HIST 110A Exam 1 Notes
HIST 110A Exam 1 Notes HIST 110A
Cal State Fullerton
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by M. Walia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
I. Prehistory A. Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age) ~ 2.5 million years ago 1. had 4 ice ages ~ mostly uninhabited 2. ended 40,000 years ago 3. people could only live near the equator because it was warmer • survived by hunting and gathering • hunted mammoth and bison; gathered nuts, berries, fruits, and animal eggs ◦ hunted with handax; two stones were hammered together until they were sharp ◦ would jump on the animal and stab it 4. lived in caves or tents(made of animal skin) 5. lived in small communities of about 20 6. life expectancy was short ~ about 20 years • women had an even shorter life expectancy → they died during childbirth or not long after due to infection B. Middle Stone Age(Mesolithic Age) ~ 40,000 – 10,000 years ago 1. about 25,000 years ago, people invented the bow and arrow and harpoon(spear and rope) • harpoons were used to kill whales and seals; useful because the tip was bonetipped → the bone could easily penetrate the animal's blubber 2. people learned to sew → used animal bone as a needle and animal sinews for thread C. New Stone Age(Neolithic Age) ~ 10,000 years ago 1. weather began to change → the Earth became → people needed to find new ways to feed themselves(agriculture and domestication of animals) • Agriculture ~ 9,000 years ago in Jericho ◦ grew wheat and barley ◦ different climates = different crops(ex. China = rice; Africa = okrat and blackeyed peas; America = maize, tomatoes) • Domestication ~ 9,000 years ago in Turkey ◦ began domesticating cows ◦ 8,000 years ago in Iran – began eating pig 2. people no longer needed to keep moving with the animals → settled down in villages • first village = Jericho 3. 8,000 years ago ~ people learned to make pottery and how to weave(make clothing with cloth instead of animal fur) → people want to start trading 4. idea of rich/poor develops ~ we can tell this by digging up graves • a wealthy person would be buried with possessions(also indicates that they believed in the afterlife) 5. Religion • built megaliths(giant stone monuments) using pillars and posts • biggest megalith on Earth = Stone Henge ◦ stones came from 250 miles away; weighed 4550 tons each ◦ took about 30 million man hours of work ◦ reasons for building: 1. alien signaling device 2. agricultural calendar ◦ when to plant and harvest crops 3. temple to worship sun II. First Civilization A. Near East(Fertile Crescent) 1. to be a part of a civilization one must live in a city/town, have architecture, use iron tools, have organized religion, have writing 2. first civilization began in the Fertile Crescent → called Sumeria(in modern day Iraq) ~ 6,000 years ago 3. Sumeria was a citystate → had no organized government(Ur, Lagash, Kish) 4. ate wheat and dates ▪ used Euphrates and Tigris to travel to other people to sell food in exchange for raw materials(copper, tin, gold, silver, wood) • skilled craftsmen: tin + copper = bronze swords; gold + silver = jewelry; wood = furniture, boxes • resell new products 5. first to come up with irrigation → built dams and canals to direct water to crops 6. first to invent writing around 3300 B.C. ▪ Used clay tablets as paper and reeds as pens 7. First to use weights and measures 8. first to brew beer and use lunar calendar(365 days/year) 9. first to use circle of 360 degrees 10. used Epic of Gilgamesh ~ tale of man searching for immortality → he encounters a man who had survived a worldwide flood by building a ship(Noah's Ark) 11. most famous for their religious ideas → influenced the Old Testament • built giant temples(Ziggurats) made of sundried bricks ◦ 200 feet long, 150 feet wide, 70 feet high ◦ used for sacrifices ◦ Genesis ~ people built a tower(Tower of Babel) to meet God facetoface → God made the people all start speaking different languages so they couldn't finish building the tower 12. about 2300 B.C. Sumeria was taken over and disappeared B. Empires of the Fertile Crescent 1. Babylon ~ began around 1900 B.C. • King Hammurabi ~ R. 1728 – 1686 B.C. → sixth