Psychology chapter 1 study guide
Psychology chapter 1 study guide PSYC 121 06
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Casey Shore on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 121 06 at Radford University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Research in Psychology Descriptive/ Correlation: Descriptive… Naturalist Observations - No Manipulations - “Real World” Behavior - Observer Effects - Observer Bias - Individual Case Study: used to study rare cases, but you can’t generalize the findings. - Survey: Uses-Assess people’ “overall” opinions, attitudes, and behaviors. - Limitations: Sociality Describes responding, wondering effects, random sample. For example, How is you hometown? The “subjects” would circle or select a number between 1 and 10 to voice their opinions. - Wording Effects: If you own a car dealership and you are trying to sell a used car, more people are likely to buy it if you say it is previously owned, mainly because that sounds more pleasing to the ear. Correlations: Correlations show us how behaviors relate to one another. They correlate. Correlation Coefficients show us how much they are related, for prediction. Correlation does NOT = causation – Third variable problem. Correlation Coefficient: A statistic showing that a relationship may exist between 2 (two) variables. NOTE: The Correlation Coefficient has nothing directly to do with Correlational Design. Values range from -1 to +1 0= NO relationship b/w variables -1 and +1 = perfect relationships The sign tells you the direction of the correlation, POSITIVE (+) or NEGATIVE (-). Experiments: Manipulate Independent Variable (cause), then observe changes in the Dependent Variable (effect). - Experimental Group: receives the treatment (manipulations of the Independent Variable). - Control Group -Everything is identical to the experimental group, except no treatment occurs. - Random Assistance- all participation must have equal chance of assignment to the experimental or control group. Take away: In experiments, a variable is manipulated (Independent Variable) and its effect measured (Dependent Variable). Ethics and Retention: Protecting Participants -Study animals and study humans Informational Consent: giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. - Debriefing: the post experimental explanation of a study including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants. You have to tell the participants how, why, and when you lied to them during the experiment. ** A Confederate is someone who works behind the scenes during a study, and extra. Researchers must keep things confidential like people. ** Scientists Conduct Ethical Research: -Ethical boards must approve ALL research! o Institutional Review Board (IRB) informed consent Protect participants Protect Confidentiality Fully explain the purpose of the study o Institutional Animal Care Use Committee (IACUC) Be treated kindly (minimizing discomfort and/or pain Be properly fed Be kept in sanitary conditions -The Belmont Report: o The principle of research for Persons o The principle of research for Beneficence o The principle of research for Justice Retention: Testing Effects -Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. -Distribute your study time -Think critically -Process class information actively -Overlearn 3 Main Levels of Analysis… Biology, Socio-Culture, and Psychology gives us the Biosychosocial approach (Combines all three). Behavior of Mental Process Biological: Psychologiacal o Heredity (genetics) Fears and Expectations o Natural Selection Emotional Response o Genes and Environmental Cognition and Perception Socio-Culture Where you lived -> culture Societal/ Family Norms Peer Influences Models (Media) Current Perspectives: Neuroscience, Evolution, Behavior Genetics, Psychodynamics, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social-Cultural. ** They all complement each other.** Anger/Aggression: Neuroscience: what are the brain circuits that are involved in anger? Evolutionary: How has anger evolved over time to help us with survival? Behavior: How do heredity experiences influence our individual differences with anger? Psychodynamic: How are your anger outburst reflect of unconscious hostilities? Behavioral: Does reality TV influence children? Cognitive: How does anger affect your thinking? Social- Culture: Is anger encouraged is some cultures? Science vs Common Sense Intuition: that feeling in our heart- that if we follow is-will provide the most reliable guide. Thinking, memory, and attitude operate both consciously and unconsciously. Hindsight Bias: tendency to believe that you could believe the outcome before you knew it. “I knew it all along”. Phenomenon (Monday moving quarterbacks), it’s easy to think you could change the outcome after common sense describes what has happened not what will happen. Over Confidence: We poorly predict outcomes. **ITNEKT= KITTEN RSOHE =HORSE DWOPRE= POWDER **It takes 3 minutes to solve 3 scramblers for an average person. Science vs. Common Sense: Mistake random for order. We like to make since of the world around us. A random sequential does not often look random. We see what we want. Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skepticism, and Humility. Scientists use theories… Theory: An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behavior. Theories help us… Describe: relationships between large numbers of variables. Organize: our knowledge about variables. Explain: why variables are related. Predict: how variables should be related. Theories are put into the Scientific Method. Scientific Method= If you sleep more, then your test grades will improve. (Hypothesis) Operational Define= sleep or hours of sleep per night, grades- test scores or percentiles. -A good way to test this is to split the subjects into three groups and allow one group to get 8 hours of sleep, one group will get 6 hours of sleep and the last one will get 4 hours of sleep. After that you will record their grades and see who has the best grades, you will need to repeat this several time to make sure the results are accurate (falsifiability). Your hypothesis has to be falsified. Variable: An observable thing that changes. Independent Variable (cause): Causes a change in other variables (sleep). Dependent Variable (effect): Changes because of Independent Variable (grades). Other Examples: -Blood alcohol levels and driving ability. -Class attendance and you GPA. -Hours of work and the size of your paycheck.
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