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Principles of Developmental Psychology Notes

by: Jacqueline Tkachuk

Principles of Developmental Psychology Notes 830

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Jacqueline Tkachuk

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These notes cover material from the entire semester. They cover everything from every lecture from the theories of different psychologists all the way to the psychological aspects of the elderly.
Developmental Psychology
Linnea Dickson
Psychology, life, development, research
75 ?




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This 106 page Bundle was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 830 at Rutgers University taught by Linnea Dickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Principles of Developmental Psychology 1/28/16-Lecture 2 What CAUSES it? Nature AND Nurture -our genes are always being expressed in an environment -false dichotomy, the line between them is not distinct -examples: -some are born with syndrome caused by high levels of hormones exposed prenatally (nature) -in utero is an environment, that prenatal exposure nature or nurture? It’s either. -H.O.M.E. environment is created by their parents, influenced by genetics, cannot measure environment without influence of genetics 3 Basic Designs 1. Cross-sectional -pros: quick, cost efficient -cons: does not measure developmental change -measure each individual once, then measure other group of individuals at another age -because there is no developmental change, can’t really make conclusion -those different groups of individuals are also cohorts (group of individuals of same age who have experienced same historical experience) =cohort effects 2. Longitudinal -follows each individual over time -cons: takes time to collect data -Pros: it measures change over developmental time, can see trends -can’t see trends in cross-sectional study -problems: - repeated testing effects (from testing them on the same thing) -selective attrition: loss of subject participation over time -the group of individuals that may get all the way through might be in some ways meaningfully different from the group of kids who dropped out, end up having data from a select group of individuals -likely to lose families who can’t stay in one place, unreliable transportation, get sick a lot, whose parents get sick a lot 3. Sequential -a combination of both cross sectional design and longitudinal design -five different age groups studied over time (same individuals over time) -Cons: complicated, took a long time for research -Pros: collect data on five different cohorts, immediate data, measure change over time -potential for cohort effects is still there, repeated testing effects, selective attrition -have problems of longitudinal and cross sectional -compare groups of 35 year olds with other groups -should get same data for 35 year olds if no cohort, repeated testing, selective attrition effects -it’s impossible in theory to eliminate cohort effects Review How is SELECTIVE attrition different from attrition? Selective attrition is different from regular attrition because selective attrition deals with the loss of groups of people who are unable to commit to studies due to external factors. Why is it problematic? In the Sequential design, what can the diagonals tell you? Nightlights and Myopia Myopia: near sightedness -can be caused by size of eye ball -excessive eye growth -due to genes and with environmental influence 1999: reason for environmental influence -Comparative research (observing non-humans) -eye development is influenced by external input including amount of light into eye -the growth of eye in baby chicks is influenced by how much light exposed to in the day -could be what causes it for babies -those who don’t have myopia aren’t exposed to light -Clinic: -studied kids, some myopic and some aren’t (2-16 years old) -asked parents how much light they’re exposed to now and first 2 years of life -significant difference for kids exposed to light before 2 years of age, 50 percent myopic for kids who had room light on, 10 percent myopic for kids who had little to no light -concluded that night light and room light is strongly associated with myopia -Should you avoid nightlights for your children? -when thinking of an intervention, you think you know what the causality is based on the research 2 Kinds of Research 1. Experimental Key Components -can make conclusions about what caused what -you randomly assign your participants to groups (be assured that only difference between individuals in groups is what you did to them as far as treatment) -you are manipulating one of the variables (random assignment) -manipulating independent variable -dependent variable-dependent on outcome of participants based on IV -creates 2 or more groups -they make sure that only difference between two groups is independent variable 2. Correlational -nothing is manipulated -no random assignment into groups -r value can range from -1 to 1 -tells you the strength of the relationship between the variables -how well you can predict one variable from another -positive/negative tells direction relationship -positive: both variables move in the same direction -negative: one variable increases as one decreases -can’t tell you causal relationship Principles of Developmental Psychology Lecture 1- January 25, 2016 Research Methods Theories -organized set of statements that do several important things 1. describe behavior of interests (ex: how do infants make sense of the world) 2. explain that behavior (why that behavior is the way it is) 3. make predictions about behaviors (under given circumstances or age) 4. guiding research questions (pose questions for us, make predictions about answer to those questions) Ex: Erikson: during adolescence, solidifying understanding of ourselves -Prediction: argues of a good sense of commitment to self is really important to the basis of an intimate relationship -individuals who have not fully resolved that stage move on, and move into development of relationships (not going to be able to create a fully intimate relationship out of a fear of losing yourself) 5. give meaning Criteria of Theories 1. Empirically sound (based on research) -must not be contradictory to what we already know 2. Testable (make clear predictions about what the results would look like if the theory was right or wrong) 3. Falsifiable, potential to show that the theory is wrong Ex: Freud is not falsifiable because it’s not testable, nobody can see that he is right or wrong Developmental Theories 1. Describe and explain change over time in those behaviors -good theories describe change in a particular area and how they interact with each other 2. Answer 3 basic questions about development (what to focus on, not what’s right or wrong) a. What does it look like? b. What causes it? c. When is it possible? -for each question there are two possible answers= compare and contrast them What Does It LOOK Like? 1. Continuous- quantitative, gradual, smooth, cumulative -ex: measuring change in reaction times, how much info can you take in overtime aka working memory, information processing theory of cognition 2. Discontinuous- stages, periods that describe change as abrupt, qualitative especially -can’t put a number to it -ex: development of locomotion (rolling, crawling, cruising, independent walking, hopping, running) = different stages of development of locomotion What CAUSES it? 1. Nature (biological makeup, genetics, what is internal) 2. Nurture (environment) -combination of both, impossible to develop without environment or genes -theories tend to side towards one over the other WHEN Can It Occur? 