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Social Psychology

by: Noopur Suckhlecha

Social Psychology 85241

Noopur Suckhlecha

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Social Psychology
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This 62 page Bundle was uploaded by Noopur Suckhlecha on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 85241 at Carnegie Mellon University taught by Boyd in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Carnegie Mellon University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Class notes 19/1 Observational: observe and record Experimental: the most widely used Scientific observations begin with a question or hypothesis ­ hypothesis must be testable ­ calls for an operational definition of key terms to specify the study’s dependent  variable Example: Napoleon effect ­ short guys more aggressive  ­ short males get jealous when other guys talk to their mates ­ how do you define tall ­ how do you define jealousy ­ observe facial expressions, heart rate ranges ­­  don't know how they’re gonna react ­ aggressive response: hitting the guy ­­ operational study  ­ manipulation: bringing in an ex­ some would hug them ­­ dependent variable 1. Observational Research: observe and record behavior ­ participant observation or non­participant (ethnography ­ observe group from  within blend in the situation ­­ participant or non­ participant (just stand there) ­ Archival research ­ document searching ­­ passive research Issues with observational research  ­ boredom  ­ interrater (interjudge) reliability ­ extent to which observers rate behavior in the  same manner ­ biased recording Limits of the observational method Certain behaviors difficult to observe ­ occur rarely ­ in private like parent child relationship ­­ come home and ill beat you/ make you understand Archival analysis ­ original may not have all information reseraches need does not allow prediction and explanation ­ limited to description 2. Correlational ­ systematically measure the relationship between two or more variables ­ negative correlational ­ co­vary in opposite directions ­ positive correlation ­ co­vary in the same direction problem with self report (surveys) ­ correlation coefficient range from ­1 to 1 (positive correlation) 3. Experimental ­ able to establish causation 1. operational definition ­ methods used to create the IV in a study ­ independent variable ­ controlled by the researcher  ( the hug or  the kiss or the handshake ) ­ dependent variable ­ result of the manipulation of the IV ( what  was the response) 2. Random assignment ­ assume the group of subjects do not differ before experiencing  the experimental condition Inferential Statistics ­ researchers use inferential statistics to make inference based on  their data this involves testing a difference between two groups ­ procides an assessment of a result’s statistical significance the p value ­ 0.5 ­­ means 5 % if nothing had changed there's only 5% the lower the p value ­ the better January 21, 2016 3. Subjects ­ Sample ­ subset of total population used for purposes of the study ­ Random selection ­ each person has an equal chance of being selected for the  study Gathering Data A. Measurement ­ reliability ­ repeatability of a measure  ­ Validity ­ Internal ­ (measure what is should) through control of extraneous  variable and random assignment  ­ External ­ generalizable to other settings and populations Replication ­ repeating a study with other populations. Tests external validity Mundane (similar to everyday behavior) vs. experimental realism (involving to participants) Choosing a setting: field vs. lab Trade Off between Internal and External Validity Internal validity: randomly assigned to condition and control for extraneous variables External validity : generalize to everyday life “Basic dilemma of the social psychologist ­ too much control, generalizable? ­ too much like real life? V. Bias in Research A. Subject Selection B. Experimental Bias ­ Intentional or unintentional behavior on the part of the  experimenter that influences participants responses C. Subject Bias­ Behavior on the part of the subject has an impact on the results.  Respond to (Demand Characteristics ­ cues in experimental setting) Ethical Dilemma : two goals in conflict 1. Create experiments that resemble the real world and are well controlled 2. Avoid causing participants stress, discomfort, or unpleasantness Ethics ­ internal review board ­ some primary ethical requirements ­ informed consent: prior to the study, you have to read and consent to it. They’ll tell us before what participation you’ll do. You also have to tell me  that you can stop at anytime, how long it is gonna take, what your rights are  ­ Have rights about the results of the study ­ full nature of the study ­ minimal risks ­ no physical or psychological harm ­ debriefing : explain to participants at the end of the experiment the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired Cross­ cultural research Issues: Researchers must: ­ Guard against imposing their own cultural viewpoints onto an  unfamiliar culture ­ Ensure that IV and DV are understood in the same way in different cultures Evolutionary Psychology ­ attempts to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved  over time  Social Neuroscience ­ examines the connection between biological processes and social behavior ­ Technologies used include: ­ Electroencephalography (EEG) ­ electrodes are places on the scalp to measure  electrical activity in the brain ­ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  ­ in which people are places in scanners that  measure changes in blood flow in their brains CHAPTER 3: Social Cognition The study of how people think about themselves and the social world ­ how we select, interpret  and use social info to make judgements ­ Two types of thinking A. automatic: automatic, low effort thinking (mechanical) ­  unconscious, involuntary and effortless 1. schemas­ mental structures that people use to organize their  knowledge about the social world. examples: people schema (Texans) role schema (mother) event schema ( going to dinner) Function of schemas 1. Help process and organize info  (guides attention) 2. Aid in remembering infor  a. memory appears to  be schema ­ consistent ­ effortful Jan26, 2016 Function of schemas 1. when applied to members of a social group such as a fraternity or gender or  race, schemas are commonly referred to as stereotypes. 