king ◦ Code of Hammurabi – 282 laws; ex. Treat foreigners well, all contracts must be in writing, employers are required to pay fair wages; based on savage principle of “an eye for an eye”; lots of capital punishment for little things(ex. Witchcraft) → death if wife commits adultery, unmarried daughter lost her virginity, incest, bestiality, or homosexuality • about 1600 B.C. Babylon is conquered by the Hittites 2. Assyria ~ 1400 B.C. • Capital = Nineveh • people hated them because they always conquered other land • 800 B.C. ~ became more significant • main weapon was the chariot(carriage pulled by four horses) ◦ also used cavalry(soldiers on horseback) and infantry(foot soldiers) ◦ used battering rams to enter cities ◦ catapults • TigalethPileser III ~ R. 745 – 727 B.C. ◦ Conquered Babylon and Syria ◦ tells Hebrews he will leave them alone if they pay tribute(gold and silver) ◦ eventually rules entire fertile crescent ◦ notoriously cruel → travels from place to place with a pyramid of skulls; if people didn't surrender, he'd skin them alive • AssurBaniPal ~ R. 668 – 626 B.C. ◦ Made Assyria the biggest it ever was(conquered Elam, northern Arabia, and half of Egypt) ◦ told pharaoh of Egypt he could keep being pharaoh if he did what Assur wanted → his “puppet” ◦ about 610 B.C. Assyria is destroyed 3. NeoBabylon • Nebuchadnezzar ~ R. 604 – 562 B.C. ◦ Mentioned in Book of Daniel → ruled all of fertile crescent; conquered Jerusalem ◦ created Hanging Gardens in the desert for his wife ▪ 75 ft above ground 4. Persian Empire • Cyrus the Great ◦ founded Persia in 549 B.C. ◦ Interested in northern India and southern Russia ◦ 539 B.C. ~ conquer NeoBabylon without a fight ◦ calls himself “King of the 4 Quarters of the World” • Cambyses ◦ Cyrus's son ◦ wanted to conquer Egypt → difficult because it's all desert for the Nile → builds a navy in the Mediterranean → attacks in 525 B.C. and wins → doesn't want to allow the pharaoh to continue ruling and becomes pharaoh himself ▪ keeps sailing after and goes on to Ethiopia III.Egyptian History A. Egyptology 1. from June to October, the Nile floods → when it returns it leaves silt(fertile soil) • grow crops from October to February • harvest crops from February to June 2. Nile provided food: fish, muscles, turtles 3. divided into 31 dynasties B. Protodynastic Period(Dynasties 1 – 3) 1. 3100 B.C. ~ Narmer unifies upper and lower Egypt → becomes first pharaoh → builds a capital in Memphis 2. came up with solar calendar(365 days); day = 2 unites of 12 hours 3. first to do brain surgery(drill hole in head to remove fluid) 4. began using hieroglyphics ~ 3100 B.C. • “picture writing”; at first, it didn't work very well because one symbol could mean several things • created papyrus(paper) from reed • created ink from gum and carbon by pressing them together 5. built first pyramid in 2650 B.C. • Designed by Imhotep, who was also a surgeon; first commoner to become a “god” when he died • made of limestone • “step” pyramid C. Old Kingdom 1. 2500 B.C. ~ Great Pyramid is built for Pharaoh Cheops • built in the Valley of the Kings • covers 15 acres of land; made of 2.3 million blocks(2.5 tons/block); 495 feet high 2. Nubia = Sudan • had quarries → cut limestone → sailed up the Nile with blocks → blocks dragged to building site on sleds → ramp used to get to top → blocks dropped on top of each other → took 20 years to build and 100,000 men 3. 2200 B.C. ~ country splits → second pharaoh in Thebes D. First Intermediate Period ~ 2200 B.C. 1. Nomads begin robbing people 2. Mentuhoter becomes pharaoh in Thebes → takes over all of Egypt E. Middle Kingdom ~ 2050 B.C. 1. Mentuhoter kicks out the nomads 2. time of trade → trades with fertile crescent 3. Senworsret III ~ R. 1863 – 1842 B.C. • Wants to trade with Africa → wants gold, slaves, ivory, and animal skins ◦ to get there, he had to go through Nubia → builds fortresses along the Nile to protect businessmen 4. 1700 B.C. ~ country invaded from the North by “sea people”(refugees) → conquer top half of Egypt(lower Egypt) nd F. 2 Intermediate Period 1. 