All Weekly Notes for Exam 1
All Weekly Notes for Exam 1 PSYC 1301
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
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Date Created: 09/06/16
PSYC 1301 Augg 25,20016 Lecture Notes Class Info: Quiz is due Sunday • Do not use Internet Explorer as your Web Browser • The quiz is over chapter 1 • You should get between 13-15 of the quiz questions correct Be sure to sign up for SONA • Instructions for sign up are available on the syllabus Class Notes: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process/mind • Behavior – moving, taking physiological responses, expressions, non-visible but measurable actions • Mental processes o Thinking o Learning o Emotions o Addiction § Aka addiction to phone, exercise, etc. § Not all drugs and alcohol • Behavior is difficult to predict o Meehl’s maxim § The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior o Behavior is predicted by multiple predictors o People affect each other § Reciprocal determinism – o Many psychological concepts are difficult to define (e.g. intelligence) • The goals of psychology o Describe o Understand o Predict § “I knew you were going to say that? Yea right.” o Control § Can we reduce child abuse? § Identify and stop the killer who goes on the rampage? § Improve worker morale? § Stop drunk driving? Stop driving while texting? • If you don’t like drunk drivers don’t text and drive § Help the autistic children learn? • Things that make psych fun o People in psychological experiments usually know they’re being studies § Problem of reactivity – • People are very reactive PSYC 1301 Auug 25,,20166 Lecture Notes § People differ from each other • Every one differs genetically • Even identical twins differ genetically • Siblings, homes, environment – all create a difference in people (even identical siblings) • One can’t control the environment § Culture influences people’s behavior • Gender differences in cultures • What will we address? o Do IQ tests provide accurate measures of intelligence? § Is intelligence inherited, or learned? • Nature vs Nurture • Language is nurture o How does psychological stress influence health? o What is more effective with children, punishment for bad behaviors or reward for good behaviors? § Similarly, does how your parents raise you impact the type of person you are today? • When you punish a kid for writing on the wall are we punishing them for writing or writing on the wall? So we must reward them for writing on paper • Rewarding works better than punishing o How does cognitive function differ with age? o Why is texting while driving so doggone dangerous? § It is strikingly dangerous § No one ever runs out of long term memory § How many things can you keep in your mind at once § Attention is limited – it takes a form of cognitive energy that we simply do not posses o What is the best way to study for an exam? o What did Freud say about sexual behavior? o Is memory better when hypnotized than normal? • Psychology’s Liberation from Philosophy o For many centuries, psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy o The distinctions lie in the use of argument, versus data § Don’t argue. Prove it to me § Show me the data § Now I will try to refute you • Fact or Falsehood • True – Psychology is a way of asking and answering questions • True – the biggest and most persistent issue in psychology concerns the nature- nurture controversy • False – Psychology’s different perspectives contradict each other • False – Random assignment is fulfilled as long as you have an equal number of male and female participants PSYC 1301 Augg 25,20016 Lecture Notes o Are people telling the truth? • True – deceiving research subject is sometimes considered ethical o They only tell you what they want you to know o Its for science • Early schools of Psychology o The Science of Psychology § Wilhelm Wundt promotes the belief that experimental methods should be used to study mental processes. § “What is the best way to measure mental processes?” o Structuralism § Edward Titchener, a student of Wundt, held that complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental parts or structures o Functionalism § Advocated by William James and influenced by Darwin, functionalism focuses on how behaviors function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environment § “What are the structures of conscious experiences?” • What are the functions of behavior and mental experiences? o Why did you do that? • How can psychology be applied to life? o First Major Psychological Schools: William James’s Students § G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) • Established first psychological lab in the US at John Hopkins: founded the APA § Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) • Was the first woman elected president of the APA American Psychological Association • Conducted research in dreams, memory, and personality o Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology § 1. Structuralism –What is this process? • ‘Map’ the elements of consciousness (sensations, images, feelings) using introspection § 2. Functionalism – Why • Psychologists must act as ‘detectives’ to discover these purposes • Evolutionary aspect still influences modern psychology § The unconscious is the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness § Unconscious conflicts determine behavior and personality § Psychoanalytic Theory – Unconscious mental process shape feelings, thoughts, and behaviors o New Schools Develop Behaviorism § Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – discovers conditioned reflexes § Psychology redefined as the scientific study of observable behavior PSYC 1301 Auugg255,20116 Lecture Notes § This is about the dog that salivates to the ring of a bell due to conditioning § John Watson (1878-1958) – extends approach to human behavior § B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) – further experiments on behavior, learning, and conditioning • These three moves Psychology away from Philosophy • New Schools Develop o Cognitive Psychology – the scientific study of how perception, thought, memory, and reasoning are processed o A return to an emphasis on mental processes and how they influence behavior § Whose happier to medal at the Olympics bronze or silver? Bronze, because they actually got a medal. • Theoretical Perspectives o Cognitive Perspective (1950’s – present) § Noam Chomsky & Herbert Simon § Sometimes Psychologists will study their own children sometimes • Behaviorism vs Cognitive o Behaviorism is an S-R model § Stimulus response o Cognitive psychology emphasizes the S-O-R model § The organism in the middle interprets that stimulus and produces a response • Biological perspective o Emphasizes the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, and genetics § Neuroscience PSYC 1301 Auug 255,20016 Lecture Notes § Focus § Research techniques o Different from other biological sciences • Cross-cultural perspective o Emerged in the 190’s o Emphasizes diversity of behavior across cultures and the fact that many earlier psychological findings were not universal o Important cultural terms: § Ethnocentrism § Individualistic cultures • Different cultures react to similar situations differently § Collectivistic cultures • How do we make our decisions • Evolutionary Perspective o Reflects renewed interest in Darwin’s work o Applies the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes o Suggests that most adaptive characteristics are perpetuated through natural selection o Analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species’ chances to survive and reproduce • Psychology’s three main levels of analysis o 1. Biological Influences § Genetic predispositions § Genetic mutations § Natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors § Genes responding to the environment o 2. Psychological influences § Learned fears and other learned expectations § Emotional responses § Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations o 3. Social-cultural influences § Presence of others § Cultural, societal, and family expectations § Peer and other group influences § Compelling models (such as the media) o These all lead to a behavior or mental process • Psychologists and Psychiatrists o Clinical Psychologists § Trained in the diagnosis, treatment, caused and prevention of psychological disorders o Psychiatrist § Have medical degrees followed by specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders § Emphasize biological factors and use biomedical therapies • The profession of Psychology PSYC 1301 Augg 25,20016 Lecture Notes o Basic Research builds psychology’s knowledge bas through research and training o There are many sub specialties of psychology such as clinical, counseling, general, developmental, educational, social and personal, cognitive, industrial organizational, biological and experimental, etc. o Psychologists work in a wide variety of settings § Universities, colleges, and medical schools § For-profit organizations and self-employment § The federal government § Stat and local government New Lecture • What is good research design? • Explore the scientific method • Discuss the ethics of experimentation • Review statistics • How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? • What about intuition and common sense? o Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature • Limits of Intuition o Personal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants o We like people who are like up • Hindsight Bias o This is that “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon o After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet. • The scientific Attitude and Critical Thinking o In whatever subfield and in whatever setting, psychologists seek to maintain a scientific attitude: § Curiosity § Skepticism § Humility • Its okay to be wrong o Critical thinking examines: assumptions, disconcerts, hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions o Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. § We can theorize that irritating someone leads to them being angry – we collect data – and so on • Using the Scientific Method o Scientific method PSYC 1301 Auug 255,20016 Lecture Notes § A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions • There was an experiment to see if babies can smell their mothers o Step 1: Formulate a specific question that can be tested § Form a hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables: a testable prediction or question § Dependent – the variable we measure at the end o Step 2: Design a study to collect relevant data § Use descriptive or experimental methodologies o Step 3: Analyze the data to arrive at conclusions § Use statistics to analyze, summarize, and draw conclusions about the data they