2. Stereotypes can be applied rapidly and automatically when we encounter other  people Weapons Effect and Race Payne and colleagues rapidly showed college students pairs of pictures Participants were told to pay attention to press one key if certain pictures showed a tool and  another key if it was a gun, in only ½ second. People were significantly more likely to misidentify a tool a gun for black people as compared to  white people Race and Weapons Effect ­ 3. Fill in gaps in our knowledge 4. Help interpret and evaluate new information ­ eg: implicit personality theory ­ Abstract schema which involves relationship  between some traits. Some traits go together, while others do not. Which Schemas are Applied? Accessibility and Priming Accessibility­ The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds  and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world. Priming­ The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait,  or concept Something can become accessible for three reasons: ­ Some schemas are chronically accessible due to past experience ­ Something can become accessible because it is related to a current goal ­ Schemas can become temporarily accessible because of our recent experiences Schema Change 1. Belief perseverance ­ Tendency for schemas to persist in the face of  disconfirming evidence. NYC story from the prof. 2. Self­ fulfilling prophecy ­ People’s tendency to confirm others expectations of  them The case where people ­ Have an expectation about what another person is like, which  ­ influences how they act toward that person, which ­ causes that person to behave consistently with people’s original expectations,  making the expectations come true. Mental Strategies and Shortcuts for judgments ­ Heuristics ­ Availability ­ Ease with which things can be brought to mind is used to make a  judgment eg: homicide vs disease physicians with recent disease diagnosis ­ Representative ­ Tendency to classify something by according to how similar it is  to a typical case Linda is 31 years old, single outspoken and very bright. In college she majored in philosophy and was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination ­ bank teller? ­ bank teller and female feminist? ­ Anchoring and Adjustment ­ Using a number as a reference point and then  adjusting one’s answer away from the anchor ­ Is the Mississippi River greater than or less than 500 (1500)  miles? How long is it? ­ 500 mile anchor: 908 Mile estimate ­ 1500 mile anchor: 1950 Mile estimate Automatic Thinking and Metaphors About the Body and the Mind Metaphors can influence decisions ­ Holding hot coffee or iced coffee ­ Encounter a stranger ­ Hot coffee: Primes “warm and friendly” metaphor ­ stranger rated as friendly Iced coffee: Primes “unfriendly people are cold” ­ rate stranger as unfriendly Controlled (High Effort) Thinking Automatic believing ­ controlled believing ­ People initially believe everything they see and hear (automatic  processing) They access the info more thoroughly and “unaccept” it is necessary Ironic Processing ­ Thought suppression can often lead to high levels of unwanted  thoughts (Wegner) due to monitoring and detecting (not to think about a white bear) Counterfactual reasoning ­ Mentally undoing some aspect of the past as a way of  imagining what might have been. ­ can influence emotional reactions to events ­ leads to rumination ­ you can’t give it up Emotional consequences of counterfactual reasoning ­ positive ­ negative Bias in Mechanistic Approach 1. Consistency Effects Halo Effect ­ people who are viewed as good are perceived to have positive  auras surrounding them   Fork­ Tailed Effect ­ People labeled as bad are seen as having all bad qualities 2. Positivity Bias ­ Positive evaluations of people outweigh negative ones 3. Order Effects ­ Primacy ­ First information is given more weight than later info. ­ Recency Effect ­ Information coming later on has a stronger impact than earlier  info. eg: American idol effect ­ last contestant blowing up or first one? 4. Context Effects ­ understanding of new information will depend on the context in which it is  interpreted. eg: class average marks and you got an 89... 