1. Early- only during the early years is developmental change possible (up to puberty) (once an adult, personality is set and will not change=> Freud) (Piaget and cognitive change, when you reached adulthood that is it) -stability theories (no change in adulthood) 2. Lifespan-real true developmental change happens throughout lifespan (through middle to late adulthood) -change theories -ex: Erikson (student of Freud), Freud stopped at puberty, however Erikson brought 3 more stages up to adulthood Developmental Research 3 Basic Designs 1. Cross-sectional -Compare how quickly 3-year old’s ability is from a 7-year-old, putting peg in peg board -only see 3 year olds once, whole different group of kids than 5 year olds -different individuals at different ages -common and popular developmental design Pros: -very fast, less money, years’ worth of developmental change, results more quickly Cons: -REALLY NOT a developmental design -it is not an explanation of change over time = change over time was not a factor -you can’t see developmental trends of an individual -potential for cohort effects (cohort: group of individuals of same age with same historical experiences) -problem with cohort effects is historical/environmental factors that might affect a certain age group of individuals -creates a confounding variable (environmental factor) 2. Longitudinal -Take a group of 3 year olds and follow them along as they grow up over time -same kids measured repeatedly at different ages Pros -you see change over developmental time Cons: -takes longer, takes 2 years to get data -more money, less quick to publish Week 2 Lecture 3 February 1, 2016 Wed and Thurs 1-2pm Tillet 615 (Megan-TA) 2 Kinds of Research 1. Experimental -experimenter manipulates one of variables (IV) -randomly assigning participants in each group, because the individual in group A on average are identical to group B except for the thing that you manipulated aka Independent variable -you can conclude what caused the change in the group due to manipulating IV and random assignment 2. Correlational -2 variables, measured those two values -see if they’re associated in any way -r goes from -1 to +1 -correlation coefficient can tell you the direction of the relationship between the two variables -how strong the relationship is by how far away from 0 it is Correlations -Positive: high on variable A= high on variable B -Negative: as one variable increases, the other decreases -Value of 0: there is no relationship between the variables -Correlation does NOT equal causation -3 Possible Interpretation -A causes B -B causes A (it is impossible to know which one causes which) -C causes A and B (there is a confounding variable) Ex: grades and sleep correlated? Parenting styles could be confounding variable -those who sleep more may have parents who enforce rules and are involved -those whose parents are not as involved do not support kids’ academics/sleep Confounding Variables -an extraneous variable, not one of the two measured -they influence both of the variables measured in a causal way Nightlights and Myopia -nightlight use during first 2 years of use and development of myopia -found strong positive correlation between nightlight usage and percentage of near sighted children -nightlight “caused” children to develop myopia -they asked this question because in other species, the effect of light can affect chicks’ growth of eyeballs -cannot make this conclusion, found possible confounding variables -might be a confounding variable, the children who were likely to be myopic inherited the myopic gene, parents who are nearsighted will want nightlight because they need light to see the child -EXAMPLE: carrying a lighter is correlated with developing lung cancer -NOT causing lung cancer (could be due to confounding variable=smoking cigarettes) -smoking increases likelihood of carrying lighter and developing lung cancer (C causes A and B) -EXAMPLE: have a hot tub correlated with completing college -what’s the confounding variable? Financial situation of home -EXAMPLE: Eating dinner with family is correlated with doing well in school -Confounding variable? Parental involvement Why aren’t experiments (as opposed to correlational studies) susceptible to the influence of confounding variables? Nature AND Nurture (Behavioral Genetics) How much of each? How do they work together? -several different ways to describe it (canalization, reaction ranges) -*Your Genes and Your Environment Are Correlated* -child genetically predisposed to having lots of energy is likely to spend day outside at park -creative child spends time inside surrounded by art supplies -shy or introverted child spends time in room or alone, very different experiences -What is the mechanism that we find ourselves in environments that make sense with our genetic predispositions? -Sandra Scarr found 3 ways in which the environment you find yourself developing in is caused by your genes -each happen to us -can work hand in hand not mutually exclusive 1. Gene Environment Correlation (passive) -likely to occur early on in development -a really extroverted child spends much of her day interacting with other people -set of parents, have a biological child, passed on genes to child, genes more likely to be outgoing, the parents when child is infant are also the main creators of the environment for that child, then they’re likely to have lots of kids over and inviting people over, child inherited propensity to become outgoing and finds themselves living with lots of interaction going on. -It is passive because child passively received genes and have no say over the environment that parents created for them. (correlation between genes and environment b/c parents are confounding variable) 2. Evocative Gene Environment Correlation -child has outgoing genes likely to make him be that way, is behaving in ways that are consistent with his genes, teacher is more likely to call on him, remember who he is for play date -baby who smiles a lot more likely to be picked up -evoking responses in other people by the way the child acts -whereas introverted child more likely to cry causes child to not be held as much and not raising hand even though she does know the answer causing there to be less interaction with teacher -not ACTIVELY choosing environment but evoking responses in other people 3. Active Gene Environment Correlation (Niche-picking) -child actively chooses environments that feel right -outgoing child tries out for the play this year -musically gifted child always has music on and tries out for band -shy band does not try out for debate team -as you get older, you have more opportunities to pick what you like -Passive rGE are influenced most strongly early on -Evocative rGE come on pretty early on, get stronger as child gets older and has more behaviors -Active rGE likely not to show up til middle school/high school Week 2 Lecture 4 February 4, 2016 Passive Evocative or Active? My son loves to cook. He is very creative in the kitchen and loves to make up his own recipes, which are always delicious. After seeing how much he enjoys cooking, I signed him up for a cooking class last summer and I encourage him to cook as often as possible. This is Evocative Sandra Scarr’s rGEs 1. Passive rGEs-Parents tend to create environment complementary to their own genes while passing along those genes to their children 2. Evocative rGEs-child has certain genetic predispositions, his parents notice his creation with the blocks, come holiday time, likely to buy Legos, blocks, now that child who is predisposed to do well in those things is surrounded by those things. 