AM 275- Product Development Semester Notes
AM 275- Product Development Semester Notes AM 275
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by carlycook22 Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AM 275 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Anna Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
AM 275 Chapter 1 Notes RTW – Ready to Wear apparel Civil War brought need for standardized sizing and mass production Sewing machine invented in 1850 Textile ind. Fiber/yarn/fabric/findings Converters Wholesale Apparel Ind. Manufacture/contract o Total control of design, fabric procurement, production & sale Wholesale Retail o US consumers spend $192 billion annually Roughly $602 per person/year on clothing Hanes – Hanes, Champion, Bali, Leggs, Playtex etc. No. 1 retailer for shirts, socks, men’s underwear, children’s underwear American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) Inside shop: manufacturer owns/operates factory (In-house) Direct comm = less delay High quality control Faster timing Less transportation costs HRC compliance Contractors provide labor and equipment to manufacturers H&M contracts all production, leases stores, eco friendly CMT =cut make trim Traditional retailer: buys finished garments for sale to consumer Manufacturing retailer: produces in-house brands for sale to consumer Allows higher profits Promotion is $$$ Must know customer well Adv. Of Exporting Expands customer base Increases sales Foreign markets opposite of US =more sales Extends dying popularity to other countries Dis. Of Exporting Foreign policies hard to understand (ex. Green hats = insult, cheating in China) Product standards vary Slow payment Travel $$$ Poor representation Adv. Of Importing Low cost Cheap, unskilled labour High sale price Dis. Of Importing Travel $$$ Exchange rates fluctuate Higher shipping costs Long lead times Hard to observe production Negative consumer reaction Lower safety standards (China environment not Bueno) Trends in Manufacturing Computer-integrated manufacturing Electronic data interchange (sharing of info w/ others) Mass customization (body scanning, 3D rendering) Supply chain mgmt. Bar codes, QR codes 2 AM 275 Chapter 2 Government Regulations and Labeling Apparel labels give info about quality, performance and care of a garment All garments sold in US must have the following (TFPIA) o Country of origin – significantly transformed (sewn) Luxury products come from Europe Low-quality come from Asia Ex. Made in US of imported fabric o Made in Mexico, Finished in US o Made in China of US materials etc. o Care instructions Must be a permanent label Exceptions – reversible w/no pockets, label would detract from appearance, garments that can withstand any form of care, garments sold to institutions o Fiber content Effects appearance, care, comfort, durability, cost Listed by percentage (+/- 3% tolerance) Less that 5% = “other” o Wool is the only exception – always listed Trims, ornamentation, thread don’t need fiber contents o Lining/filler needs to be listed Safety regulations Flammable Fabrics Act (FFA) Licensing – involves items that carry a name but weren’t produced by them Licensor gets paid royalties Knockoff industry is booming Direct copies w/ different brand name and different materials Cannot patent a clothing design, but can knockoff by changing 30% of design Classic styles are styles that are made every season Altered color, fit or trim etc. 2 AM 275 Chapter 3 Apparel Quality Defined by ISO as: the totality of characteristic of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs Requirements Fabric quality, manufacturing spec., buying spec., sales contracts Apparel quality Physical features (intrinsic attributes) o What a garment is Design Materials Construction Finish Performance features o What a garment does (aesthetic/functional) Overall attractiveness/consumer appeal Garment utility and durability Quality features Silk>cotton, cotton>poly, etc. The standards a garment meets o How it benefits the consumer Extrinsic attributes o Price ($) budget,moderate,better,bridge,designer,couture ($$$) Consumers believe price affects quality (not always) Overall quality score = sum of (weight of features x rating of features) o Manufacturer reputation o Brand name, country of origin o Hangers, hangtags, packaging Target market – demographics/psychographics Cost per wear – purchase price/# times worn = cost per wear Standards and specifications General guidelines established by companies to reflect quality Define exactly how a garment meets standards o Both for