5. Central traits ­ Traits that are highly associated with other characteristics. Imply more about  individuals than some others. eg: look book up  cold and warm ­­­ cold and warm intelligent? Improving Human Thinking ­ Break through overconfidence barriers ( we are not always right_ ­ Become aware of biases and errors ­ Teach basic statistics and methods January 28, 2016 Social Perception Chapter 4 Nonverbal behavior ­ how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words Examples: ­  facial expression ­ tone of voice ­ gestures ­ body position ­ movement  ­ use of touch ­ gaze Are facial expressions of emotion universal ­ yes six major Anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust and sadness Other emotions develop later: guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride ­less universal across cultures Mirror Neurons and Nonverbal behavior ­ special brain cells ­ activated when we perform an action and when we see someone else perform  the same action ­ Basis of ability to feel empathy ­ eg: when we see someone crying, mirror neurons fire  automatically and involuntarily, just as if we were crying ourselves Factors that decrease decoding accuracy ­ affect blends ­ register different emotions on the face ­ eyes sad but there’s a  smile on the face like Miss america ­ people often appear less emotional than they are ­ don't show your emotions  ­ cultural differences ● faster rate of speech ­­ more honest Can contradict spoken words ­ sarcasm ­ “Im so happy for you” sarcastically Can substitute for verbal message ­ the “ok” sign Other Channels of Nonverbal communication ­ eye contact ­ personal space ­ emblems­ gestures Gender differences in non­verbal communication ­ women are better at decoding : nurturing babies, learning to understand their  expressions, more interested about social harmony ­ men are better at detecting deception : looking for deception ­ people trying to  hurt their homes Attribution Theory Attribution ­ search for the cause of behavior In attribution causes to behavior, people tend to be:  ­  consistency seekers ­ cognitive misers Major Attribution Theories Heider ­ (common sense psychology) People act as a naive scientists. They analyze behavior (in terms of locus of casuality) in order to be able to predict behavior a) internal (dispositional causes) b) external (situational causes) Kelly’s Attribution Theory ­ Uncertainty prompts causal analysis. Are three dimensions of co­ variation 1. Distinctiveness ­ Behavior is the same across different situations eg: sister cry all the time 2. Consistency ­ Behavior is the same in the same situation eg:sister cries even  when she watches commercial 3. Consensus ­ Extent to which others respond in the same manner to the stimulus  eg: no one else cried when watching Titanic ­­ you make an internal disposition Internal Attribution Occurs when consensus = low   behavior is unique to the person Distinctiveness = Low person displays same behavior with different targets External Attribution Occurs when consensus = high   other people behave similarly distinctiveness = high person displays same behavior with different targets consistency =  high *LOOK up in book ­ definitely on test Discounting ­ A potential cause may be discounted if another plausible causes are present Augmenting ­ If an inhibitory cause is overcome, a behavior may be boosted ( if you overcome  something eg: a woman who graduates at the top of her class is gonna get boosted, augmented ­­ coz people will see you as better ­ because you overcome an inhibitory character ­ like  woman in ECE ­ gets an internal boost  Belief in a just world ­ you get what you deserve ­ self protective type of bias eg: they were walking in a dark alley ­ protects yourself coz then i wont be walking alone in a  dark alley when its dark ­ works more with more income discrepancy ­ because you say you are homeless  coz you deserve it ­­ i dont have to feel guilty to not give you something E. Weiner ­ there are emotional consequences attached to the type of attributions made 1. Determinants of emotional consequence: a. locus ­ internal vs. external b. stability ­ does it vary from one situation to the next ( if its only one class we do bad at, thats okay if its in all classes then youre not gonna take it  easy) c. controbility ­ if you can control the situation next time or you could  have Attributional Biases Fundamental attribution error ­ Prefer internal explanations of behavior over external  ones ­ mostly for other people Actor ­ Observer Bias ­ Explain one’s own behavior in external terms and other’s  behavior in internal terms ­­ coz we know our situations more than we know other  people’s situations Salience effects ­ Salient others as seen as having more causal influence over the  environment ­­ you can look at everyone if you are at the end of the table Self­ serving bias ­ Take credit for our success but blame others for our failure Self­ centered bias ­ Overestimate our contribution to shared activities ­­ I do everything,  coz you dont see what other people are doing Self­handicapping bias ­ when anticipating failure we prove a decoy external explanation ­ when we know about an internal reason why we do it we just put a decoy of an external behavior. False Consensus ­ Overestimate the extent to which others agree with us. Eg: how can  people vote for donald trump? ­­ we know the logic about situations but you dont know, if you knew youd think the same way Correspondence Bias ­ Tendency to believe that people’s behavior corresponds to or  matches their dispositions, eg: cause corresponds effect Culture and Attribution ­ Fundamental attribution error ­ People prefer internal explanation  of behavior in western cultures (emphasize individual freedom and autonomy),  but prefer external in collectivist cultures ­ Correspondence bias ­ Although ….. ­ Belief in a just world­ more prominent in cultures where there are  greater extremes of wealthy and poor Accuracy of Judgements ­ why are we not accurate in our judgements?  ­ eye of the beholder ­ people impose their own perspective on things rather than  use reality ­ Fail to notice bias in information ­ problems with gathering information ­ use wrong or too little info ­ swayed by case history Paper Notes: 50% experience and 50% explanation of terms ­ get a paper copy and turn it on blackboard Chapter 13 ­ Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice ­ Negative or positive attitude based mainly on group membership Discrimination ­ ­ve behavior towards another based solely on group membership ­ treated differently coz of some group membership Stereotypes ­ group schemas ­ beliefs about the personal attributes shared by people in  particular group or social class ­ number of group of people ­ prejudice Movie: Crash, broke ban mountain Chapter 13: Prejudice and Discrimination 3 Components of Prejudice ­ Prejudice is an attitude with 3 components: ­ Affective (emotional) component ­ Type of emotion linked with the attitude (eg: anger,  warmth) ­ Extremity of the attitude (eg: mild, uneasiness,  outright hostility Behavioral component ­ how people act on emotions and cognitions ­ discrimination Cognitive Component ­ beliefs or thoughts that make up the attitude ­ stereotypes Cardinal of truth ­­ generalizations we make about any social race eg: Indians dont see them as  trash collectors, factory workers but more as doctors Americans ­ 1933 ­ industrious, materialistic The Ubiquitous Social Phenomenon Many aspects of your identity can cause you to be labeled and discriminated against: ­ nationality ­ racial and ethnic identity ­ weight ­ gender ­ disabilities ­ sexual orientation ­ diseases ­ religion ­ hair color ­ appearance ­ professions ­ physical state ­ hobbies eg: gay men aren’t allowed to donate blood, all african americans are criminals White Privilege ­ (Peggy McIntoch) coz belonging to majority culture Unearned advantages and entitlements Eg of privileges ­ getting someone to do afro­american hair, go to a supermarket and  buy anything except a tiny aisle and little bit part of your cultural food. Walter Lippmann ­ we all have images and they’re usually same as the actual  stereotypes What’s wrong with having positive stereotypes? ­ Denied individuality of person ­ Cant all black men jump? ­ ignore the fact that plenty of african american kids  are not adept at basketball and plenty of white kids are Self­fulfilling prophecy Jane Elliott's brown eyed/ blue eyed study Stereotype Threat (Claude Steele) Asian Females ­ Math performance­­­ primed when you're female, math performance is low primed when you’re asian ­ math performance is high Stereotype Threat (Claude Steele) ­ african american ­ IQ test Stereotype Threat ­ The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior  might confirm a cultural stereotype ­ If I perform poorly on this test, it will reflect badly on me and my race. (eg: female carrying the weight of all females on her shoulder ­ black people are always late Stereotype threat effect found with multiple groups: ­ Latinos ­ low­income people ­ elderly More self­conscious about performance led to bad quality of performance Stereotype threat example: stone and his colleagues (1999) found that when a game of  miniature golf was framed as a measure of sport ­­ Reversing the effects of stereotypes How can effects of stereotype threat be reversed? ­ Alternative mindset ­ “Im a good student” ­ Self­affirmation ­ practice of reminding yourself of your good qualities Why are people prejudiced? ­ The learning of prejudice ­ focuses on socialization and norms  ­ family and peers ­ media ­ society Theories of Prejudice ­ Realistic group conflict theory ­ Direct competition for limited resources eg:  like super bowl only one winner so two teams already hate each other ­ african american women think african american men are scarce (limited  resources) so anti other dating racial groups ­ thus prejudiced attitudes tend to increase when times are tense  and conflict exists over mutually exclusive goals. ­ Economic and Political Competition ­ When times are tough and resources are scarce:  1. in group members will feel more  threatened by the out­group. 2. incidents of prejudice, discrimination, and violence toward out­group members will increase  3. Sherif's classic study ­ eagles versus rattlers ­ Relative Deprivation ­ perception of being disadvantages relative to another one college has more money than other, you feel disadvantaged towards them ­   you get treated better so i hate you for it eg: tepper, CS vs CFA ­ Scapegoating ­ when frustrated or unhappy, people tend to displace aggression  onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless eg: latinos, indians ­ Form of aggression dependent on what in­group approves of or  allows Social Cognition Theories of Prejudice is a by­product of the way we process and organize information. Includes our tendency to:  ­ categorize and group information ­ form schemas and use them to interpret new or unusual information ­ rely on potentially inaccurate heuristics Cognitive Categorizations ­ In group favoritism ­ greater value and trust of the in­ group ­ out group homogeneity ­ out­group is less variable than the in­group. “They are  all alike” eg: mother’s friend ­ I can't stand those japanese people, they are always  talking chinese­­ they were mexicans ­­  Social Identity Theory­ The desire to achieve and maintain a positive self­image motivates  people to favor the in­group over the out­group. eg: some identity I wanna cling to. you wanna  be linked to something positive ­­ try to maintain a healthy image ­­  February 16,2016 In Group Bias  The major underlying motive is self­esteem: ­ individuals seek to enhance their self­esteem by identifying with specific social  groups. ­ Self­esteem will be enhanced only if the individual sees these groups as superior to other groups Belief Dissimilarity ­ Prejudice results from assumed dissimilarities between the in­group and the out­group eg: you eat dogs, and for me dogs are pets so I dont like you The Justification­Suppression Model of Prejudice Crandall and Eschleman’s model ­ struggle between urge to express prejudice and the need to maintain positive  self­concept (as a non­bigot) ­ requires energy to suppress ­ To conserve energy, seek