3. Niche-Picking/Active rGEs-into play until able to make decisions about their life (pre-teen into adolescence) -how is it that our genes determine our environment? -our environment affects our gene expression -it’s bidirectional Bi-directional View -Epigenetic view is another name for it Newborn Videos -1 two videos of newborn babies -1 hour of life is examined, hands and feet bluish because circulation is slow st th -Apgar score-during 1 and 5 minute of life, measuring likelihood that child will survive, respiration, circulation, muscle tone, prick infant for response -amount of heat lost is 5 times greater than adult -surface area is five time larger than adult -born with certain reflexes -over 1 year, rooting reflex can be controlled and more voluntary -in first 2 months, stepping reflex, precursor to walking (already happens in utero) -bottom of baby’s foot is stroked=bubinski reflex - palmer grasping reflex -moro reflex- when support for head or neck is lost, arms fling outward on back, disappears around 5 months of age -survival reflexes become voluntary over 1 year while primitive reflexes disappear (grasping, moro) -normal development involves loss of rooting, moro and bubinski reflex Stepping Reflex -goes away about 3 months of age, related to postural control, if you support them, they will do nice coordinated stepping -believed to be under control of central nervous system, the fact that it goes away by 3 months, there is a reliable developmental change that is causing stepping reflex to go away at this time -the reason it goes is because you now have a 3-month old brain, need to learn how to voluntarily control how to walk, switched off by cns as a way to make way for voluntary movement aka walking, crawling -Esther Thelen-interested in motor development -dynamic systems approach-not born with ways of walking (encoded in brain) or reaching but we learn because we are motivated to learn but based on how far it is to reach we keep practicing until we learn how to reach -maybe there is more than just the central nervous system -noticed that when on backs, they’re moving around in a coordinated way -that movement is identical to the stepping reflex but on its back -5, 6 months do this on backs and not standing up=central nervous system theory isn’t right -in first several months, babies are gaining a lot of weight (main task of survival) -newborns around 7.5 pounds, by 4 months 15 pounds -infants when stand them up they are not gaining muscle mass they are gaining fat -when on their backs, gravity helps legs pull back in and all they have to do is push out -experiment: took infants who lost stepping reflex when standing upright -took same infants in a tub of water -fat floats, so legs are lighter, waist high, and then are able to do stepping reflex -their thighs are too fat to pick up legs hence why they lose it at 3 months Developmental Milestones: Baby Talk -Phonation stage: birth to 2months -differentiated crying -babies need to hear their first words 500 times -Goo stage(Cooing) -start saying sounds -can hear lots of sounds Expansion Stage: 4 to 6 months -pee, b, m Canonical stage: 7 to 10 months -cough, if you notice, to get attention -use gestures, imitate speech sounds, peek a boo Variegated babble stage: 10 to 12 months -almost sound like they’re talking st Around 1 year: one or two words -Talk to your baby as much as you can -begin schooling with less known words -Early talkers doesn’t mean people who are better with language Week 3 Lecture 5 February 8, 2016 Infant Communication -reflexes-innate response to some stimulation -not just responds to external stimuli, not a robot -can communicate -start off with a cry, (signaling pain or displeasure) -4 differentiated cries: -gargle, cough=vocal communication -by 1 year of age, most infants have first word -her daughter was grunting, but did not have ability, could be because language involves social interactions and a physical activity (use vocal chords and tongue) -different systems working together -her daughter was delayed, communication specialist -delayed does not mean there is something wrong long-term -there is a normal range of developing -even if you fall outside normal range end up catching up -infants are universal learners (ready to learn any kind of language) -are primed to learn a language -when an infant, can hear distinction between speech sounds in any language but not possible at an older age Language Learning -Werker’s “Ba/Da” experiment -6-month v. 10-month old -at 6 months, able to distinguish all sounds -at 10 months, baby doesn’t react to change in sounds, parents speak English -by 10 months, no longer hears difference between the two sounds -anticipatory head turn technique -little Matthew (6 months) background sound and then switch sound to Da, the little bunny appears when sound changes, start to delay bunny to be sure baby is looking to anticipate it rather than just looking. Grew up in English home, and is still able to hear the difference in sounds -little Emma (10 months)- no longer able to hear distinction, not necessary for you to hear distinction, no longer universal listener -works on infants who are able to sit up and turn head - can’t use this technique on newborns Newborn Preferences -can move eyes -can suck on pacifier -can learn to alter the rate of sucking on pacifier -when you suck at certain rate you get to hear something -learn this game quickly -like to look at some things more than others -prefer things that are novel -prefer things that are moderately complex -habituation-dishabituation -habituation-decrease in responding to repeated exposure or instances of stimulation -form of learning -help to figure out what infants know and can distinguish -when they suck on a pacifier they get to hear a certain sound, when you stop sound stops -after a while, habituate to that sound, decrease response to sound, not motivated to hear that sound -make it so that when they suck, they’ll hear a different sound, if they suck a lot again=dishabituation=renewed increased response to a change in stimulation -infants have to be able to hear the different sound to be able to suck pacifier at a rapid rate -by their preference for novelty and this habituation-dishabituation method we can figure out what babies are able to distinguish Brain Development Sensory processing areas undergoing rapid change in first 6 months of life -take in as much info as you can Frontal Lobe: -responsible for higher order, decision making, complex thought, inhibition -develops slower, not finished in adult form till you are an adult (into early adulthood) -Brain doesn’t develop at same rate at same time These two trends develop at same time simultaneously: Cephalocaudal: -infancy and early childhood, head and other parts of body grow quicker than lower part of body -head grows quicker earlier -better motor control of neck and mouth than hands and arms before we can walk Proximodistal: -trunk, neck, stomach