raw materials and garment production SPI = stitches per inch Fabric and findings spec. Used by buyers Weight and type of fabric constriction (knit/woven), fabric width, count, yarn number/spinning system, dyestuffs etc. Garment/product spec. 2 AM 275 Chapter 4 Apparel Production Process Production process Evaluation of previous line o Formation of development plan (RTW) o Evaluation based on Last seasons sales, market research, change in consumer demand, global trend forecasts, analysis of product returns, comparison to competitors’ products Trend analysis o Help’s ensure new products follow consumer trends Ex. 30% trend, 30% brand identity, 40% etc. o Research conducted by: Traveling to fashion weeks, photographing street style Consulting with fashion forecasters (WGSN, Pantone, WWD) Reading trade publications (WWD) Design concept o Product dev. And merchandisers build line to meet target market Line development Create color story/theme for season o Create original designs o Make changes to well-selling product o Knockoff competitor designs Preliminary line approval Designers sketch/drape initial design ideas Illustrations are presented on mood/story boards o Meetings propose designs to upper mgmt. o Approved designs begin production processes Fabrics, findings, finishes Patterns drafted Prototypes made Determine construction, fit, silhouette, cost, accurate specs. Fabric/findings R&D Technical design First pattern Prototype Technical design Sourcing and costing o Finding the most cost-efficient vendors/producers for highest quality product at right price Research Negotiation’s of cost Finding of raw materials o Important sourcing factors o Lead time, Production capacity, quality, cost, cultural differences, political/economic stability of production nation, transportation costs, government regulations, factory skillset, HR issues o Payment of tariffs (5 factors) Product classification Fiber content Country of Origin Gender Trade status w/ US Preproduction phase –time mgmt. of multiple processes o Fabric testing/approval, tech packs, color selection/approval o Findings, labels, assembly of garment, classification w/ US customs o Grading, Marker making, matching patterned fabrics Fabric testing done by labs for compliance w/ standards Color, construction, weight and finish must be approved Different fibers dye differently 2 Production patterns must be optimized to limit fabric waste Grading changes the size of a patterns dimensions Markers determine how all pattern pieces fit on fabric Production Three types of production Progressive bundle –assembly line Unit Progression –robots transfer garment from station to station Modular –teams work on one garment o Spreading –laying out sheet after sheet of fabric for cutting efficiency o Cutting –manual or automatic o Sewing o Wet/dry processing –adds finish (ie. Denim) Softens/preshrinks garment Bleach/stonewashed/dyeing etc. Dry processing more eco. Friendly ie. Distressing denim o Pressing o Finishing –trimming, inspecting, repairing defects, pressing, packing o Inspection Distribution o Mgmt. of inventory o Packing/loading shipments o Scheduling transportation Air transport fastest but most expensive Shipping –preferred China – 12-14 days Middle East –22-25 days Land shipment effective –truck & train o Consolidated at dist. Center Drop shipping – directly to store (cuts cost slightly) 3 Promotion and sale –attract, inform and persuade consumers o Ads, Sales/events, publicity, personal selling @market/showroom Costing Raw Materials, labour, tariffs, transportation, insurance, business operation o Wholesale price = actual cost x 3 (charge buyer) o Retail price = Wholesale price x 5 (charge to consumer) 4 AM 275 Chapter 5 Shape, Silhouette and Style Garment shape creates fit and desired look Fabric grain, shaping, support & fabric layers give/maintain garment shape o “grain” applies to woven fabric –the orientation of warp/weft does not apply to knit’s as much (directional rules apply) Lengthwise – parallel to selvedge o Less stretch/shrinkage over time Crosswise –perpendicular to selvedge o Weaker, has no stretch Bias – angled to selvedge (45 = true bias) o Most garment stretch, hangs closer to body, more fabric waste, hard to sew due to stretch Shaping methods – changes how garment contours to body Darts pull in fabric to contour o Single-point –triangular o Double-point –diamond shape for waist of dress Dart equivalents o Shaped seams –gores and yokes Princess seams = body-con Yokes – horizontal (dress shirts) Gores – vertical (skirt pleats) o Style fullness –ease, gathers, shirring, smocking, elastic, drawstrings Released darts (not stitched) Smocking – decorative stitches in accordion-pleats Shirring – parallel rows of gathering (kids dresses) o Other – stretch/knits, bias-cut garments, pleats, tucks, gussets, laces Pleats –ironed/sewn in folds (decorative) Tucks –decorative stitched folds Gusset –extra fabric to add mvmt. (running tights) Supporting shape Shell fabric –outermost fabric of garment o Liners of all kinds maintain garment shape, durability, warmth etc. Interfacing (reinforce), lining (jackets), interlining (warmth) and underlining (each piece individually lined) Silhouette and style –aesthetic quality (outline/shape of garment) BVHUMPER Style –affected by garment length, edge treatment, waist/neckline o Waistline –empire, high, natural, dropped, hip/low rise o Neckline –jewel, keyhole, v, scoop, sweetheart, boat, crew, halter, cowl, bib, bow, Henley, plunge, wrap, asymmetrical, split (in book) o Collar – flat, standing, rolled o Sleeves –set-in, kimono, raglan and dolman Length –cap, short, elbow, ¾, bracelet and long Cuffs –barrel, convertible, French/double, closed band o Pockets –patch, flap, inseam, slashed, welt o Decoration – tucks, pleats, ironed creases, ruffles, bows, tabs Functional design – western more functional than far east Lingerie –cotton crotch, stretch straps, shadow panels Activewear –reflective tape, mesh, grommets Occupational – hammer loops, reinforced pockets, names Children – snap crotch, non toxic, growth, mittens Maternity – adjustable, stretch, nursing accessibility Elderly –stretch, back fullness, v necks Disability – mastectomy bras, low pockets, loops, zippered inseams 2 AM 275 Chapter 6 Sizing and fit Marketing research Buying habits of consumers Target customers’ size/shape/fit preferences o Ex. 25-35 y/o woman w/children & full-time job o Prefers loose clothing, easy to care for Short but loose garments, cotton or easy-care synthetics Fit –poor fit = main reason for apparel returns ($200 billion/year) Good fit is #1 reason customers return to a brand Sizing –suitability of a garment in relation to body dimensions to consumers Vary by manufacturer (no standard) Vanity sizing –garments that run large to make consumer think they are a size smaller o Used by high-end lines (low-end runs small to conserve fabric) Sizes grouped by sex, age and body-type Numbered sizing Men’s –body measurements Women’s/children –set #’s correlated to measurements (ie. 2,4,6,8,10) Voluntary sizing standards Introduced by ASTM in 1958 (outdated) Currently developing new set of standards Brands have developed their own versions of these standards US, British and European (three main sizes) o Japanese add 3 to US size (ie. 2 US = 5 JAP) Voluntary sizing has a severe lack of standardization, wherein numerical size has almost no meaning for female consumers Sizing Numbered/dimensional (most common) Lettered (S/M/L) Length (Petite/Short, Average/Regular, Long/Tall OS Most undergarments are sized similarly (except bra’s –must be even #) Menswear –more consistent sizing Short, tall/long, slim, regular, big Jacket sizing based off chest measurement Pants (L/W) 2 AM 275 Chapter 7 Notes Fabric Specialty Fabrics Nonwovens (interfacing, felt, etc.) Nanotechnology (creation of finishes at molecular level) Smart fabrics – respond to stimuli Phase-Change Materials (PCM) – capsules change from solid to liquid to regulate temp EcoSpun – made from PET (polysester mostly) Dyeing Greige goods – undyed o Dyeing influences aesthetic/functional performance Pigment –cheaper, adds texture, fades faster Solution –pre-extrusion synthetics Stock –dye fibers before yarn spinning Yarn –dye before weaving Piece –dye fabric Garment –applied to finished garment Natural vs. Synthetic dyes Printing Finishes –napped, waterproof, odor resistant, fireproof, wrinkle resist etc. Fabric performance Defects –broken yarns, streaks, foreign materials, spots, soil, holes etc. Mills must identify defects greater than 9” long, 2” from selvedge o 4-point grading system (less than 40/100yd =quality) Color dye lot –fabrics dyed in the same batch shade lot –grouped by shade o occurs when colors vary slightly Metamerism – apparent change of color due to change in lighting Luster –How much light a fabric reflects Opacity – see through Functional performance Utility --? Durability –strength, abrasion, chemical resistance to degradation o Determined by fabric, design, materials, construction, finish Dimensional stability –ability of fabric to maintain shape o Appearance, fit, comfort Elongation –stretch when