have collected o Step 4: Report the results § The rationale for testing the hypothesis who participated in the study and how they were selected § How variables were operationally defined § What procedures or methods were used § How the data were analyzed § What the results seem to suggest o Scientific Terms § Empirical Evidence – is information acquired by observation or experimentation § Hypothesis – a testable prediction about the relationship between at least two events, characteristics, or variables. § Variable – something that can be changed, such as a characteristic or value. They are generally used in psychology experiments to determine if changes to one thing result in changes to another. § Operational definition – a statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities. § Statistically significant – is the probability of some result from a statistical test occurring by chance. • Psychologists look for a probability of 5% or less that the results are due to chance, which means a 95% chance the results are “not” due to chance. § Meta-analysis – is a study about other studies in order to get an integrated result. AKA a researcher reviews previously published studies on a topic, and analyzes the various results to find general trends across the studies. § Replication – it’s a way of seeing if the same study can be re- created and yield the same results • The repetition of a research study, generally with different situations and different subjects, to determine if the basic findings of the original study can be generalized to other participants and circumstances. PSYC 1301 Auug25,,2016 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes Class Info: Quiz 2 – Chapter 6 Memory • Available Wednesday 7am – 10:30pm • No Password Class Notes: Theory • A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events o For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression • Hypothesis o A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory § Frustration can lead to depression and aggression o People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed • Research Observations o Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression • Research Process a) Theories lead to b) Hypotheses lead to c) Research and observations • Scientific Method: A toolbox of skills o Allows us to test specific hypotheses derived from broader theories of how things work § Theories are never “proven,” but hypotheses can be disconfirmed o Naturalistic Observation – watching behavior in real-world setting o Example – someone honks and you go slower in response § High degree of external validity – extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world § Low degree of internal validity – extend to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences § Use your own experiences to draw hew hypotheses = not conclusions o Case study designs § Depth is traded for breadth § We look at one group to study why they did what they did in a particular circumstance § Common with rare types of brain damage § Helpful in providing existence proofs, but can be misleading and anecdotal o Correlational designs PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes § Correlation can vary from -1 to +1 • Zero means there is no correlation § 0 means no relationship § Depicted in a scatterplot – each dot represents a single person’s data § Illusory Correlation – perception of a statistical association where none exist (e.g., crime and the full moon) § Correlation cannot determine causation – merely shows things are related nor correlated § ***If you come to class scan your id before entering the classroom (does not count for points – simply so the instructor can view class attendance correlation vs grades at the end of the semester) o Survey § A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people o Self-report measures and surveys § Self-Report measures – questionnaires assess a variety of characteristics (e.g., interests, traits) § Surveys – measure opinions, attitudes o Important Terms in Survey Design § Sample • A selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied § Representative Sample • A selected segment that very closely parallels, on relevant characteristics, the larger population being studied § Random Selection • Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study o Self-Report Measures § Pros • Easy to administer • Direct (self) assessment of person’s state § Cons • Accuracy is skewed for certain groups (narcissist) • Potential for dishonesty o Response sets – tendencies of research subjects to distort their responses § Positive impression managing o Examples of Newspaper Headlines that confuse correlation with causation § Low self-esteem “shrinks Brain” § Housework Cuts Breast Cancer Risk § Wearing a helmet puts cyclists at risk, suggests research o CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION PSYC 1301 Auugg300,20016 Lecture Notes o More on correlations § “The stork brought you” § Brain size predicts intelligence § Some drug treatments also show reduced coronary heart disease § Ice cream consumption predicts violent crime rates § o Order in Random Events § We look for order and meaningful patterns. § Which is more probable? § Answer: they are equally probable PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20166 Lecture Notes o Exploring Cause and Effect § Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments • Manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under control • Effects generated by manipulation factors isolate cause and effect relationships o Experimental Design: What Makes a Study an Experiment? § Random assignment – of participants to conditions • Experimental group – receives the manipulation • Control group – does not receive the manipulation § Independent Variable – experimenter manipulates § Dependent Variable – experimenter measures to see whether manipulation had an effect o Independent Variable § An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. § For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable o Dependent Variable § A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process § For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable o Touch and tipping § Does touching lead to greater restaurant tipping? § How would one test that? • You would have to watch very carefully and count the amount of times a server touched the customer and see if there is a difference in the percent tip received compared to the same server who didn’t touch their customers. (Still not the best experimental design though) • Needs the same server – what if one server is nicer than the other • Needs the same customers, or similar customers o Pitfalls of Experimental Design § Placebo effect – improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement • Subjects must be blind – unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control group • Placebos show many of the same characteristics as real drugs PSYC 1301 Auug 300,20116 Lecture Notes • Knowing about placebo effects does not always reduce their effects § Experimenter expectancy effect – phenomenon in which researchers’ hypotheses lean them to unintentionally bias a study outcome • Examples: o Clever Hans, the mathematical horse o Rosenthal’s undergrads and maze-bright, maze-dull rats § Double-blind design – neither researchers nor subjects know who is in the experimental or control group § Hawthorne effect – phenomenon in which participants’ knowledge that they’re being studied can affect … o Experimental Design: what makes a study an experiment § Confounds – any difference between the experimental and control groups, other than the independent variable… o Asking people about themselves and others § Random selection – key to generalizability; ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate § Evaluating Measures: • Reliability – consistency of measurement • Validity – extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure • A test must be reliable to be valid, but a reliable test can still be completely invalid • Using height to measure intelligence would be relatable, but not valid o Why not always run an experimental study? § It is not always plausible • Death penalty research § For research at the discovery stage, identifying relationships might be the first step § Not always ethical • Death and divorce o Ethical issues in research Design § Tuskegee Study (1932 to 1972) • African American men living in rural Alabama diagnosed with syphilis • U.S. Public Health Service never informed, or treated, the men • Merely studied the course of the disease: 28 men died of syphilis, 100 of related complications, 40 wives were infected, 19 children were born with it o Key provisions in the most recent APA ethical guidelines regulation research with human participants PSYC 1301 Auug 30,,20116 Lecture Notes § Informed consent and voluntary participation § Students as research participants § The use of deception § Confidentiality of information § Information about the study of debriefing o True or False? § If an experiment can be reproduced 9 out of 10 times, it is statistically significant. § FALSE – the typical standard in psychology experiments is 19 out of 20 (or 95%) New Lecture • What is Memory? o Memory involves three fundamental processes § Encoding – transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system § Storage – retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time § Retrieval – recovering stored information for conscious awareness § One driving point. Memory is an active process. • We selected what we attend to and retrieve o What is the capital of California? 1. Perhaps you never heard it before. If so, then no encoding. 2. Perhaps you once knew the capital, but can’t recall it right now. If so, you have retention, but you can’t retrieve the information 3. You know it: Sacramento o Retrieval: Getting Information Out § Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store o Studying Memory – memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills PSYC 1301 Auug30,,2016 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301 Sept 1,20166 Lecture Notes Class Info: Take the online quizzes No quiz this weekend Class Notes: Studying Memory • Memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills o Learning new skills takes cognitive function o Three behaviors show that memory is functioning § Recall is analogous to “fill-in-the-blank” you retrieve information previously learned and unconsciously stored § Recognition – is a form of “multiple choice” you identify which stimuli match your stored information § Relearning – is a measure of how much less work it takes you to learn information you had studied before, even if you don’t recall having seen the information before • Relearning Time as