develops earlier than parts that are further away -pincer grasp is last to develop Head/brain size: - Birth: a quarter of length of entire body - Adult: an eight of length of body - Grows more quickly first few years of life - Brain is 25 percent of adult weight at birth - By 1 year, 70 percent of adult weight - By 3 years, brain is about 90 percent of adult weight - Made up of neurons - Born with 85-100 million neurons in brain (about you have today and at birth) - Prenatally: you are making 250 thousand neurons a minute prenatally What grows? - As adults you can make neurons - Neurons grow larger - Axons (carry signal away from cell body) grows longer - Dendrites sprout making many more connections with other neurons - More synapses between one neuron and another during prenatally and first several years of life - Some neurons can have up to 10 thousand connections with other neurons - You make more connections during first several years of life than you’ll need - Estimate trillions of connections in the brain - Why make all those connections if you are not going to use them? -Plasticity: learning about surroundings, adapt to envt. -flexibility, moldable -young brain is more plastic than it is today -can adapt to many changes in envt. -child can recover from traumatic brain damage due to many synapses Myelination: cover neurons with myelin sheath -begins prenatally -continue to create this until adolescence -insulate axons so that impulse can go quickly through the axon -support and provide energy for neuron -multiple sclerosis-lose ability to control muscles due to the deterioration of myelin sheath Glial cells: support cells -do not communicate with each other -tell neurons where to go Synaptic Pruning -cutting back, loss of connections -based on use it or lose it principle -differentiating between connections you need and connections you don’t need -example: if you don’t do this, you won’t be efficient at picking up info in your world Sleep: infants spend lots of time sleeping (10-16 hours sleeping a day) -spend more time in REM/paradoxical sleep because if you watch brain waves they look like they’re awake, paralyzed -newborns spend half of their sleep time in REM -adults spend a fifth in REM sleep -by 3 months, spend 40 percent of time in REM -because they have so many synapses, and sleeping so much, not using synapses, keep them alive activated by being in REM sleep Week 3 Lecture 6 February 11, 2016 Exam 1: Monday February 15 -60 multiple-choice Albert Bandura-major advancement? Skinner? Piaget-what is first stage? Erikson-major theory, first stage is? Erikson (psychosocial) v. Freud (psychanalytical) -not going to ask about genetic abnormalities -should KNOW how prenatal testing is done and how they are carried out -should KNOW prenatal developmental stages (general idea of age range) -KEY terms and DEFINITIONS Cognition -Piaget -really interested in epistemology (where does knowledge come from?) -all are knowledge are somehow inside of us, and as we develop there is an unfolding of this way of understanding the world -that knowledge comes from the outside, nothing predetermined, no knowledge, completely open, as you experience world, experiences are accumulated and shape your understanding of world -he says: it’s really interaction of two things, predisposed them to begin thinking about world in a certain way but also experience is necessary to learn - he argues up and down that we are ACTIVE explorers in our world (ACTIVELY trying to make sense of our world) (motivated to make sense of them) -predisposed to adapt, not born ready with skills, need to learn and actively make sense of experiences=ACTIVE -Constructivist: Piaget argues we construct our own understanding of the world -Schemas: internal mental structures -a way of understanding experiences -have many of them -ways of interacting with the world -some born with so that you can start interpreting experiences -often interconnected -Example: schema for how to get lunch at a restaurant -can be altered through experiences -Equilibration: process where mind matches with experiences -driving us to make sense of world and into next stage -Disequilibration: two things are not equal in your mind (major/minor) -younger, experience more and learn more -Assimilation: adding similar info into existing schema, slightly new, not much change -can cause child to make mistakes -use schema, causes them to overlook schema -see Chihuahua, feed it, thinks it’s a cat, mom says it’s actually a dog -her existing schema caused her to make a mistake -brother thought radio that lights up was a tv, knew tv’s light up -misinterpret incoming info -Accommodation: have a choice -either change what’s out there, or change what’s inside -changing your scheme in substantial way to make room for new info -can’t assimilate, real disequilibrium -both are complementary -matter of degree of change -4 STAGES of COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT -lasts for 18 to 24 months -last stage ends around adolescence -same qualitative way of looking/understanding at world as when you were 12 -what pushes you onto next stage? -first and foremost, child must be maturationally ready (brain, etc.) -stage 2 happens at about age 2 because that’s how quickly you mature -however, you have to be OUT in real world to accommodate new info experiencing Disequilibrium in order to get to equilibration -constructing new schemas until brain is ready to think like stage 2 thinker -there is a social component to cognitive development (not emphasizestcriticism by Vygotsky who was ALL about SOCIAL interaction) -1 STAGE: sensorimotor stage -lasts about 18 to 24 months -about cognition: thinking is sensing things (listening, feeling, hearing) in world and/or moving or acting on those things (ex: shaking a rattle) -ONLY way to think -no way of making a mental representation of that rattle -Object Permanence: kids do not understand this -that object continues to exist even when you can’t see it -not able to think about rattle because you can’t see it -A-Not-B error: when things are hidden from them, believes that that toy is gone -7 month old fails test of object permanence -10 months, understands object permanence but fails A Not B error -not quite understands object permanence -by 18 months, understand object permanence because they can create a mental representation of that giraffe Empirically sound? Baillargeon -Piaget was underestimating abilities -infants have rudimentary understanding of object permanence -rather than following where you put object with large head (asking too much of them) -maybe they can show us what they know -created experiments to test infants’ understanding of object permanence -make predictions that are clear and testable such that you may get info back that may be contrary to your theory=falsifiable -Violation of Expectation Paradigm -when they experience something new, they prefer to look at something new -show an infant a possible event, let them habituate, show them something visually identical but not possible, infants surprised by event -at 3/4 months old, can still think of object permanence, look longer at impossible events -Possible vs. Impossible events -Stage 2: capable of representing objects Week 4 Lecture 7 February 18 2016 Unit 2 – Early Childhood 1 Video- 2 Year Olds Cognitive Development -be able to name many things, look at realistic pictures -likely to recognize