used Shrinkage –becomes smaller when washed (felting as well) Torque/skew – distortion due to slanted knitting/weaving Appearance retention –colorfastness, wrinkle resist, pilling resist, heat Comfort –determined by weight, hand, insulation, wicking ability o Comfort stretch –moves with ease of motion o Power stretch –active wear Other o Insulation, wicking, moisture retention, static, strength, safety, abrasion, slippage Fabric testing Shrinkage –washing Strength –force applied Crocking –measures color transfer Lightfastness –blast w/ light to simulate colorfastness 2 Wash ability –washing for disintegration Leather Genuine –top grain, highest quality Split –all other layers, cheaper & tougher Suede –napped, soft surface Fur Let-out furs are cut on diagonal and sewn into narrow panels, are most expensive Skin-on-skin –whole pelts sewn together 3 AM 275 Chapter 8 Findings & Trims Findings – all components of garment that aren’t fabric (buttons, zippers) Trims –everything else (ribbon, lace, applique, flowers, beads, sequins etc.) Quality of these should be even with quality of fabric (ASTM) Aesthetic performance Coordinate w/garment to improve looks/functionality Adds value to garment, raising retail price Functional Performance Utility –dimensional stability, appearance retention, comfort, care, safety o Aesthetics –design, material and construction = durability, utility o Dimensional stability –shrinkage of trim may cause bubbles, skewed lines etc. o Differential shrinkage –more than 2% shrinkage Trims and fabrics should have same level of elasticity o Appearance retention –should “age” w/ fabric Durability – strength, abrasion resistance, chemical degradation o Strength of zippers, buttons and snaps o Resistance to chemicals in detergents, light, fumes etc. o Colorfastness, heat resistance Performance of zippers, buttons and snaps must be incredibly durable Physical features –raw materials, structure, dyed/printed, finished Cost and lead times often limit availability/labor Labels –brand, size, care info, country of origin, fiber content Printed labels –low-cost brands Woven labels – mid/high price brands Thread –functional and decorative purposes (improper leads to failure) Strength, durability, texture effect performance o Strength = critical Single-end strength – force required to break thread Loop strength – force required to separate two stitches Cheapest part of garment o Fiber content determines price Spun threads made of staple fibers (most common) Monofilament –fishing line (clear) Multifilament –very strong Corespun –poly core wrapped w/ staple fibers o Thread size correlates w/ fabric Trims Ribbon, braiding, lace, applique Non-fabric trims – beads, sequins, rhinestones, nails/studs/rivets, flowers, feathers, jewels, pearls etc. Closures –zippers, hook&eye, snaps, buttons o Buttons –functional/decorative Mainly plastic –cheaper (natural materials rare but usable) Glass/metal buttons almost never used Self-covered buttons are covered in fabric If made from wood/leather, they are unwashable Buttons are either eyed (2/4) or shanked (stem) Zippers –size denoted by width in mm Length determined by smallest opening (7-22 most common) Metal most common in jeans Plastic better for sportswear, dresses 2 o Conventional (jeans), separating (hoodies), invisible (dresses) Snap fasteners –sewn on or mechanically attached Sewn-on –studs and sockets that interlock Mechanically –pneumatically pressed to fabric (Stronger) Hook & Eye –easy to conceal, stronger than snaps, bars overlap, round touch D-rings, buckles, eyelets and grommets, cords, ties Underlying fabrics –add structure and support to garments Interfacing –same weight or lighter than main fabric (fusible) Non-fusible –sewn onto garment o Woven, knit, nonwoven Lining –provides neat finish to interior of garment o Smooth, lightweight, stain/abrasion resistant, absorbent, antistatic Underlining –cut from same pattern piece as garment, sewn together Interlining –warm filler ie. Down, wool, poly fill Other –elastic, belts, shoulder pads, chest pieces, sleeve heads (round), bias tape, collar stays, bra cups Boning –plastic garment support (mainly in corsetry) Hoops/bustles – rings sewn into a garment to add fullness Horsehair –stiffens hems on tulle Weights – added to hems to enhance garment shape (high- end, photo) Dress shields – prevent and absorb perspiration in underarms 3 AM 275 Chapter 9 Stitches Interloop vs. Interlock Edge Finishing (seams) Ornamental stitching’s –decoration Physical features of stitches Stitch type Length/width Needle type/size/condition