a Measure of Retention o In the late 1800s, Hermann Ebbinghaus studied another measure of memory functioning: how much time does it take to relearn and regain mastery of material? o He studied the memorization of nonsense syllables (THB YOX KVU EHM) so that depth of processing or prelearning would not be a factor o The more times he rehearsed out loud on day 1, the less time he needed to relearn/memorize the same letters on day 2 • Memory Game o Memory Illusion – a false but convincing memory o Memory is reconstructive – we extract the gist to make things easier to remember, but this also contributes to memory errors o It helps us generally, as specific details are rarely needed, but it does cause errors • Stage Model: PSYC 1301 Seept1,,20166 Lecture Notes • Sensory Memory: Fleeting Impression of the World o Very briefly stores sensory impressions so that they overlap slightly with one another o Used to perceive the world as continuous, rather than as a series of disconnected visual images or disjointed sounds • Types of Sensory Memory o Visual sensory memory – is sometimes referred to as iconic memory because it is the brief memory of an image, or icon § Duration; approximately ¼ to ½ a second o Auditory sensory memory is sometimes referred to as echoic memory, meaning a brief memory that is like an echo § Lasts up to three or four seconds • Sperling’s Experiment Demonstrating the Duration of Sensory Memory • Sensory Information o Short lived (such as stepping on a rock) o Limitless o Must be attended to quickly • Short-Term Working Memory: The Work of Consciousness o STM provides temporary storage for information transferred from sensory and long-term memory o Duration: about 20 seconds § Can be retained longer through maintenance rehearsal § Mental or verbal repetition of information § Information loss may be due to decay or interference from new or competing information o Capacity § Described by George Miller as “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” § Can be increased by chunking; use maintenance rehearsal to encode § Current research suggests that the true “magical number” is four plus or minus one when chunking not an option • Working Memory: Functions o The Short-term memory is “working” in many ways § It holds information not just to rehearse it, but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head). PSYC 1301 Seept1,,20166 Lecture Notes o Short-term memory integrates information from long-term memory with new information coming in from sensory memory • Encoding Memory: Capacity of Short-Term and Working Memory o If some information is selected from sensory memory to be sent to short- term memory, how much information can we hold there? o George Miller proposed that we can hold 7 +/- 2 information bits (for example, a string of 5 to 9 letters) o More recent research suggests that the average person, free from distraction can hold about: § 7 digits, 6 letters, or 5 words o Working Memory, which uses rehearsal, focus, analysis, linking, and other processing, has greater capacity than short-term memory. The capacity of working memory varies; some people have better concentration • Duration o Peterson and Peterson measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal § The duration of the working memory is about 20 seconds • Capacity Theories o Tasks take mental effort o We have limited mental effort to allocate to all demands on our attention § Conscious control of allocation § Some tasks require more attention than others § It helps that some tasks become automated • Consciousness 1. Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory 2. Consciousness, short-term memory, working memory. For us, the same 3. Limited in capacity. The only memory store limited in capacity. • Long-Term Memory o Any information stored longer than the 20-second duration of short-term memory o Unlimited amount of information can be stored in long-term memory § LTM has different memory systems § Long-term memories can last a lifetime § Amount of information that can be held is limitless o Three Major categories § Procedural memory – refers to the long-term memory of how to preform different skills, operations, and actions: sometimes known as “Muscle memory” • Such as typing – in order to remember where the letters on a keyboard are we use our hands § Episodic memory refers to long-term memory of specific events or episodes, including the time and place PSYC 1301 Seept1,,2016 Lecture Notes • Related: autobiographical memory; personal life history § Semantic memory is general knowledge of facts, names, definitions, concepts • We usually do not remember where we learned these • Semantic Network Model o Mental links form between concepts § Common properties provide bases for mental link § Shorter path between two concepts = stronger association in memory o Concept is activated in semantic network, spread in any number of directions, activating other associations in network • Retrieval Cues o Memories are held in storage by a web of association. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory PSYC 1301 Sept 1,20116 Lecture Notes • Retrieval is Affected by Activating our Associations o Priming triggers a thread of associations that bring us to a concept, just as a spider feels movement in a web and follows it to find the bug o Our minds, work by having one idea trigger another; this maintains a flow of thought • The power of Priming o Priming has been called “invisible memory” because it affects us unconsciously o In the case of tree “bark” vs. dog “bark” the path we follow in our thoughts can be channeled by priming o We may have biases and associations stored in memory that also influence our choices § Study: people primed with money-related words were less likely to then help another person • Dual-Track Processing: Explicit and Implicit Memories o So far, we have been talking about explicit/”declarative” memories. These are facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall § Our minds acquire this information through effortful processing. Explicit memories are formed through studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing information in long-term memory o Some memories are formed without going through all the Atkinson- Shiffrin stages. These are implicit memories, the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don’t “declare”/talk about § These memories are typically formed through automatic processing. Implicit memories are formed without our awareness that we are building a memory, and without rehearsal or other processing in working memory • Implicit Memory o HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). o HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. • Big Issues in Attention o We are bombarded by more information that we can attend to § Selective attention § Divided attention § Automaticity o Some tasks can be performed with little, if any, attention • Automatic Processing o Some experiences are processed automatically into implicit memory, without any effortful/working memory processing: § Procedural memory – such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings PSYC 1301 Seept 1,20016 Lecture Notes § Conditioned associations, such as a smell that triggers thought of a favorite place § Information about space, such as being able to picture where things are after walking through a room § Information about time, such as retracting a sequence of events if you lost something § Information about frequency, such as thinking, “I just noticed that this is the third texting driver I’ve passed today.” o Automatic vs. Controlled § Automatic • Fast and efficient • Unavailable consciousness • Unavoidable • Unintentional § Controlled • Slow and less efficient • Available to consciousness • Controllable • Intentional • Encoding: Getting Information In o How we encode § Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed § However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort • Encoding Long-Term Memories o Maintenance rehearsal is not effective; o Elaborative rehearsal is more effective § Encodes information into a form that can be retrieved later § Focuses on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory § Relates the information to other information you already know • Encoding: Effortful Processing Strategies o If we have short-term recall of only 7 letters, but can remember 5 words, doesn’t that mean we could remember more than 7 letters if we could group them into words? § This is an example of an effortful processing strategy, a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve § Effortful processing is also known as studying o Examples: § Chunking, mnemonics, maps, hierarchies/categories, rehearsal, deep processing, semantic processing, and making information personally meaningful PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20116 Lecture Notes Class Info: Test this Thursday (next class) • Chapters 1 & 6 • Green 50 item scantrons (bring 2) • Pencil • Be on time • One seat between each person • Bring your ID Quiz due Sunday over chapter 2 Class Notes: Some experiments can have placebos E.g. Breast milk vs formula Encoding: Effortful Processing Strategies • Effortful processing strategy – a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve • Effortful processing is also known as studying • Rehearsal o The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on day 2 • Memory Effects o Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time § Professor stresses studying more often over shorter periods of time o Serial position effect: when your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items § Don’t always start at the beginning of a chapter when studying § Begin at the middle or different spots • Rehearsal and Distributed Practice o Massed Practice – cramming information all at once. It is not time- effective o The spacing effect was first noted by Hermann Ebbinghaus in the late 1800s. You will develop better retention and recall, especially in the long run, if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter sessions. § This is like trying to run 10 miles on your first day versus running several one miles. § When studying we cant study for 10 hours it is better to study for several individual hours separated by rest. o This doesn’t mean you have to study every day. Memory researcher Harry Bahrick noted that the longer the time between study sessions, the better the long-term retention, and the fewer sessions you need. PSYC 1301 Septt6,,2016 Lecture Notes o Testing effect – Henry Roediger found that if your distributed practice includes testing (having to answer questions about the material) you will learn more and retain more than if you merely reread • Encoding Meaning o Processing the meaning of verbal information by association