sense of self -point out things that match -2 step instructions -make believe play starts Language and Communication Development -knows and uses 200 to 300 words, nouns, pets, names of family members -no, me, mine -2 to 3 word sentences -understands power of no -tantrums -enjoy listening to others speak -have questions about everything around them Social and Emotional Development -needs help to control feelings (tantrums) -episodes of feeling anxious when separated from parents -interested in playing with other children -need help learning to share and cooperate Large and Small Muscle Development -walking is primary, run -walk up and down stairs while holding onto railing -games with songs with actions -can easily pick up small objects and manipulate them -less mouthing of toys -read stories to child, talk to her 2 ndVideo-3 years -attention span is longer -not saying no as often Cognitive Development -recognize and identify almost all common objects and pictures -sort shapes -identify big, little -understand concept of 2 -use thinking skills -play involves imitating such as cooking, bedtime for teddy Language and Communication Development -great conversationalist -3 to 5 word sentences -say her name age and gender -can respond to more than just yes/no questions -ask lots of questions Social and Emotional Development -better able to contain tantrums -may try to comfort other child, express affection -will separate easily from parents, friends become important Large and Small Muscle Development -learn to jump, better balance -can climb ladders -makes simple drawings/copy drawings -good at eye hand coordination rd 3 Video-Five Years Cognitive Development -can easily identify objects by shape and color -match and sort objects (animals and cars) -count up to 10 or beyond -smaller, bigger, biggest -under, over, on top Social and Emotional Development -play well with other children -more sensitive to needs of others -can be bossy -can be critical of each other -like to be center of attention Large and Small Muscle -make drawings with details -show mouth, eyes, feet -copy shapes, write letters -cut paper with scissors -preference for right or left hand -can hop skip, going down stairs Language and Communication Development -should be speaking clearly -reason, argue, because -use longer sentences, long stories -use future tense, name and address -use swear words to get attention -read books and tell stories Piaget -actively understanding world through experience Preoperational Thinking -Mental Representations inside mind that represent object and events -not until 2 years of age (lasts until age 7) -ability to create mental representation of object and events unlike sensorimotor stage -qualitatively different -full blown object permanence -capable of symbolic thought -language is symbolic thought -when language starts to take off -start to make believe/pretend play -doing things with mental representation of the things -requires you to think about hand around coffee pot, etc. -Limitations: 1. Appearances: not completely dependent on sensing and acting on object -however, still captured by the appearance of objects can trick your logic 2. Egocentrism: an inability to take on the perspective of someone else (visual perspective) -3 mountains task: differing sizes, objects on or to the side of mountains -doll is put on other side of mountain -what can the doll see from that side? -child will report with what the child can see=failure to take on perspective of someone else -child who sits in front of tv, sister can’t see, she is sitting behind him, kid is confused by this because he can see the tv -incapable of seeing perspective from somebody else’s view 3. Centration: our thinking centers on one aspect of the situation of the object and ignoring other aspects, inability to think about 2 or more aspects of an object at once -evident in conservation tasks 4. Conservation Tasks: have to understand that there is some critical quality of an object that remains unchanged even when some superficial aspects are changed -if you pass task, you understand that aspect is conserved -liquid volume task: 2 beakers of liquid same size and shape -ask child if one beaker has more liquid than other? -child capable of saying they’re the same -take one beakers and bring in a differently shaped container -pour liquid right in front of them and show it to them, is there more liquid? -child says that there is now more liquid in tall skinny beaker -they are not guessing, or unsure, looks like they know answer -because of quality of thinking=centration (centering on height or appearance of liquid in container, see how high up it is) -unable to think that beaker is skinnier thus taller appearance 5. Seriation: when you put things in order of size -tallest to shortest -dark blue to light blue -not good at it -shows child how to put them in stairs -3 and half: making two groups the small ones and the big ones -Matthew 6 and a half: by trial and error going from biggest to shortest, has no plan -take littlest one up to the biggest one -understands littlest and biggest but did it by trial and error -does not have full structure of entire series and relationship between sticks -can compare only 2 sticks to each other -couldn’t see whole picture -bigger or smaller than another sticks =can’t understand that -preoperational thinkers fail this because of centration -older: has a plan and understanding of structure of whole series 6. Classification: organize by color, count them, more blue beads than red beads -are there more beads or are there more red beads? -child will say there are more red beads than beads=fail test -center on color -can’t compare categories (beads and red beads=two different levels=centration) Information Processing -different from Piaget -response to Piaget, limitations to theory -Piaget isn’t clear about what thinking really is -can describe abstract qualities but not what actually is going on -not how thinking machine is taking in info -Goal: is to describe what is possibly going while you are thinking -flow chart to describe thinking (input=>sensory register=>short term memory/working memory) -Flow of Information -use a computer as a metaphor for thinking (processing speed) -help us think as if it were a computer -not originally a developmental theory -answers those development questions -that information processing system is true of you now and when you were born -system is already in place and running -what changes is NOT qualitative but quantitative -how much info can you put into working memory, how quickly info flows, how long information lasts in working memory=quantitative changes -processing speed has increased -development is quantitative (speed, capacity) Week 5 Lecture 8 February 22, 2016 Information Processing A. Different from Piaget -thinking about cognition has its limitations said that he was too abstract/general (ex: centration) B. Flow of Information -think of it as a machine -goes into short-term memory, how long does it stay, etc. -more specific -quantifiable (capacity, speed of processing) -has answered questions of development (changes you can quantify) C. What do you know about the changes the child’s brain is undergoing that might contribute to the increase in processing speed? -can do more things quickly with more information -certain mechanisms D. Memory -infants and toddlers have memories -easily disrupted, fragile, based more on