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Anatomy, Final Study Guide

by: Lauren Zuniga

Anatomy, Final Study Guide Biology 64

Lauren Zuniga
Fresno State

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final study guide for anatomy course
muscle, tissue, nervous, CNS, Hormones, carbs, Lipids, Proteins, appendicular, Skeleton, Epidermis, stratum
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Zuniga on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 64 at California State University Fresno taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at California State University Fresno.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
FINAL STUDY GUIDE FOR ANATOMY 1. Basic understanding of 4 types of tissues on body----connective, epithelial, Muscle, and nervous tissuKnow functions and locations a. Muscle Tissue – i. transforms chemical energy (ATP)  mechanical energy (movement ii. cells are elongated muscle fibers iii. makes up about half of our body mass iv. 3 types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac b. Nervous Tissue- i. CNS-brain and spinal cord; PNS- everything else. ii. Spinal nerves=take impulses to and from the spinal cord iii. Cranial nerves=take impulses to and from the brain iv. There are somatic afferents and visceral afferent in the Sensory(Afferent) division of PNS 1. Somatic afferents= impulses from the skin, muscles joints 2. Visceral afferents= impulses from organs of the ventral cavity v. Nervous tissue made up of neuroglial cells and neurons(nerve cells) 1. Neuroglial cells- astrocytes(CNS), microglia(CNS), ependymal cells(CNS), oligodendrocytes(CNS minus schwann cells in PNS) 2. Neurons- excitable, secrete NT 2. Hormones- review gland they are from/any characteristics given in lecture what is its target? Is it tropic? a. Hormone= released into the blood by the endocrine system with a response that occurs after seconds or even days b. Tropic hormones= hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target (the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus secrete tropic hormones) c. TSH(thyroid-stimulating hormone)= target organ: thyroid gland Principle effect: growth of thyroid and secretion of TH TROPIC d. Thyroid Hormone= iodine containing amino acid derivative Targets all body cells Increases : mitochondrial ATP synthesis, O2 consumption (increases metabolism/heat) e. Parathyroid Hormone=located behind the thyroid (usually 4) -targets: bone(osteoclasts), kidneys, small intestine -function: increases blood Ca++ levels (and decreases urinary excretion of Ca++) f. Insulin= secreted by beta cells in the pancreatic islets -regulates blood glucose levels and promotes synthesis of: glycogen, fat, protein -target: most tissues g. Glucagon= secreted by the alpha cells in the pancreatic islets in a fasting state -targets: liver (release the breakdown of glucagon  glucose) adipose ( fat breakdown and release into blood) h. Aldosterone= target organ: kidney Principle Effect: promotes Na+ retention and K+ excretion, maintain blood pressure and volume 3. General Functionality of Body Systems: Nervous System: regulates the integration of senses (sight, smell, hearing), o regulates emotions, thoughts, memory, dreams o 4 (very) general functions:  1. Sensory Input- monitors changes(stimuli) inside/outside of body; info gathered is sensory input  2. Integration- sensory input is interpreted  3. Motor output- appropriate response is elicited and activates effector organs(muscles or glands)  4. NS has ability to store: MEMORY Digestive System: breaks down nutrients into forms useful to the body, absorb them into the blood, and eliminate the waste. Integumentary System: o 4 functions:  1. Protection: tightly packed cells, multiple layers, chemical protection with keratin, cells that protect: Langerhans in epidermis/macrophages in dermis  2. Body Temp Regulation: evaporation of sweat cools the body; vasodilation= heat escapes; vasoconstriction= heat conserved  3. Cutaneous Sensation: dermis has a rich supply of receptors( touch, pain, temp, pressure, texture)  4. Synthesizes vita D: sunlight converts a molecule in dermal blood vessel to vita D, which is necessary for Ca++ absorption in intestines Cardiovascular System: transports blood throughout the body through the heart (pump) and blood vessels (pipes) 4. Know the 4 Organic compounds and what carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are and give examples.  Carbs: contain a lot of carbon/H20 arranged in a ring o Sugars/starches o Hydrophilic= dissolves in h20; water-loving! o Main source of cellular energy** o Component of DNA/RNA o Examples: Monosaccarides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides  Lipids: C, H, and O (less O) and fats o Hydrophobic=won’t dissolve in H20 o Examples: triglycerides(fats), phospholipids, steroids  Proteins: amphilillic (both hypo/hyper –philic) o Functions: structural material (keratin, collagen), communication, membrane transport, enzymes(catalysts), movement (muscle contraction, and hemoglobin  Nucleic acids: examples are DNA, RNA o DNA: instructions for protein synthesis; contains genetic info o RNA: carries out DNA instructions; assembles amino acids for protein synthesis 5. Difference between the axial and appendicular skeletons: a. Axial Skeleton: main axis; composed of cranial skull, mandible, sternum, ribs, vertebrae (head, neck, trunk) b. Appendicular Skeleton: made of everything else (limbs) 6. Part of the Ventral Body Cavity: Organs in the abdominal cavity: stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs (digestive organs and kidneys) “ “ pelvic cavity: protected by bony pelvis and the reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and rectum 7. Characteristics of the Epidermis and Strata (layers): a. Epidermis: i. Superficial, thinnest layer of keratinized stratified squamous epi ii. Avascular iii. 5(or 4) layers (or strata) depending on location b. Stratum Basale (deepest) i. Only regenerative layer ii. Contains 3 cell types: keratinocytes (produce keratin) , melanocytes (produce melanin), and merkel cells (touch receptors) c. Stratum Spinosum i. Several layers of keratinocytes and a few langerhan cells ii. Stimulate the immune system iii. Produced in bone marrow, migrates to skin iv. Has desmosomes d. Stratum Granulosum i. 3-5 cell layers ii. contain a waterproof glycolipid iii. secreted into the extra cellular fibers e. Stratum Lucidum** i. Exists only in thick skin: palms (hands)/soles of feet f. Stratum Corneum i. 20-30 layers thick ii. superficial, durable protective layer iii. dead, scaly keratinocytes iv. apical cells flake off and are replaced by mitosis of basal cells **new epidermis every 3-6weeks!!** 8. Define Osteoblast, Osteoclast, and Osteocyte. a. Osteoblast=bone-forming cells i. Synthesize organic matter of the matrix ii. Found in endosteum, inner layer of periosteum iii. Non-mitotic (but numbers increase in response to injury) b. Osteoclast= bone-dissolving cells found on bone surfaces and are derived from bone marrow cells i. Secrete lysosomal enzymes that digest organic matric ii. And they secrete metabolic acids that dissolve the minteral salts iii. Also, may phagocytize the demineralized matrix c. Osteocyte= former osteoblasts that were trapped in matrix i. Reside in lacunae ii. Maintain matrix iii. Connected to each other by canaliculi 9. Cell Organelles: a. Mitochondria: i. Contain enzymes that break down carbs and form ATP using oxygen ii. Busy cells have lots iii. Bean-shaped, double membrane** iv. Inner membrane has folds: cristae v. Enzymes found on cristae b. Golgi Apparatus i. Membranous sacs ii. Synthesizes carbs iii. Receive proteins synthesized on the rough ER 1. modifies them/packages them in vesicles 2. vesicles: are secreted from the cell 3. added to the membrane 4. become lysosomes


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