valid justification for holding a negative attitude toward a particular out­group eg: come up with a reason ­ Can then act against that group and still feel like a non­bigot ­ avoid cognitive dissonance Modern forms of Prejudice ­ racism ­ asertive racism ­ sexism Modern Racism and Other Implicit Prejudices ­ people hide prejudice ­ when situation becomes “safe” their prejudice will be revealed. ­ eg: questioning President Obama’s americanism,  not his race per se ­ so you try to hide  Measuring Implicit Prejudices Most people don’t want to admit their prejudices, so unobtrusive measures are  necessary. ­ Bogus pipelline ­ participants believed a “lie detector” could detect true attitudes ­ more likely to express racist attitudes IMPLICIT ATTITUDES TEST (IAT) measures speed of positive and negative reactions to target groups like as soon as you see Trump, and if its positive youll be slow but as soon as  you see negative you’ll QUICKLY go no. Racial Discrimination Example: Blacks and whites not treated equally in the “war against drugs” ­ African americans disproportionately arrested, convicted, and  incarcerated for drug charges eg: crack and cocaine, coz crack is poor people  drug and cocaine is rich people drug so some people say that they target  minority ­ Microaggressions ­ “slights” indignities, and put­downs ­ example: white professor compliments Asian  student for his “excellent English” WRITE A PAPER ABOUT IN­GROUP OUT­GROUP BIAS ­­ two girls same looking.. ­ Social Distance ­ a person’s reluctance to get “too close” to another  group ­ unwilling to work with, marry, or live next to  members of a particular group ­ example: straight student not wanting to sit next to  a gay student Stereotypes of Gender ­ Traditional Stereotypes ­ Women ­ more socially sensitive, friendlier,  and more concerned with the welfare of others ­ Men more dominant ­ Hostile Sexism ­ Stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men ­ eg: that they are less intelligent, less competent,  and so on ­ Benevolent sexism ­    Stereotypical, positive views of women A Progress Report While this progress has occurred, it would be a mistake to conclude.. Stereotype, Attribution, and Gender Needless to say, the phenomenon of gender stereotyping often does not reflect reality  and can cut deeply ­ when a man is successful on a given task, observers of both  sexes attribute his success to ability ­ but for women, it is probably hard work..they say These beliefs can be influenced by the attitudes of our society in general and parents. ­ mothers who hold the strongest gender­stereotypical beliefs also believe that  their own daughters have relatively low math ability and that their sons have relatively  high math ability. ­ mothers who dont hold stereotypical beliefs do not  Discrimination against Homosexuals discrimination and antipathy­day to day basis homosexuals are protected  legal in 11 states? Researchers have found that compared to the way they interacted with non­homosexuals,  employers interacting with job applicants.. interactions: ­ less verbally positive ­ spent less time interviewing them ­ used fewer words while chatting with them ­ made less eye contact with them Reducing Prejudice A. Social Norms: Unfavorable normative pressure can create change B. Assessment of one’s own values and attitudes­ see where one stand with regard  to others C. Empathy­ tactics that allow one to imagine or experience another’s feelings The contact Hypothesis Mere contact between groups is not sufficient to reduce prejudice ­ Shreif’s  Robbers Cave  Study (1961) In fact, it can create opportunities for conflict that may increase it When Contact reduces prejudices: six conditions: 1. Mutual interdependence 2. common goals 3. equal status 4. friendly, informal setting 5. knowing multiple out­group members 6. social norms of equality Jigsaw Classroom Why does the jigsaw work? ­ breaks down perception of in­group and out­group, creates feeling of one­ness ­ people must do each other “favors” by sharing information ­ develop empathy for others One of the most effective ways of improving race relations, improving empathy, and  improving instruction Chapter 5: Self­Knowledge Who are You? ­ Do others determine the self or does the individual? Origins of the Self ­ Child’s self­concept ­ concrete ­ references to characteristics like age, sex, neighborhood, and  hobbies Maturing self­concept ­ less emphasis on physical characteristics ­ more emphasis on psychological states and how other people  judge us Functions of the Self Four main functions: 1. Self­knowledge a. the way we understand who we are and organize this information 2. Self control ­ the way we make plans and execute decision 3. impression management ­ the way we present ourselves to others and get them to see us as we want to be  seen 4. self­esteem ­ the way we maintain positive views of ourselves Self­Knowledge ­ Determining the self ­ Self­concept­ sense of identity, set of beliefs we hold about what we are like as  individuals (personality) ­ Self­Schema­ organize body of information that relates to some aspect of a  person’s self. Self­Esteem : how we feel about ourselves ­ overall evaluation (positive or negative) that people have of themselves Benefits of high self­esteem: ­ buffers against thoughts of own mortality ­ terror management theory: almost had an accident ­­ id enjoy my life more ­   motivates us to persevere when going gets rough Emotions and the Self ­ helps determine how we feel about ourselves ­ possible selves (markus & Nurius) eg: how we want to be ­­ our possible self at  30 will motivate you today ­ self­discrepancy theory ­ (higgins) ­ actual­ought ­ discrepancies may lead to guilt, fear, shame, and  agitation eg: i