actions, short-term -2/3 years -working memory (short-term) capacity was about 2 pieces of information -7 years -5 pieces of info -13 years -6 or 7 pieces of info -early adolescence -7 + pieces of info -it’s all quantitative change E. Executive Function -higher order processing -selecting behaviors you’re gonna do (monitor behaviors) -managing attention to certain goals and task (Executive attention) Ex: turning off tv to pay attention to doing hw -monitoring progress toward goal you’ve set Ex: how much did you finish text -accommodate to errors -accommodate to new info coming in -infants pay attention to things that catch their eye whether it is relevant or not -we get better at recognizing relevant info through elementary years -PLANNING gradually gets better -delaying gratification gets better -INHIBITING an incorrect response even though there’s a strong tendency towards it -10-month old who kept finding toy on the left and not on the right -even though he knows it’s there his system gets overwhelmed by tendency to look to left -Piaget said he does not fully understand object permanence (attached to place he found it) -child failed to inhibit response to always go to the left F. Prefrontal Cortex -brain develops asymmetrically -proximodistal, cephalocaudal -monitoring our executive functioning (planning, monitoring behavior, organizing attention) -asynchronous -sensory processing develops earlier -biggest growth during preschool years (3-6 in prefrontal cortex) -area that we use for things like planning, paying attention, organizing new actions, focusing on one thing -more connections around 3-6 years of age -myelination takes a long time, not finished, continues through late childhood/early adulthood -the pruning of synapses continues into adolescence/early adulthood especially in prefrontal cortex VYGOTSKY A. Different from Piaget -felt that Piaget did not emphasize how cognition develops through social interaction -for Piaget, maturation was most important -at age 2 you were ready maturationally for the preoperational stage -number 2 importance was experiences in the world, you’ll move from one stage to next through experiences -third, was social interaction, not mentioned much -he would point out that there was nothing you could do to cause a child to think preoperationally until they are 2 -Vygotsky argued that teachers and parents and siblings really do and have a positive influence on cognition and development compared to Piaget 1. Context -Piaget was abstract about thinking -Vygotsky said you can’t tell what a child can or cannot do because every context is different = what a child can do is different from one context to the next 2. SOCIAL influence: will have an influence on what child can accomplish 3. Change: -Piaget’s description was very static for each stage based on what child can do -Vygotsky was more forward on what child is able to do and when -child has wide range of abilities depending on the context they are in B. Scaffolding -the help that objects and parents can provide when helping child complete a task Key concepts: -temporary, gradually removed as child can do task on their own -releasing responsibility on child as parent does less and less -to be a good scaffolder you must know what child can or cannot do on his/her own -what kind of supports are needed and where Ex: child trying to read book, parent reads book to them -child gradually gets experience from turning pages and exposure to words Ex: alphabet letters around the room are scaffolders Ex: those grips on pencils help child to hold pencil C. Zone of Proximal Development -range of ability that particular child has at any particular moment -goes up to what they can do with maximum help -what can they do totally on their own, with a little help, with more help, or when helped completely -young children talk to themselves a lot (speaking about what they’re doing, gradually goes away, likely to do it when we’re confused) -Piaget said because child is egocentric and can’t think about perspective about other people Ex: child on telephone telling how big dog it -can only see world the way they see it and not through anyone else’s view -result of limitation of preoperational thinking -Vygotsky said that it’s the same as what we do as adults and you have fewer resources, it helps when you talk it out, helps child pay attention to their own thought processes -not always understood by others around them, not full sentences -Vygotsky said private speech is self-scaffolding (helps you plan and think it through and spot errors as you describe what you’re doing) -get better at monitoring thoughts D. Pretend Play -mature pretend play are really important for child’s cognitive development -more than just practice for the things they need to do -Vygotsky said it is important for physical and cognitive development -Ex: pretend to have a restaurant (someone is cook, other is waiter=decide on roles, start talking about roles and what you can or cannot do in the role, do a lot of setting up, then go through motions of playing it, I get to answer telephone, other person gets to drive to restaurant and drink the pretend juice and look at the pretend menu) (the fact that there are rules is the key aspect for major development) (sticking to the rules, doesn’t make sense to drive car if you’re the chef) -when children are in this mature pretend play, showing maximum display of will power because there are so many things you can’t do that you have to exercise a lot of will power -voluntary restricting behavior -Vygotsky said pretend play is another form of scaffolding (can practice their development of self-regulation, inhibiting certain behaviors, monitoring behaviors in role) -self-regulation: really important in academic settings -Vygotsky said help them learn how to pretend play -teacher helps kids with a play plan -research shows the pretend play is scaffolding for self-regulation -stay in one spot -5 year olds stays for about 4 minutes on average -describe scenario where child is the lookout (5-year-old stays for about 12 minutes) -pretend play of being the lookout scaffolded the ability to inhibit playing with the toys to help them be the lookout - 3 year olds when put in pretend scenario didn’t matter -because aren’t capable of pretend play yet -7 year olds could stay longer even without pretend play (don’t need it) -scaffolding can be what you do to yourself -mature pretend play has multiple themes and roles -the props you are using for mature pretend play are symbolic of what it is that you are imagining -it is better according to Vygotsky that they are symbolic rather than having it actually look like the object -toddler: not mature play, stay in one role -dependent on the props, have to be realistic -as you grow, less dependent on features of prop and becomes more pretend -classrooms should be places that scaffold mature pretend play and a lot of toys that can be anything and teachers that can help scaffold -kids today are not showing a lot of pretend play, 4-6 year olds are playing toddler level play, depend on toys (Vygotsky said you are doing them a disservice, giving them all specifics so that they don’t have to pretend) -worried that they are inhibiting pretend play, critical for self-regulation -the more time taken from pretend play, hurting chances of becoming academically successful Week 5 Lecture 9 Self-Regulation (effortful control) -need to control your behaviors