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Exam 1 Review for BIOL LAB 1 & 2

by: Phuong Nguyen

Exam 1 Review for BIOL LAB 1 & 2 BIOL 1760

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Biology > BIOL 1760 > Exam 1 Review for BIOL LAB 1 2
Phuong Nguyen
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This review covers basic concepts such as the scientific method to scientific notation to cell anatomy, mitosis, meiosis, genetics, DNA profiling and much more!
General Biology Lab
Sabrina Moore
review, Biology, lab, 1, 2, DNA, Profiling, Mitosis, Meiosis, Science, Genetics
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Phuong Nguyen on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 1760 at University of North Texas taught by Sabrina Moore in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology Lab in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
BIO I & II Lab Practical 1 Review  Steps of scientific method 1. Make insightful observations 2. Pose and clarify testable questions 3. Formulate hypothesis = tentative statement that possibly explains observation 4. Do experiments to gather data 5. Quantify the data 6. Test the hypothesis 7. Refine the hypothesis 8. Answer the questions and make conclusions  Define: Independent variable = intentionally changed in experiment Dependent variable = response to independent variable Control = standard without treatment Constant = conditions kept same in control and treatment groups  Define: Hypothesis = statement that clearly states relationship between variables = if-then statement Theory = broader in scope, widely tested and accepted  Know your metric measurements and tools! (micropipette, beakers, graduated cylinders, etc.)  Basic SI units: Mass – kg Volume – L Length – m Time – s Temperature – celcius  Practice some metric conversions (i.e. microliters to milliliters) TGM_ _ _ KHD Base dcm_ _ _ m_ _ _n _ _ _p  Be able to identify parts of a compound microscope Condenser, stage, fine/coarse condenser, ocular  Be able to calculate: Total magnification = ocular (10x) X objective lens (4x or 10x or 40x or 100x) Field of view diameter at different magnifications = 1. Look at your microscope eyepiece. 2. After the eyepiece magnification you will see a F.O.V, number. 3. Multiply your Answer by 1000 to convert to Microns (or move the decimal 3 spaces to the right.)  Be able to identify parts of cells in microscopy images (nucleus, chloroplasts, etc.) All cells have plasma membrane, ribosomes, genetic blueprint, and mitochondria Animal cells have centrioles Plant cells have central vacuole, cell wall and chloroplasts Amyoplasts present in potato cells, nuclei in onion cells  Know the respiration pathway o Final electron acceptor – O2 o Glycolysis – in cytosol/cytoplasm o Electron transport chain – inner membrane space o Krebs cycle – matrix of mitochondria o Anaerobic fermentation – cytosol – doesn’t need O2- organic/inorganic molecules  Be able to explain the “respirometer experiment” with dead and germinating peas Aerobic respiration uses O2 as the terminal electron acceptor in ETC. Because O2 is reduced to water, you can measure the aerobic respiration by measuring the O2 consumption. CO2 is produced, while O2 is consumed. KOH is used to absorb CO2, therefore, net gas volume is net O2 consumption. CO2 production during aerobic respiration– CO2 makes water acidic, so we measured the acidity CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 carbonic acid of the solutions of goldfish and elodea by seeing how much NaOH is required to reach the same pH level. Phenolphthalein is red in basic and colorless in acidic. Animals respire more bc more complex. Elodea have abundant chloroplasts (green)  Know the stages of cell division, both mitosis and meiosis (including number of genes)  Parent cells are diploid and daughter cells are haploid. Daughter cells in mitosis are diploid as well. Meiosis daughter cells are haploid once they separate in telephase I. Zygote is a diploid. Diploid is 2 of each kind of chromosome (2n), haploid is 1 (n).  Review genetics terminology (from slides – allele, gene, types of dominance, etc.) Gene = unit of heredity on a chromosome, 2 alleles for each gene, (one each parent) Allele = different versions of the gene Dominant = masks expression of other alleles Recessive = masked by dominant Homozygous PP or pp Heterozygous Pp Genotype = all alleles present in a cell for a particular trait Phenotype = physical appearance of trait Incomplete dominance (blending) = intermediate genotype, new phenotype Codominance = both alleles present at the same time, without blending (blood or black and white pig) Lethal inheritance = allele inherited kills offspring (homozygous recessive) (albinism)  Be able to construct a Punnett square and calculate genotypic/phenotypic ratios Dihybrid (9:3:3:1 RrSs X RrSs) (4 RrSs = RRSS X rrss)  Know the blood type genotypes and be able to predict possible crosses with a Punnett square  Know the type of dominance involved in blood types (co-dominance)  DNA profiling (=Technique used to identify individuals within a species using DNA samples) Stages: 1. Break cells to release DNA 2. Cut DNA into fragments via restriction enzymes 3. Fragments separated via gel electrophoresis 4. Analyze pattern  Concepts from agarose gel electrophoresis: Separates molecules by size and charge o Larger fragments = slower o Higher molecular weight = slower o Opposites attract - charge of DNA?


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