Thread type/size Machine tension –how loosely/tightly threads are held by machine Operator accuracy Main machine types Lockstitch –most common, interlocking thread w/ bobbin Chainstitch –interlooping threads (serger, coverstitch etc.) ASTM Stitch Classes –first # indicates stitch class, remaining two = type 100 –simple chainstitch o 101 = basting 200 –hand stitch and machine simulation o 202 –basting/tacking o 205 –pick stitch (topstitching) 300 – lockstitch o 301 –straight machine stitch o 304 –zig-zag for stretch fabrics o 306 –blind stitch (zig-zag w/ one tack on back) o 315 –three step zig-zag (3 stitches per line, much stretch) 400 – multithread chainstitch o 401 –chunky underside o 404 –zig zag topstitches o 406 –three thread coverstitch (double needle hem) 500 –overedge and safety (serger) o 501 –blanket stitch o 502 –overredge serge stitch o 503 –crossover serge o 504 –classic serge o 512 –mock safety (4 thread straight stitch w/serge) o 514 –wide serge (knits) o 515 –true safety stitch 600 –coverstitch Stitch Length –Stitches per inch (SPI) lightweight fabrics –15-18 SPI Medium-weight fabrics –12-14 SPI Heavyweight fabrics – 6-10 SPI Reinforcement stitches –for areas with high use (18-20 SPI) Long stitches are good for topstitching and basting Skipping –when the machine fails to interlock multiple stitches Wider stitches are more durable (high-end garments) Needle size is particular to each machine/fabric type Problems w/ needles 2 o Cutting – slices the fabric instead of puncturing it (too large or blunt) o Heating –friction heats the needle, melting the fabric (use smaller) o Chewing – jagged holes made in fabric by re-sewing or forcing fabric through ALWAYS TACK AT BEGINNING AND END OF SEAM (trim threads) 3 AM 275 Chapter 10 Seams Seams, seam allowance, seamline blah Puckering occurs when: Shrinkage –fabric and another component shrink at varying rates Feed –layers of fabric go through the machine unevenly Structural jamming –needle/threads are too large, adding bulk Bulky seams – incredibly uncomfortable, lumpy Strength –failure is bad. Must be strong enough for high-stress areas (shouldn’t be stronger than fabric or it will tear away) Seam failure: Raw edge pokes through Broken seam – stitches split and seam opens Slippage – fabric pulls away from stitches Grin – seam line spreads open, looks like teeth Seam Types SS –Superimposed seam (most common) o SSa-1 –plain seam o SSae-2 –French seam There are 54 types (two or more pieces sewn together) BS –bound seam (use binding to hide raw edges) o BSa – simple binding LS –lapped seam (flat felled) –more casual seams o LSb-1 o LSc-2 (flat felled) 102 types of lapped seams FS –flat seam (fully exposed, edges sewn together, uses 600 stitch Corners –difficult to bind (mitering solves this problem) Seam Allowance –wider = preferable, mark of high quality Wider seams are –stronger, slow unraveling, better for hang shape o BUT – wide seams are $$$, bulky and uncomfortable Seam Stays –any stable, non-bulky tape/ribbon used to stabilize a seam Known as a strapped seam (SSag) o Less likely to tear, retains garment shape, used at shoulder, crotch, neck, waist BULKY $$$ Edge Treatments –finish raw/cut edges of a garment Make garments more attractive, sign of quality (prevents raveling, is bulky) o Edge-finishing stitches (hems) – obvious Hem types – folded, shirttail, rolled Most are topstitched (casual) some are blind (tailored) Width typically larger in high-end garments o Garment hangs smoothly, allows for alteration, $$ Garments w/ flare need narrow hem Booked seam –raw edge folded under and blindstitched $$$ Overedging –serging (most common) Shell hem –scalloped effect (lingerie/kids) o Unstitched (pinking) – also obvious Pinking edges prevents unraveling Gluing – primarily for leather goods Fusing – common in sports/performance wear o Facings – any piece of fabric used to finish a raw edge Neckline, armsyce, front/back openings Folded/sewn to garment 2-3” wide Extended –edge extended, folded over and pressed/sewn o Least bulky, easy to do // straight edges only, high fabric waste Shaped –identically shaped to garment edges 2 o Ideal for weird necklines/hems/armholes o Less fabric, does not handle stress well Bias facing –requires minimal fabric, useful for sheer fabrics, no bulk o Bindings – covers raw edge w/ a visible strip of fabric (skirts/sleeves) o Bands – seamed to straight edges of garments to extend the edge Finish raw edges, are wider than bindings o Plackets – finished opening that allows body parts to pass through for dressing/undressing Required for