in order for academic success -helps control these three factors: 1.Body Behaviors 2.Emotions 3.Attention Arousal and Recovery Continuum Asleep, drowsy, hypo-alert, calmly focused and alert, hyper-alert, flooded -ex: in mortal danger you are hyper-alert -the ability to keep yourself alert or calmly when appropriate is another way of thinking about self-regulation Development -Newborns are capable of arousal in rudimentary ways -overwhelmed by beeps and sounds and lights they can close their eyes or look away or shut themselves down into a sleep state when they are overly aroused -when it’s not too much, they can do some self-soothing behaviors. Thumb or fist in mouth, hold onto blanket -they will calm themselves down when nurse speaks softly is an example of self-regulation -well equipped to do many self-regulatory behaviors -Caregiver’s rule: supporting the self-regulating abilities of the child -caregiver providing external support -they can signal the caregiver what they need -helpful because it is providing safe environment for child and that sometimes child feels bad or hungry but that it is not forever because someone comes and feeds you (start taking on responsibility for themselves to regulate behaviors) -Caregiver slowly steps back to give child more responsibility to self-regulate -Still-Face phenomenon: interaction between parent and child -extremely reactive of world around them -sits down as plays with baby, gives greeting to baby, baby gives greeting back to her, working to coordinate emotions and intentions in the world -mom is still-faced, baby arches back and smiles and points and puts both hands and whimpers and screechy sound when they don’t get normal reaction and lose control of their posture -bad: when something bad happens but infant can overcome it -ugly: don’t give child any chance to get back to the good -good: when everything is good between parent and child -can be repaired, baby was able to come down from those flood of emotions of arching the back to smiling and wanting to play again Temperament -biologically based traits that tend to be consistent over time -made up of 8 different traits -vary from person to person -these traits exist on a continuum A. Activity Level: the amount of physical movement of the adult or infant B. Biological rhythms: the rhythmic nature of sleep cycles, diaper use, eating C. Approach/withdrawal: how comfortable the person is in new situations D. Mood: tend to be more positive or more negative, it ranges E. Intensity of Reaction: to stimuli -can get overly aroused from car because it sings, kid freaked out, Keith thought it was just another car, max was overly aroused from this thing F. Adaptability: how they adapt to changes in routing and how easily can they bring themselves back down to that calm, alert stage G. Distractibility: how easily are they distracted by things in their world H. Persistence: how long will child stay at a long trying activity -these are not judgements on what you should be -one who tends to be high or low on something may have difficulty on self- regulation -low adaptability: more of a challenge when trying to deal with regulating your responses -hard to regulate at far ends of continuum when you are too high or low in one temperament Goodness of Fit -different temperaments require different responses -how good of fit is the environment that the child is developing in -high activity child will do best who have parents who have high activity and are fine with the kids running around the house -good when parents are skilled at helping the child calm down when it is time to take a nap - a poor fit means that the external environment does not help child begin to self- regulate as easily and don’t feel as safe and that could keep you at a higher arousal -children who are easily overwhelmed and don’t get along with new situations do well with parents who are supportive and bring them to new places so that child has practice dealing with new situations -not going to change the child into one that is easily overstimulated Strategies for Creating a Good Fit for child -Observe Closely the infant -even newborns can signal what they’re feeling -adults who are good at observing cues -Respond appropriately to those cues and keeping in mind the temperament of the child -make decisions about what child should experience based on temperament -Provide Structure and Predictability -that routine is REALLY important for development of self-regulation -it’s hard to respond to world when world keeps changing -can get a feel for how to respond in more appropriate useful ways -making child feel safe and comfortable in order to encourage development of self-regulation -Creating Age-Appropriate Environment -Picking things up and manipulating things -older children run around -creating environment where child can explore safely -to learn what they are capable of doing and try out what they are able to do -Age-Appropriate Limits: -expect 6 months old not to pull off glasses but you can’t expect 6 months old to not go exploring the stairs (form of scaffolding) -early on, need to take on responsibility for what child experiences -Show Empathy and Caring: sends message to child that child’s feelings are important -helps child understand that feelings are important and that feeling bad is not the end of the world and that there are things in the world that can help me feel better soon -child gets messages back that are good and so feels good about themselves and can handle the world and the emotions are not too much for me Play Time -Vygotsky said it’s about exercising will power -Roles and Rules: self and peered imposed rules involved in play (roles like cook and driver, police themselves and friends) -starts out with a lot of planning -Executive Attention: starts with a lot of planning and organization with group of friends -have to work out who wants to be the drive (conflicts, correcting errors) -staying on task, thinking about goal while monitoring own behavior and not paying attention to other kids playing ball outside, noticing when other kids are not obeying the rules of play -Academic Benefits to Pretend Play -research shows that connection is happening that development of self- regulation that play time offers -from preschool, predicts later academic success better than tests of IQ -IQ was designed to tell you how well you are going to do in school -measures of self-regulation predict later academic success better than IQ -Kids today are not engaging in enough pretend play or mature pretend play -Parents are more frightened to let their kids outside and spend more time in adult-directed activities= less time during day in pretend play -in the 40s toys became more realistic (taken away need to pretend in play) -in preschool, there is less time for play time due to academic success focus Is Earlier Better? -while they’re in school let’s be teaching them what to learn -Harlow (1959) -earlier training may at best be useless and at worst have a negative effect -famous for contact comfort from monkeys -babies bond with mother because of softness of mother -learning research on very young monkeys -raising monkeys in sterile boxes and showed them different materials and colors -monkey’s job to touch the right one and get a treat -how young can monkey’s figure it out? -they gave very young monkeys discrimination training (5 months) -others were (6 ½ months) -by about 8 1/2 months