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Anatomy, Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry Notes

by: Lauren Zuniga

Anatomy, Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry Notes Biology 64

Marketplace > California State University Fresno > Biology > Biology 64 > Anatomy Ch 2 Basic Chemistry Notes
Lauren Zuniga
Fresno State

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About this Document

basic chemistry notes including the concepts of matter and energy
matter, Energy, kinetic, Protons, Neutrons, electrons, Molecules, compounds, anabolic, catabolic, catalysts, acids, bases, inorganic, buffers, Lipids, Proteins, coenzyme, substrate, ATP, RNA
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Zuniga on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 64 at California State University Fresno taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at California State University Fresno.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry Definition of Concepts: Matter & Energy • Matter o DEF: Anything that occupies space and has mass o States of Matter ! Solid ! Liquid ! Gas • Energy o DEF: The capacity to do work, or to put matter into motion o Kinetic Energy ! DEF: Energy in action " EX: A ball rolling down a hill o Potential Energy ! DEF: Stored energy " EX: A ball sitting on top of a hill o Forms of Energy ! 1. Chemical " Energy stored in chemical bonds " EX: Breaking apart ATP ! 2. Electrical " Results from the movement of charged particles " EX: Nerve impulses ! 3. Mechanical " Energy directly involved in moving matter " EX: Walking ! 4. Radiant/Electromagnetic " Energy that travels in waves " EX: X-rays o Energy Conversions ! Inefficient ! In the body, lost energy = heat " ! Temp = ! Metabolic Rate " Composition of Matter: Atoms and Elements • Key words: o Elements o Periodic Table o Atoms o Atomic Symbol o Orbitals • Atomic Structure o Protons ! + charged particles ! Protons always = electrons ! # Protons = atomic number o Neutrons ! Neutral charged particles ! Neutrons can differ in elements " Called isotopes (have the same number of protons) o Electrons ! - charged particles • IDing Elements o Mass Number ! Sum of proton and neutron masses in an element o Atomic Weight ! Average weight of all isotopes of an element • Radioisotopes o Isotopes that exhibit radioactive decay o EX: Carbon 14 How Matter is Combined: Molecules & Mixtures • Molecules and Compounds o Molecule: ! DEF: >2 same atoms held together by chemical bonds ! EX: O2 (oxygen) o Compound: ! DEF: >2 different atoms bind ! EX: H2O (water) • Mixtures o DEF: Substances composed of >2 components physically intermixed o Types: ! 1. Solutions " Homogeneous mixtures • Homogeneous: Same substance/composition throughout " Solvent: • DEF: Substance in the greatest amount o Usually liquid • EX: H2O " Solutes: • DEF: Substances present in the solvent • EX: NaCl (salt) " Concentration • DEF: Described as percent solute in the total solution ! 2. Colloids " DEF: Heterogeneous mixtures • Heterogeneous: Dissimilar composition throughout the mixture ! 3. Suspensions " DEF: Heterogeneous mixtures with large solutes that have settled out " EX: Blood o Mixture vs. Compound ! 1. No chemical bonding between components of a mixture ! 2. Components of a mixture can be separated by physical means ! 3. Some mixtures are homogeneous, others are heterogeneous Chemical Bonds • Role of Electrons in Chemical Bonding o Electron Shells ! Levels of energy ! Hold a specific amount of energy ! Full shells = inert • Types of Bonds o Ionic: ! Transfer of electrons from one atom to the other ! EX: NaCl o Covalent ! Atoms share the electrons ! Polar Covalent: " Unequal sharing " EX: H2O ! Non-Polar Covalent: " Equal sharing " EX: CO2 o Hydrogen ! Hydrogen atoms form bridges between electronegative atoms ! EX: H2O binding to H2O Chemical Reactions • Chemical Equations o Reactants (things you’re combining) on Left o Products on Right o Coeffiecients in front of molecules = amount of that molecule needed in the reaction • Types of Chemical Reactions o Anabolic: ! Synthesis reactions ! A + B " AB ! EX: Protein synthesis o Catabolic: ! Decomposition reactions ! AB " A + B ! EX: Glycogen broken down to glucose o Redox Reactions ! Electrons are exchanged between reactants ! Oxidized: " Reactant loses electrons " Becomes more positive ! Reduced: " Reactant gains electrons " Becomes more negative • Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions o Exergonic ! DEF: Reactions release energy o Endergonic ! DEF: Reactions absorb energy • Reversibility of Chemical Reactions o " ! Forward reaction o # ! Reverse reaction o Double arrow ! Reversible reaction ! In equilibrium • Factors Influencing the Rate of Chemical Reactions o 1. Temperature ! ! T = ! Reaction speed o 2. Concentration ! ! conc. of reactants = faster reaction o 3. Particle Size ! Smaller particles = faster reaction o 4. Catalysts ! DEF: Substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product. ! ENZYMES! Chapter 2: Biochemistry Inorganic Compounds • Water o Properties: ! 1. High heat capacity " Absorbs lots of heat before it itself increases in temperature ! 2. High heat vaporization " Large amounts of heat are expelled when water evaporates ! 