it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding • Encoding Specificity Principle o When conditions of retrieval are similar to conditions of encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful § Context effects • Tendency to remember information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting in which you originally learned the information • Environmental cues in a particular context are encoded as part of the unique memories you form while in that contest § Mood congruence • Factors related to mood or emotion o You want to study in the same condition as you will test in (i.e. sober, fully awake) • Levels of processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) o Incoming information processed at different levels o Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes o Encoding levels § Structural – shallow § Phonemic – intermediate § Semantic – deep o You have to be consciously aware that you are studying to remember • Making information personally meaningful o We can memorize a set of instructions more easily if we figure out what they mean rather than seeing them as set of words o Memorizing meaningful material takes one tenth the effort of memorizing nonsense syllables o Actors memorize lines (and students memorize poems) more easily by deciding on the feelings and meanings behind the words, so one line flows naturally to the next o The self-reference effect, relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention • What we encode a. Encoding by meaning i. Make it relevant to the self! b. Encoding by images i. Think it through c. Encoding by organization i. Don’t passively read. Think. • Organizing information for encoding PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20166 Lecture Notes o Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories § Chunking § Hierarchies • Chunking o Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. § 1-7-7-7-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-4-9-1 § vs § 1-7-7-6 1-4-9-2 1-8-1-2 1-4-9-1 § Easier when you separate this into chunks • Encoding Long-term memories o Hints for studying based on encoding strategies § Make sure you understand the new information by restating it in your own words § Actively question new information § Think about the potential applications and implications of the material § Relate the new material to information you already know, searching for connections that make the new information more meaningful § Generate your own examples of the concept, especially examples from your own experiences • Memory Storage: Capacity and Location o The brain is NOT like a hard drive. Memories are NOT in isolated files, but are in overlapping neutral networks o The brain’s long-term memory storage does not get full; it gets more elaborately required and interconnected o Parts of each memory can be distributed throughout the brain • Explicit Memory Processing o Explicit\declarative memories include facts, stories, and meanings of words such as the first time riding a bike, or facts about types of bicycles o Retrieval and use of explicit memories, which is in part a working memory or executive function, is directed by the frontal lobes o Encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus. Events and facts are held there for a couple of days before consolidating moving to other parts of the brain for long-term storage. Much of this consolidation occurs during sleep • Brain structures involved in memory o Prefrontal cortex o Hippocampus o Cerebellum o Amygdala o Medial temporal lobe • Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories • Emotions and Memory o Strong emotions, especially stress, can strengthen memory formation PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20166 Lecture Notes o Flashbulb memories refer to emotionally intense events that become “burned in” as a vivid-seeming memory o Note that flashbulb memories are not as accurate as they feel • Emotions, stress, Hormones, the amygdala, and memory o How does intense emotion cause the brain to form intense memories? § Emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormones § These hormones trigger activity in the amygdala, located next to the memory-forming hippocampus § The amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to “tag” the memories as important o As a result, the memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details § These details can trigger a rapid, unintended recall of the memory § Traumatized people can have intrusive recall that is so vivid that it feels like re-experiencing the event o Professor tells story of how one year he was mugged on Halloween o For a year of the professors life he only wore a superman suit • Summary: Types of Memory Processing • Why do we forget? o Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages. o One of the most common reasons for forgetting occurs when information is not encoded initially into long-term memory (encoding failure) PSYC 1301 Seept 6,20116 Lecture Notes o Failure to remember what needs to be done in the future involves a prospective memory error o Decay Theory § When a new memory is formed, it creates a distinct structural or chemical change in the brain (memory trace) § Memory traces fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes o Challenges § Some research has shown that information can be remembered decades after it was originally learned § Ebbinghaus theorized that the rate of forgetting decreases over time • Storage Decay o Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve • Interference o Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information • The brain and the two-track mind: the case of Henry Molaison o In 1953, the removal of H.M.’s hippocampus at age 27 ended his seizures, but also ended his ability to form new explicit memories o H.M. could learn new skills, procedures, locations of objects, and games, but had no memory of the lessons or the instructors. • Studying brain damage and amnesia o Retrograde amnesia – refers to the inability to retrieve memory of the past o “H.M.” and “Jimmy” suffered from hippocampus damage and removal causing anterograde amnesia, an inability to form new long-term declarative memories § They had no sense that time had passed since the brain damage. While they were not forming new declarative memories, encoding was still happening in other processing “tracks” § Jimmy and H.M. could still learn how to get places (automatic processing), could learn new skills (procedural memory), and acquire conditioned responses § However, they could not remember any experiences which created these implicit memories • Two types of Amnesia o Retrograde amnesia – refers to an inability to retrieve memory of the past o Anterograde amnesia – refers to an inability to form new long-term declarative\explicit memories § Retrograde amnesia can be caused by head injury or emotional trauma and is often temporary § It can also be caused by more severe brain damage; in that case, it may include anterograde amnesia § H.M. and Jimmy lived with no memories of life after surgery • Why is our memory full of errors? PSYC 1301 Septt6,20016 Lecture Notes o Memory not only gets forgotten, but it gets constructed (imagined, selected, changed, and rebuilt) o Memories are altered every time we “recall” (actually, reconstruct) them. Then they are altered again when we reconsolidate the memory (using working memory to send them into long term storage) o Later information alters earlier memories o No matter how accurate and video-like our memory seems, it is full of alterations • Misinformation and Imagination Effects o Eyewitnesses reconstructed their memories when questioned about the event and they could not recall all the correct details Information you may have missed towards the end of class: • Implanted Memories o In one study, students were told a false story that spoiled egg salad had made them ill in childhood. As a result, many students became [even] less likely to eat egg salad sandwiches in the future o In a study by Elizabeth Loftus, people were asked to provide details of a incident in childhood when they had been lost in a shopping mall – even through there actually had been no such incident, by trying to picture details, most people cam to believe that the incident had actually happened o Lessons: 1. By trying to help someone recall a memory, you may implant a memory 2. You cant tell how real a memory is by how real it feels o Simply picturing an event can make it seem like a real memory o Once we have an inaccurate memory, we tend to add more imagined details, as perhaps we do for all memories o Why does this happen? Visualizing and actually seeing an event activate similar brain areas • Recovered memories of Past Abuse o Can people recover memories that are so thoroughly repressed as to be forgotten? o Abuse memories are more likely to be “burned in” to memory than forgotten o Forgotten memories of minor events do reappear spontaneously, usually through cues (accidental reminders) o An active process of searching for such memories, however, is more likely to create detailed memories that feel real. o “False” memories, implanted by leading questions, may not be lies. People reporting events that didn’t happen usually believe they are telling the truth o Questioners who inadvertently implant memories in others are generally not trying to create memories to get others in trouble PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20116 Lecture Notes o As a result, unjust false accusations sometimes happen, even if no one intended to cause the injustice • Déjà vu o Déjà vu means, “I’ve experienced this before.” o Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience • Problems with memory o Eyewitness testimony o Weak correlation between witness confidence in their testimony and its accuracy § Less accurate when • Observing others of a different race • Witness has talked to other witnesses • The observed situation is stressful (e.g. threatening, weapon involved) • Dual Task Performance – Do we multi-task will? o Divided attention is difficult when: § Tasks are similar § Tasks are difficult § When both tasks require conscious attention o Divided attention is easier when § When at least one of the tasks does not require conscious attention § Tasks are practiced • Improvising Memory o Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall o Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material o Make material personally meaningful o Use mnemonic devices: § Associate with peg words – something already stored § Make up a story § Chunk – acronyms o Activate retrieval cues – mentally recreate the situation and mood o Recall events while they are fresh – before you encounter misinformatio
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