ought to do what i do­­­ but when i dont do it­­ go drink, smoke ­­  feel guilt, shame ­ actual­ideal­ discrepancies may lead to disappointment, sadness,  dissatisfaction, dejection eg: perfect ­self ­ Chapter 5: Self-knowledge - Liz Dolinar Who are you? Do others determines the self or does the individual? Charles Cooley - looking glass self - we see ourselves and social world through the eyes of other people and often adopt those views Origins of the Self Child's self-concept Concrete References to characteristics Maturing self-concept Less emphasis on physical characteristics Most emphasis on psychological states, how others judge us Functions of the Self Four main functions Self-knowledge - Defining the self The way we understand who we are and organize this information Self-concept - sense of identity, set of beliefs we hold about what we are like as individuals (personality) Self-schema - organized body of information that relates to some aspect of a person's self Self-control The way we make plans and execute decisions Impression management The way we present ourselves to others and get them to see us as we want to be seen Self-esteem/self-protective - Overall evaluation (+ or -) that people have of themselves The way we maintain positive views of ourselves Benefits of high self-esteem Buffers against thoughts of own mortality - terror management theory - think about death with high self-esteem, reminds you of core values Motivates to persevere when going gets rough Emotions and the Self Helps determine how we feel about ourselves Possible selves (Markus and Nurius) - future selves, motivation to change behavior Self-discrepancy theory (Higgins) Actual-ought (moral) - discrepancies may lead to guilt, fear, shame, agitation Actual-idea (goals, perfect self) - discrepancies may lead to disappointment, sadness, dissatisfaction, dejection Executive Behavior - regulates our behavior, makes choices and plan for the future Self-regulation (Baumeister) - self control in one area often hinders another The self is like a muscle that must be exercised and used in order to strengthen Self-regulatory resource model Views self-control as a limited resource Like a muscle that gets tired with frequent use Rebounds in strength with practice To increase self-control Practice exerting self-control Set behavior intentions - goals/rewards Gender and the development of the self Starting in early childhood, American girls are more likely to: Develop intimate friendships Cooperate with others Focus their attention on social relationships Boys are more likely to focus on their group memberships Gender differences in self definition Women: relationship interdependence - close relationships Men: collective interdependence - memberships in larger groups Cultural differences in the self i.e. Squeaky wheel gets the grease vs. nail that stands out gets pounded down Western cultures have an independent view of the self Learn to define themselves as quite separate from other people and value independence, uniqueness Focusing on the self Introspection - look inward and examine thoughts and motives Does not always yield accurate results Even when people do introspect, the reasons for their feelings and behaviors can be hidden from conscious awareness Self-Awareness (Duval and Wicklund) - focusing attention on the self allows us to compare our current behavior against out internal standards and values (is situational) Looking at picture or in mirror can make you feel disappointed Mirror while trick or treating causes kids to take less candy - seeing yourself doing wrong causes self-awareness and can motivate to change behavior - remind you of your sense of wrong and right The results can be aversive Self-awareness is not always damaging or aversive If you have just experienced a major success, focusing on yourself can be pleasant Self-awareness theory Sometimes people go too far in their attempt to escape the self Focusing on the self can be very aversive Ways to turn off internal spotlight on oneself: Alcohol abuse, binge eating, etc. Not all means of escaping the self are damaging Religious expression, spirituality Comparing ourselves to others Social comparison - use opinions and abilities of others to evaluate ourselves Usually occurs in the absence of objective social reality Downward comparison - compare to those worse off, used to make us feel good Upward comparison - compare to those better off, used to motivate us Knowing ourselves by adopting other people's views Goal - know the furthest level to which we can aspire Upward: comparing to people who are better on a particular ability Goal - feel better about yourself Downward: comparing to people who are worse on a particular trait or ability When do you engage in social comparison? Ex. Donation program, not sure what amount would be generous, you are especially likely to compare yourself to others Social tuning - the process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes Self-evaluation maintenance model People evaluate themselves and need to feel good about those evaluations (Tesser) Cognitive and affective reasons to other's performance can be determined by: Closeness of the individuals Relevance of task Relevant area - jealously Not relevant - pride Quality of one's own and other performance Defining the self through behavior Self-perception theory (Bem) - people construct their self-definitions by observing their behavior (given weak or ambiguous situational causes) Observe behavior if you don't know about yourself - can change attitudes Knowing ourselves by observing our own behavior Infer inner feelings from behavior Only when not sure how we feel People judge whether their behavior Really reflects how we feel Or the situation