1575 B.C. ~ sea people forced to leave G. New Kingdom ~ 1575 B.C. 1. Time of great pharaohs 2. Thutmose III ~ R. 1479 – 1425 B.C. • Created Egyptian army → generals = his sons; used chariots • attacks fertile crescent → invades 17 times to frighten the local population ◦ takes over the holy land(wheat), Lebanon(oranges and lemons), and Syira(wood) ▪ also gets slaves from each area 3. Ramesses II ~ R. 1278 – 1213 B.C. • Had 8 wives and 100 kids → 2 of his wives were his daughters • conquers Nubia • builds new cities and temples(built by slaves) 4. 1130 B.C. ~ inflation → people become poor → begin committing crimes 5. 1087 B.C. ~ New Kingdom ends H. Egyptian Women 1. didn't have total equality, but had basic equality • could own property(including slaves), start a business, testify in court, or be sued 2. didn't know how to read or write • very few knew how(royalty) • wasn't that bad because most men were illiterate too 3. main job: have kids 4. marriage was based on monogamy(except for pharaoh) 5. divorce was uncommon and discouraged • reason: infertility • wanted women with childbearing hips 6. Queen Nefertiti ~ 1350 B.C. • Used her beauty to advance • most of what we know about her is from wall paintings ◦ painted at equal size of her husband ~ significant because it suggested that she was equal in every way ◦ painted doing sacrifices to gods → only pharaoh was meant to do this ◦ painted as a soldier with a sword and shield, killing people 7. Ikhnaton ~ “The Heretic” • married to Nefertiti • didn't believe in polytheism → only believed in Rei ◦ closed the temples to other gods • once he died, the Egyptians went back to worshiping multiple gods • to punish him and his wife, the Egyptians removed their bodies from the pyramid and threw them away I. Egyptian Religion 1. polytheism – worshiped multiple gods • Re = sun; top god • Osiris = lord of the gods • Isis = mother goddess; in charge of infertility; Osiris's sister/wife • Horace = god of sky; had head of a hawk • Anubis = god of embalming(preparing/preserving dead bodies); had head of a jackal • Thoth = god of wisdom/writing 2. thought entire universe was all water except the earth(sky = blue = water) • sun enters its day boat and sails through the sky • Apep(serpent) – sun's enemy; will attempt to swallow(and sometimes succeed) the sun • at night, the sun enters the water below the Earth(duat) in its night boat 3. Afterlife/Underworld ▪ you wake up and will come before Osiris and 42 judges to be judged; 42 judges because Egypt had 42 districts • your heart will be weighed by Maat(goddess of justice) → if your heart is lighter than a feather, you will live forever in the afterlife → if it's heavier, you will be devoured by a crocodile • Osiris and judges reach a decision and Thoth records it ▪ thought people would need their bodies in the afterlife → preserved them ▪ tomb size would depend on wealth; buried with possessions ▪ Old Kingdom ~ 4 Dynasty → organs were harvested and put in jars except heart; put natron on body to prevent decay → wrap body in white linen(mummy) ▪ mortuary cults pray for a person's wellbeing in the afterlife 4. Pharaoh th ▪ part god – part man ~ belief started int eh 4 dynasty • named them(ex. Son of Re; Living Horus) ▪ if someone tried to hurt the pharaoh, Egypt will suffer the punishment of the gods(earthquakes, famine, floods) ▪ in return for taking care of the dead in the afterlife, the gods wanted sacrifices → usually carried out by the pharaoh → essential to be safe ▪ Great pyramid built so the pharaoh would receive the tomb he deserved • the sun will shine down and the pharaoh will travel up the rays to the day boat → will sail across the sky for eternity J. The Old Testament 1. 