3. Polar solvent properties " Universal Solvent " Hydration layers • Layers of water molecules around larger molecules • Shields them from effects of other charged particles ! 4. Reactivity " Reactant in many reactions " Hydrolysis: • Splitting compounds using water " Dehydration: • Forming bonds with water ! 5. Cushioning " Cushions body organs • Salts o Salt ! DEF: Ionic compound containing cations (positive ions) other than H+, and anions (negative ions) other than OH- ! Dissociate (break apart) when put in water o Electrolytes ! DEF: Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution ! Salts are electrolytes o Common salts ! NaCl (Sodium chloride) ! CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate) ! KCl (Potassium chloride) • Acids & Bases o Electrolytes o Acids ! DEF: Proton donors (release hydrogen ions) ! Dissociate into protons and anions " Acid ! Proton + Anion o Bases ! DEF: Proton acceptor (take up hydrogen ions) ! Dissociate into hydroxyl ions and cations " Base ! Hydroxyl Ions + Cations ! Important bases " Bicarbonate " Ammonia o pH ! Acidic = <7 pH units " Acidic ! Neutral = 7 pH units ! Basic = >7 pH units " Alkyline o Neutralization Reactions ! DEF: When an acid and base are mixed to form a salt and water " Acid + Base ! Salt + Water o Buffers ! DEF: Resists change in pH " Too acidic? Bind hydrogen ions " Too basic? Bind hydroxyl ions ! Strong acids " DEF: Acids that dissociate completely and irreversibly in water " EX: HCl ! Weak acids " DEF: Acids that do not dissociate completely " EX: H2CO3 " Do not affect pH ! Strong bases " DEF: Dissociate easily in water and take up H+ " EX: NaOH ! Weak bases " DEF: Ionizes completely and irreversibly and accepts relatively few protons " EX: Bicarbonate ion ! Carbonic Acid-Bicarb System " Buffers the blood • Drop in pH (More acidic) o Carbonic Acid (Weak Acid) ! Bicarb (Weak Base) + Proton • Rise in pH (More basic) o Proton + Bicarb ! Carbonic Acid Organic Compounds • Key Terms o Electroneutral o Polymer o Monomer • 1. Carbohydrates o DEF: Group of molecules that include sugars and starches o Contain: ! C, H, O " More O than lipids o Types: ! 1. Monosaccharide " DEF: Simple sugars (one sugar) " EX: Glucose ! 2. Disaccharide " DEF: Two sugars joined together " Created using a dehydration reaction " EX: Sucrose ! 3. Polysaccharide " DEF: >3 monosaccharides linked together " EX: Starch o Functions ! 1. Provide ready, easy to use energy ! 2. Structural purposes • 2. Lipids o DEF: Insoluable in water, but soluable in other lipids and EtOH and ether o Contain: ! C, H, O " Less O than carbs " Some contain P o Types: ! 1. Triglycerides " Building Parts: • Fatty Acids (FA) o Linear chains of C and H with a carboxy group at the end • Glycerol o Modified simple sugar " Structure (Basic) • 3 FAs + 1 Glycerol • Formed via dehydration reactions " Saturated Fats: • FA with single bonds • At room temp: Solid " Unsaturated Fats: • FA with double bonds • At room temp: Liquid " Trans Fats • Unsaturated fats that have H+ added to them • At room temp: Solid ! 2. Phospholipids " Phosphorous head with 2 FA chains as tails " Make up plasma membrane ! 3. Steroids " 4-ringed structure " Derived from cholesterol ! 4. Eicosanoids " Lipids derived from 20-carbon FA " In all cell membranes • 3. Proteins o Monomer: Amino Acids (AA) ! 20 types of AA o Formation ! AA bind together via dehydration reactions to form peptides ! Peptides add AAs until they are proteins o Protein Structure ! 1. Primary " Linear sequence of AA ! 2. Secondary " Alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets ! 3. Tertiary " >2 secondary structures combined ! 4. Quaternary " >2 tertiary structures combined o Fibrous Proteins ! Extended and strandlike ! Insoluable in water and very stable. ! EX: Collagen o Globular Proteins ! Compact and spherical ! Water soluable, chemically active ! EX: Antibodies ! Chaperones " DEF: Help proteins achieve their functional three- dimensional structure " Basically aid the proteins whenever they need it ! Enzymes " DEF: Globular proteins that act as biological catalysts " Holoenzyme • DEF: 2 parts of the enzyme " Apoenzyme • DEF: Protein protion of enzyme " Cofactor • DEF: Organic molecule needed to assit the reaction " Coenzyme • DEF: Cofactor derived from vitamins " Substrate • DEF: Substance on which an enzyme acts " Activation Energy • DEF: Energy required to break bonds of the reactants " Enzyme Action: • 1. Substrate binds the active site of the enzyme • 2. Enzyme-substrate complex undergoes internal rearrangement to form the product • 3. Enzyme releases product o Denaturation ! DEF: Unfolding of the protein structure caused by several factors ! Factors: " 1. High temp " 2. Low pH ! Results: Proteins lose function • 4. Nucleic Acids o Contain: ! C, H, O, N, P o Monomer: ! Nucleotide " Composed of: • 1. Nitrogen base o Types: ! A, C, T, G, and U • 2. Phosphate group • 3. Pentose sugar ! DNA " Structure: • Double helix " Bases: • A, C, T, G • Binding o A-T, C-G " Sugar: • Deoxyribose ! RNA " Structure: • Single strands " Bases: • A, C, U, G • Binding o A-U, C-G " Sugar: • Ribose • ATP o Structure: ! Adenine + Ribose + 3 Phosphates o Energy is released when the phosphate bond is cleaved via ATP hydrolysis ! ATP + H2O ! ADP + Pi + Energy


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