and the literature that embodies it Our real questions lie in why these stories are still popular
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