of age tested new discrimination task -infants at 190 days did better than who started at 155 days -infants who started later did better on the task even though younger infants had more training trials and yet were way behind -learning can be helpful or harmful based on nature of training and stage of development -that very early stimulation can be bad (ex: preemies: getting a lot of extra stimulation but it turns out it doesn’t help them, negative effects on prefrontal cortex of normal development, used to developing utero, when out in the world, now it disrupts normal development, overall IQ tend to be lower) -Earlier is not necessarily better Week 6 Lecture 10 February 29, 2016 I. Erik Erikson (1902-1994) -his own life experiences are reflected in his theories A.Psycho-Social Development -his theory coined this because it is a new theory but has much of its grounding in Freud’s theory (psychosexual theory) -how our personality comes from biological drives according to Freud B. Neo-Freudian -to distinguish Erikson’s from Freud’s (on social environmental aspects than biological) -did incorporate some biological aspects but gave a different emphasis on social -how we develop into who we are, every stage we learn about ourselves and how capable we are in the world -fifth stage: identity -who am I? where am I going? -never knew who his biological father, wasn’t much like his adopted father -when he was older, instead of going to medical school, went to Vienna and taught at school where parents were analyzed by Ana Freud -never got a bachelor’s -strongly influenced by Ana Freud -studied anthropology -never settled an answer for who am I and where do I fit in? C.8 Stages of Man -Freud had 5 -Erikson’s first five mirrored Freud’s and match up timing wise -fifth stage was puberty, that’s where Freud’s ends -true developmental meaningful change happens throughout life span -be able to contrast him with Freud - “Crisis”: at each stage we are confronted by a crisis -it’s the central issue or question you are faced with at this certain stage -frames your interaction with the world and how you think about it -it’s also an opportunity for positive growth -things aren’t set in stone -each is defined by a crisis, opportunity, question about self, challenge to be resolved -Freud titled stages based on body, Erikson focused on this crisis and titles were something vs. something else (a positive characteristic versus negative characteristic) -first stage of Erikson’s: trust vs. mistrust: can I trust the world? -each stage you will resolve somewhere on that continuum -for Erikson, the healthiest is having a balance between extreme positive and negative -by balance, he did not mean equal amounts of trust and mistrust -you want more towards positive side -in reality, you want a sprinkle of mistrust so that you are not naïve -crisis is the stage you are in -move on to the next stage as we are more biologically mature as well as changes that come from the outside as far as the expectations that are on us socially -this will push us from one stage to the next -biological changes to us and changes in societal expectations and pressures that change with age and status in society and together these both push from one stage into the next -you don’t ever get stuck in a stage unlike Freud where you can get stuck -because biologically you’re gonna change so you will expect biological changes and because society will put different pressures and expectations on you -you don’t hang out in a stage until you develop a healthy response even if you have not resolved stage 1 in a healthy way -trust vs. mistrust is never completely set in stone, can revisit that to some extent and in fact starting a relationship may make you revisit issue of trust vs. mistrust (but it won’t be the defining issue in that point of your life ever again) -more optimistic than Freud because you can go back to stages -can achieve a better balance is possible -calls it an opportunity -how you resolve stage 1 will influence how you resolve stage 2 -more trustful, you will be more likely to resolve stage 2 in a healthy way (snowballs) -each stage builds on next -Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust -born into this stage -when you’re born you are completely dependent on caregiver for your needs -come into world not knowing anything about the world and so parents are a major part of shaping your world -can I depend on parents to keep me safe and happy and calm? -do I get what I need from the world? Is it safe for me? -can I trust the world? -somewhere between 1 and 2 is where you begin to change stages -Erikson worried about how U.S. parents get a lot of info and advice and can be contradictory to the way they were parented -he said one of the most critical aspects is to be consistent and have confidence in yourself that way you can relay this to your child -changing your ways is confusing and sends confusing messages to child that parent doesn’t know what they’re doing and instills a feeling of mistrust -whether or not parent was consistent is critical -opens door for you to start being motivated to start getting things for yourself -at each stage as we move on, we get a virtue in this case we can get the strength of hope in that the future is bright for me and therefore can start looking towards the future despite being frustrated in not getting what I need -healthiest form: mostly trust with a little mistrust=hope -Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt -autonomy: doing things for yourself -happens somewhere between 1 and 2 -what can I do? And the things I do are they ok? -is it okay to be the kind of me I am? -toilet training occurs in this stage (Freud=anal stage) -talked about ability to control yourself biologically and socially -parents are teaching you this and is expected of you -if you make a mess, negative responses -are you given enough environmental support so that you can be able to try things on your own -do you continue to have experiences where you can do things on your own but not able to do everything and still okay -want child to be able to do lots of things on their own but not some things -using phrases, like my, mine, me =>child is self-centered; you need them to start having experiences where that’s not okay -how much you can do, what you are not allowed to do -ego strength: Will -it is important for child to begin to learn self-restraint and that there are things I am just not allowed to do even if I wanted to do -lots of determination with some self-restraint sprinkled in -Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt -early to early middle childhood -what kind of purpose am I in the world? -age 3 is when we have the most energy we will ever have in our lives -part of what pushes you into this stage -to try out new things -idolizing parents (Freud says this), seen as gods and goddesses and awesome but negative side that they are so powerful that they can be dangerous in certain ways -but child is trying to emulate the parents -Erikson said it’s less about urges and more about reverence -child can start making plans about things they want to do and try out -not realistic, self-confidence is unrealistically high -child is okay trying out new things=faced with failure but not going to live up to standards -gonna deal with things you’re not allowed to do, society has some rules that


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