39 books(history, prophecy, poetry) 2. Genesis ~ Chapter 12 • begins with a man named Abraham who live in modern day Iraq ~ 1900 B.C. • God appears to him and tells him to leave his home and family to travel to a new land(Canaan) → travels with wife (Sarah) • Abraham(99) and Sarah(90); God tells them that they'll have kids → Sarah laughs → have son named Isaac(means “laughter” → Isaac has son named Jacob (also called Israel after wrestling with an angel) → has 12 sons • Jacob's 12 sons were shepherds • Famine hits the land of Canaan → family must move to Egypt → Joseph goes to Egypt before the rest of his family → becomes friendly with the pharaoh because he can interpret dreams→ moves to Goshen 3. Exodus ▪ pharaoh wants to get rid of Hebrews → turns them into slaves and makes them do hard labor to work them to death • tells midwives to kill every male Hebrew by tossing them into the Nile ▪ one woman hid her son and put him in a basket on the Nile → a princess of Egypt discovers him and raises him as Moses ▪ Moses is raised as a prince; sees a slave being beaten → kills overseer → runs away to Midian ▪ God appears to Moses in a burning bush and reveals his holy name(Yahweh) → tells Moses to go back to Egypt to free the Hebrews • Moses speaks to the pharaoh → every time the pharaoh says no, God punishes Egypt ◦ 10 plagues ~ ex. Locusts eat crops, Nile turns to blood, Egypt covered in frogs, country turns pitch black at noon, everyone is covered in boils, hail storm) ◦ worst plague = pass over → Angel of Death passes over Hebrew homes(nothing homes); passes over Egyptian homes (first born dies) • pharaoh finally lets Hebrews leave after they'd been in Egypt for 400 years • Hebrews head to Red Sea → pharaoh changes his mind and leads soldiers after them → Moses parts the Red Sea(1250 B.C.) and leads them across → Egyptians try to follow and are crushed • Hebrews head to Sinai Peninsula → Moses heads to Mount Sinai where God gives him the 10 commandments(thou shalt not: steal kill, commit adultery, bear false witness, covet(desire/jealousy); thou shalt: honor thy father and thy mother, keep the sabbath holy) • Moses heads into a covenant(agreement) with God – Hebrews promise to only worship Yahweh and, in return, he will love and protect them • Hebrews stayed in the desert for 40 years to travel to promised land(Canaan) • Moses made God angry and never entered the promised land → died and is replaced by Joshua, son of Nun 4. Book of Joshua ▪ Hebrews entered Canaan violently → killed the Canaanites • according to Book of Judges, they entered peacefully and intermarried ▪ Hebrews began worshiping local god(Baal = fertility god; husband of Ashtarte) • reinforces idea that they entered peacefully → wouldn't be worshiping local god if they had killed the locals • thought Yahweh was god of the desert and sea and couldn't help them in Canaan; men liked to worship Baal because he had priestesses(gives her money and engaged in ritual sex to make the crops grow) ▪ once Hebrews are in Canaan, it became known as Israel ▪ about 1150 B.C. ~ Israel is invaded • invaders build 5 cities on the coast • around 7 feet tall • called Philistines • worship Dagon(giant fish) → some Hebrews begin worshiping Dagon 5. Book of Samuel ▪ 1025 B.C. ~ Hebrews get a new leader ▪ priest judge, prophet ▪ Hebrews want a human king → Samuel chooses first king of Israel(Saul) ▪ Samuel tells Saul what God wants him to do → Saul disobeys • also supposed to defeat Philistines → bad general and can't ▪ Samuel asks God to send him to someone better → Samuel travels to Bethlehem to find Jesse(had 8 sons) → youngest son(David) was a shepherd → Samuel became David's friend and mentor ▪ before battle with Philistines, Goliath(9 feet tall) challenges any Hebrew to fight him → David has a slingshot while Goliath has a sword and armor → knocks Goliath unconscious and chops his head off ▪ civil war starts between David and Saul → David wins and becomes 2 king of Israel ~ 1,000 B.C. 6. Book of David ▪ makes Israel bigger → defeats Philistines → takes over Jerusalem(becomes his capital), “City of David” → unifies 12 tribes of Hebrews ▪ wrote book of religious poetry(Psalms) ▪ weakness: women → watches Bathsheba bathe and lusts for her → begins a sexual relationship with her even though shes married to Uriah → David sends Uriah into heavy battle → Uriah gets killed ▪ God is angry with David for what he did and sends Nathan to talk to him ▪ died around 960 B.C. 7. Book of Solomon ▪ 3 king of Israel ▪ builds Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem as a place to honor Yahweh ▪ wrote Proverbs • 1 Kings ~ two women come to Solomon and claim to be the mother of a baby → Solomon says he will chop the baby in half and give each woman half of it → one woman(the real mom) says to kill her instead