that made us act that way Understanding our emotions Two factor theory of emotion - Schacter and Singer, 1962 Emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people: Experience physiological arousal, and then Seek an appropriate explanation for it Emotions are somewhat arbitrary, depending on most plausible explanation for their arousal happens to be Look at environment/situation for most reasonable explanation Attribution of emotions Misattribution of arousal - mistaken inference about what is causing people to feel the way they do (Dutton and Aron) February 23, 2016 Attributions for behavior Overjustification­External justification can often undermine internal interest ­Intrinsic Motivation­Engage in task due to enjoyment or internal reasons eg: do it for enjoyment or internal reasons “I read because I enjoy it” vs ­Extrinsic Motivation­ Engage in task for external reasons “I read because I'm taking a lit  class” ­­ once when i graduate, my love for reading has kinda gone ­­ so over justified Behavior over justified ­­like i used to like swimming, but then i became a lifeguard so  then later  eg: if we get paid for grades, working hard becomes an extrinsic reason instead of an  intrinsic reason so it is overjustified. Preserving Intrinsic Interest Conditions under which overjustification effects can be avoided: ­ Rewards will undermine interest only if interest was initially  high. ­ The type of reward makes a difference. Performance ­  contingent rewards might do better than task­contingent rewards. eg: how  the rewards comes in Task­Contingent Rewards rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done. Performance­contingent Rewards Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task Mindsets and Motivation ­ Fixed mindset : The idea that we have a set amount of ability that cannot change ­ Growth mindset: The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can  cultivate and grow ­ Mindset affects motivation: Fixed mindset more likely to give up and do poorly on subsequent tasks after failure Evaluating and Protecting Self Misperceptions of the self  ­ Actor­Observer bias ­ Self­handicapping ­ helps maintain favorable self­image eg: create an own obstacle so that  you dont fail  Two major ways in which people self­handicap. 1. People may create obstacle that reduce the likelihood they will succeed on a task so that if they do fail, they can blame it on these obstacles rather than on their lack of  ability ­­ drugs, alcohol, reduced effort on the task, and failure to prepare. eg: pulling an  all­nighter before a test. 2. People devise ready­made excuses in case they fail ­­­ blaming shyness or i  didnt study even when i did study.. Impression Management Self monitoring ­ Regulation of one’s behavior to meet situational demands. Techniques of positive self­presentation ­ ingratiation ­ praise, flatter ­­ don't do too much  ­ Self­promotion ­ convey competence ­ Intimidation or exemplification ­ Control through fear or superiority eg: prof tries to scare you ­­ people drop class  ­ Supplication ­ Create an impression of weakness or neediness eg:  ­ Appropriate non­verbal behavior ­ use of display rules. Chapter 6 ­ Self­Justification The need to Justify our Actions ­ We have a need to preserve a stable, positive self­concept ­ Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) ­ Definition of cognitive dissonance ­ the feeling of discomfort that arises when we  encounter information that is inconsistent with our typically positive self­concept. eg:  videotaping ­ when a child handicapped asked her to video tape the class ­ she wanted  to be helpful but still didn’t wanna be videotaped. Cognitive dissonance always produces discomfort, which increases even higher with ­ the importance of the subject to us ­ how strongly the dissonant thoughts conflict ­ our inability to rationalize and explain away the conflict Three ways to reduce dissonance 1. Change behavior eg: change the behavior ­ do the other thing 2. Justify behavior by changing one of the dissonant cognitions eg: change the  behavior but put thoughts ­­ add thoughts about something 3. Justify behavior by adding new cognitions eg: smoking ­ yea people die early but  im healthy Self Affirmation ­ Bolster the self­concept ­ reducing dissonance by adding a cognition about other positive attributes ­ eg: smoker who fails to quit not very smart of me to be smoking,  but if I have less self­esteem then im gonna be like i am like that so oh well so  they get less ­dissonance Dissonance and Self Concept Dissonance most painful when one of the cognitions is about the self ­ particularly true for those with high self­esteem Temporary blows to self­esteem can lead to greater behaviors consistent with low opinion of the self (eg: cheat) People less likely to cheat when their self­concept of “not being a cheater” is invoked ­­ higher self­esteem people care about their images more Rational Behavior vs. Rationalizing Behavior ­ the need to maintain self­esteem causes us to rationalize our behavior ­ People who are deeply committed to a position will never change their minds. eg: they saw the haley comet but they didn't see the spaceship behind it but still they didn't  admit they were wrong but they wouldn’t change their minds Decisions, Decisions, Decisions  Every time we make a decision, we experience dissonance DISTORT OUR LIKES AND DISLIKES ­ Chosen alternative has some negative aspects ­ Rejected alternative has some positive aspects  ­ eg: Florida has a beach so i won't pay attention, Pittsburgh doesn't so ill work you look at all the positives for the chosen one and look at all the negatives for  the ones we did not select. Distort our Likes and Dislikes ­ Postdecision Dissonance ­ We enhance the