garment edges that don’t stretch and are fitted Used on necklines, waistlines and sleeves Can be hemmed, faced, bound or banded Slash –a slit is made then raw edges are stitched Horizontal – used on sleeves Faced – like sleeve in AM 143 Continuous bound –vertical slash bound w/ narrow strip In-seam –unsewn edges finished w/ overedge (denim) Tailored – slashes that overlap 3 AM 275 Chapter 11 Notes Preliminary Parts Assembly Serge edges Labels Decorative details Embroidery Topstitching Etc. Zippers (applied in any of the beginning stages) Slot – centered application (topstitching visible) Exposed Invisible – only pull visible Lapped – one visible row of stitching on a garment Fly – on jeans French fly – inner and exterior buttons w/ zip Pockets –applied in various stages of garment Pocket bag –pouch that forms functional part of pocket Patch – stitched directly onto garment Slashed – faced slits within garment, bag sewn behind slit In-seam (concealed) – parts of the opening are sewn into sideseam In-seam (exposed) – jeans Belt loops and etc. Belt loops Locker/hanger loops – for hanging Lingerie strap – for bridal (holds bra strap in place) Wrist loops – attached to trains of bridal gowns for movement Keeper – loop on a necktie to hold it in place Apply interfacing Attach underlining Reinforcements Rivets – pocket corners and seams Tacks – long stitches to attach lining, shoulder pads etc. Bar tack – zigzag lockstitch used to strengthen areas (zippers, seams, pockets, belt loops etc.) Ticket tack – used to attach paper labels to apparel (not too common) Arrowhead tack – triangular tack used as decorative reinforcement (western) Panel assembly Shaping devices used to turn fabric into 3d garment o Darts o Pleats o Tucks o Ease o Gathers o Seams Notches required to mark points of matching in a garment Patterned fabric should be cut so that it lines up at seams (hard/$$$) Single-needle tailoring – using one row of stitches multiple times Attaching elastic o Applied – stitched directly to garment to add shape o Casing – elastic is in a tube of fabric, attached to garment 2 AM 275 Chapter 12 Notes Garment assembly and Finishing Piece assembly includes collars, sleeves/cuffs, waistbands and linings Collar construction Flat –collar edge is attached at neckline Rolled –flat collar that is rolled down Standing – raw edges of neckline covered with parts of collar (standard) o One-piece – singular piece of fabric folded lengthwise and sewn o Two-piece – upper and lower half are sewn together (most common) o Three-piece – under collar cut in two pieces to form better roll Sleeves Set-in, raglan or kimono o Sleeve formed by sewing a tube into an armhole Round – armscye seam is continuously sewn Flat – side seam/sleeve seam are continuous o Kimono – sleeves cut with body of garment Simple to construct, low labour costs, high fabric costs o Raglan – sleeve w/ diagonal seam from neckline to underarm Can be set flat or round, easier to sew than set-in sleeves, better fit than kimono Adding Cuffs Can be added at any stage of garment construction o One or two piece variations Should be interfaced for smoothness and support Many types o Open-band—opening that requires a placket and a fastener o Closed-band – closed all the way around, usually rib knit o Turned-back – lower portion of sleeve turned back Waistband – straight piece of fabric interfaced from smoothness Elastic used for stretch Waistlines are curved, must be eased into straight waistband Linings Can be lined to edge of garment or attached at hems and facings (partially lined) If lined to the edge, lining is an exact copy of the garment (usually a different fabric) Ease should be built in for movement Applied by “bagging” – lining sewn to garment, turned through opening and remainder sewn shut o Lining can be attached to armscye in high-end garments o Free-hanging lining not attached to hem (skirts, pants, coats) Finally, buttons/closures attached, garment is wet or dry processed, and pressed Buttons – should be placed at each horizontal stretch point o 4-6” from hem (Extra are sometimes provided) o the more stitches, the more secure BUT the more tightly sewn, more likely it is to fall off o eyed buttons should be sewn parallel to buttonhole buttonholes (horizontal stronger, vertical look better) Other closures –snaps, Velcro, buckles etc. Wet-processing –dyeing, wrinkle-resist, stone wash etc. Pressing – self explanatory Final inspection – look for melting, scorching, clamp marks, watermarks etc. folded, packed and shipped 2
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