of the baby while the other thinks it's a good idea ▪ ceases to be a wise man as he gets older → becomes an “old fool” ▪ begins indulging himself in women → had 700 wives and 300 concubines • they convince him to worship other gods ▪ died around 927 B.C. ▪ 10 tribes become a new nation because they didn't want Solomon's son to rule • son is left with two tribes – names Judah ▪ 750 B.C. ~ split nation = week → Assyria bullies Israel and Judah for tribute ▪ 722 B.C. ~ Israel rebels → gets destroyed; “lost 10 tribes” ▪ 600 B.C. ~ new powerful civilization in fertile crescent = NeoBabylon ▪ Nebuchadnezzar tells Judah what to do → Judah rebels → Nebuchadnezzar takes over Jerusalem → forgives Hebrews and chooses them a new king(Zedekiah) ▪ 2 Kings ~ 588 B.C. Zedekiah rebels → Nebuchadnezzar and army lay siege to Judah to starve them → lasts two years → people began eating cats and dogs ▪ Nebuchadnezzar's army enter city and destroy Tower of Solomon → Zedekiah runs away and is captured → they pierce his nose with a chain and drag him to meet Nebuchadnezzar → Zed's sons are chopped to pieces in front of him → sword is shoved into Zedekiah's eyes to blind him ▪ Nebuchadnezzar destroys Judah → survivors move to NeoBabylon → begin referring to themselves as Jews 8. Jews religion = Judaism ▪ prophets: Hosea, Amos, Isaiah, Ezekial ▪ invented monotheism • continually said by Amos and Isaiah ▪ first to come up with “personal God” God has feelings: becomes angry if people worship other gods ~ feels like a husband whose wife cheated on him ▪ gives best case for doing social justice • Old Testament tells you to take care of poor people because God will be angry if you don't ▪ gives best answer to “Why do bad things happen to good people?” • answered in Book of Job 9. Book of Job ▪ Satan tells God that people only love him when things are good ▪ God says Job is always faithful → Satan decides to test Job ▪ Satan kills Job's 10 children, blows up his house, and kills his animals ▪ Job says “The Lord has given, and the Lord has taken” God have him the good things and has a right to take them away ▪ Satan covers Job in boils → the boils smell so bad that Job's wife says she wishes he'd just die ▪ Job goes to a garbage dump that smells as bad as he does → 3 friends visit him → instead of consoling him, they tell him that he must have sinned for this to happen to him ▪ Job gets angry and asks God why this is happening to him → God appears in the form of a tornado(whirlwind) and says “How dare YOU question ME” → Job realizes he should accept that there is a reason God does things ▪ God gives Job 10 more children and double the number of animals IV. Ancient Africa A. West Africa 1. Lake Chad to the right 2. 2 million square miles 3. Rain forest – hot, humid, full of vegetation, full of reptiles → difficult to live in 4. Savannah(grassland) – habitable; has many big cats 5. people grew okra, millet, and blackeyed peas 6. domesticated animals – camel, goats, cows 7. fished in rivers 8. Religion: • Supreme god(creator) → Lesser gods(orishas) • orishas constantly interact with humans(ex. Xango – god of thunder; Ferzulia – mother goddess; Damballah – snake god) • slaves taken to Louisiana and Haiti were told to forget the orishas → told to go to Catholic church → pretended to pray to Virgin Mary and instead prayed to Ferzulia and Damballah instead of St. Patrick • combined their religion with Catholicism = voodoo • had 6 birthday parties/year for orishas; had orisha's favorite food, color, drink • danced ~ if you're lucky, orisha will possess you • Cuba has its own version of voodoo = Santeria B. Central Africa 1. huntergatherers(+ sheep) 2. men were 5 feet tall or less 3. called Hottentots by others 4. called themselves KhoiKhoi 5. no government 6. used “clicking” while talking 7. West Africa(Bantus) ~ from Cameroon ○ invaded Central Africa ○ left home ~ 2000 BC > traveled slowly because they had to go through the rain forest ○ brought iron tools and cows ○ divided into clans > run by chief ○ Hottentots lose and are forced to leave > go to Khalari Desert 1. must dig deep into the ground for water 2. eat blue lizards
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