attractiveness of the things we  have chosen and devalue the rejected alternatives The permanence of the decision The more important the decision, the greater the dissonance. ­ Deciding whom to marry is more important than which coffeemaker to buy. If its more permanent then we’re more Decisions also vary in how permanent they are ­­ how hard they are to revoke. ­ You can ….. More important decisions = more dissonance Greater permanence = more dissonance Dissonance at Work ­ Lowballing A salesperson convinces you to buy something for a cheap price, says it was a mistake,  raises the price, and you buy it anyway, why? ­ Behaving Immorally Dissonance reduction after a moral decision causes people to either behave more or  less ethically in the future eg: both underage drinking ­ decide that youre not gonna drink but  then your friend decided to drink ­­ then later on you will be more convinced that to not drink but  your friend will be more okay to drink the next time.. coz you're justifying the immoral so you  dont think drinking is that bad anymore.. ­ Personal Values kinda work the same as behaving immorally Dissonance, Culture, and the Brain Dissonant information ­ reasoning circuits of brain shut down Dissonance is reduced ­ emotions circuits activated Primates also show changes in what is valued after making a decision Insufficient Justification ­ Justification of Effort We need to justify the things we work hard for. ­ Insufficient Justification the dollar study ­­ people paid a dollar liked it more because they didnt wanna say they  liked it just with 1 dollar so they thought they might have actually liked it (internal reason) vs  people who were given 20 dollars said they did it for external reason ­ Counterattitudinal Advocacy ­ Definition: the process in which people are induced to endorse an  attitude that runs counter to their own eg: the more im telling you not to smoke the more im not gonna smoke myself.. Inter vs. External Justification (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959) Join a study group, mild initiation and harsh initiation ­ harsh ­ read areas of the book  that from the romance novel liked it better than mild initiation Insufficient Justification ­ Counterattitudinal Advocacy and Race Relations ­ Hypocrisy and AIDS prevention eg: condom use study so people  who made the video to tell to use condoms were shown to use more condoms  eventually ­ Insufficient Punishment  ­ harsh punishment vs mild punishment ­ eg: sometimes mild punishment works better than  harsh punishment because if they say that im getting 1 minute time out  then i must not want to hit my brother (internal motivated) whereas if you  get no dinner and get beaten then they’re not hitting just cos of the  external factors.  ­ The permanence of Self­Persuasion ­ Not just rewards and punishments ­ grasshopper for a snack ­ nice  person ­ tells you to eat grasshopper you like it more than harsh  person telling you to do the same thing The Aftermath of Good and Bad Deeds 1. The Ben Franklin Effect ­ We dont like the people who do favors for us, we like the people we do favors for. eg: when you help someone who you dont like, you start liking the person because you  did something for them Why we hate out victims? ­ derogation of our victims eg: you have to justify the people that you hate to hurt  them Social Psychology in Action 2 Feb 25, 2016 Mellisa Grad student Personality, Social Psychology and Health ­ one of the three departments How is stress defined? What do you find stressful versus same thing as others find stressful? Definition: Hans Selye ­ Stress as the body’s psychological response to threatening events ­ General adaptation response, non specific. ~ something in the environment 2nd definition came from Holmes and Raye 1967 Stress = degree of to which people have to change and readjust their lives in response to an external event happening in their environment is. death of a family member Do you think happy events are stressful? ­ According to the definition, yes eg: marriage coz changes the domains of your life, financial life Why is it imp to study stress? ­ examples of link btw stress and health: ­ when people undergo major personal upheaval, their chance of  dying increases ­ the number of people who died from a heart attack ­ heart­rate variability­­ if low then linked to depression ~  psychological and physical problems after 9/11 attack How do we measure stress? ­ Stress Checklist ­ list of events that are generally considered stressful ­ Holmes and Raye Stress Scale ­ Events that are generally considered stressful ­ Life change units associated with each event eg:  just sitting in the traffic, really less 10 life change units but still sometimes  stressful College Life Stress Inventory HIV, Rape…...even getting straight As ~ the college life stress inventory Limitations with Stress Inventories 1. Most studies use correlational studies not experimental studies a. Correlate life stress scores with health outcomes b. Dont take into account personality traits i. rumination­ cause both health problems and  tendency to over­report problems 2. The inventories captures stress better for specific  Biggest Issue ­ These inventories measure generally agreed upon stressful events ­ assume objectivity But, everyone perceives stress differently ­ list of situations which are stressful for  some people but not for others, test, ending a bad relationship, having a kid Lazarus and Folkman 1984 Primary appraisal: ­ assessing the situation itself ­ what impact does this have on me ­ is it a threat Secondary appraisal: ­ assesses the extent to which they feel they can cope ­ and have the ability to cope the stressor


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