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Date Created: 09/12/16
Biology 232103 CantwellAnatomy and Physiology 1. Chapter One a. Anatomy the study of structure i. Gross seen with the naked eye 1. Regional considering skeletal, nerves, blood vessels, etc. in one area (i.e. shoulder) 2. Systemic looking at body, system by system 3. Surface what can be seen on an intact body ii. Microscopic 1. Cytology study of cells 2. Histology study of tissues iii. Developmental differences found after a time span 1. Embryology changes taken place between zygote and birth b. Physiology study of function, function reflects structure i. Neuron ii. Skin 1. Light receptors have to be closer to the surface c. Hierarchy of organization i. Biological molecule: proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates ii. Tissue group of cell with similar structure and function (smooth muscle cells combined equals tissue) iii. Organ collection of different tissues to create a function iv. Organs put together forms an organ system v. Organ systems put together form an organism d. Systems of the body i. Integumentary, skeletal, Muscle, nerve, Endocrine (being covered) 1. Controlled by the nervous and endocrine 2. Cardio interacts with all systems ii. Homeostasis maintaining internal balance, while external environment changes 1. Stimulus produces change in variable 2. Receptor (Nervous system) detects change 3. Input information set along afferent pathway to control level 4. Output information set along efferent pathway to effector 5. Response feeds back to reduce effect of stimulus and return variable to homeostatic level 6. 2. Chapter 4 Tissue: The living fabric (Histology) a. Tissue types i. Major: 1. Epithelial 2. Muscle contraction and movement 3. Nervous cell to cell communication 4. Connective highly variable 1 a. Bone, cartilage, blood ii. Connective tissue like chicken noodle soup 1. Cells imbedded in … (everything else) a. Different tissues have different quantities and proportions of cells 2. Extracellular matrix keeps tissues moist, allowing correct function a. Ground substance (broth) b. Fibers (noodles) i. Collagen thick steel cables, high tensile strength (don’t stretch) ii. Elastic rubber bands, can recoil iii. Reticular polyfil, maintains shape 1. Teased collage form soft organs iv. Fibroblasts make fibers (no fibers in blood) b. Recap of connective tissue general structure i. Extracellular matrix 1. Ground substance 2. Fibers (except blood) a. Collagen provides longitudinal strength b. Elastic allows tissue recoil c. Reticular gives soft organs shape ii. Cells 1. Fibroblasts (except in blood) a. Produce fibers 2. Many others vary in abundance c. Connective tissue function and features i. Formed from mesenchyme (primordial) ii. Function: supports other tissues and organs iii. Common features: origin, basic structure iv. Variable features: 1. Structural specific (cell types, fiber types, density (chicken noodle brick)) 2. Location all over body location specific 3. Vascularity 4. The denser it is, the less blood flow 5. Loosecartilage (avascular)bone (exception! Extremely vascular due to the gaps in it) v. Areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) vi. Basement membrane (glue like layer) and dermis significant portion vii. Loose abundant blood flow (all three fibers) viii. Immune cells fibroblasts too 1. Found in areas that are susceptible to infection ix. Wraps and cushions organs and fastens organs in place 2 d. Epithelial (skin) tissue location and functions i. Location 1. Forms boundaries any tissue next to space 2. Covers body, organs, and lines cavities (example: inside of stomach) ii. Function: 1. Protection skin 2. Absorption (small intestine) 3. Secretion (small intestine) 4. Propulsion (cilia) respiratory tract iii. Classifications 1. Number a. Simple: single layer of cells b. Stratified: 2+ layers of cells 2. Shape a. Squamous: dinner plate, thin and wide b. Cuboidal (cuboidal are rare) c. Columnar (“ “) iv. Characteristics 1. Supported by connective tissue 2. Avascular 3. Innervated responds to commands 4. Regenerative heals self perfectly a. Connective tissue doesn’t (scar) 5. Cellularity made of cells, not much extra cellular matrix 6. Special contacts hold epithelial cells together a. Tight junctions b. Desmosomes 7. Polarity ends have polarity a. Basal attaches to basement membrane b. Free portion apical 8. Pseudostratifed columnar epithelial tissue a. All cells contact basement membrane b. Basal ends! c. Nuclei all over 9. Transitional epithelial tissue a. Number of layers depends on how stretched out it is b. Basal cuboidal c. Apical domed d. Located in places that have to stretch and return (lining) e. Lines bladder and urethra and proximal to the bladder f. Stretch out to single layer of cells 3. Chapter 5: integument a. What is the skin for? 3 i. Protection protects inner organs ii. Body temp regulation homeostasis iii. Sensation temperature, pain, touch iv. Metabolism vitamin D v. Reservation for blood 5% blood volume in skin at anytime vi. Excretion waste products excreted through sweat b. Anatomy of skin i. Two true layers ii. Epidermis epithelial tissue all cells (protection) 1. Stratified squamous epithelial tissue multiple flat cells overlapping each other a. Keratinocytes held together by desmosomes i. Other cells become embedded 2. Dry 3. Avascular no blood supply right up under—diffusion 4. Keratinized helps harden cells 5. Protection 6. Four cell types a. 1 Serves as protection b. 24 expand the function of the tissue 7. layers of epidermis a. epidermis has five layers in thick skin b. stratum bassel is dermis adjacent c. stratum spinosum several cell layers thick d. stratum granulosum cells are starting to die and flatten i. have granules, darker e. stratum lucidium densely packed dead cells (soles of feet) (thick skin) f. stratum corneum surface of skin, dead and flattened cells 8. Cell types of the epidermis a. Keratinocytes stratified squamous epithelium ALL layers i. Bulk of epidermal cells ii. Shallower= older iii. Held together by desmosomes (junctions that hold things together like roots iv. Lifespan=2445 days 1. More used, fewer day v. Stem cells in basal divide to produce keratinocytes vi. Spinous cell, produce and store keratin 4 vii. Cells formed at bottom, as forming pushed up toward surface, once at surface they will slough off b. Merkel Cells receptors for touchstratum basale i. Receptors for touch ii. Associated with sensory neurons in the dermis iii. Located in the stratum basale iv. Communicate with sensory neurons Less abundant, v. Dermis adjacent wedge c. Melanocytes produce the skin pigment melanin stratum basal themselves i. Synthesize melanin between ii. Skin color darker at equator layers and keratinocytes iii. Protects stratum basal from UV radiation to expand iv. Produce skin pigment functions v. More melanin= darker color vi. Deposit pigment in surrounding cells vii. Keratinocytes pick up the pigment viii. Melanin helps shade stratum basale 1. Mitosis is happening a. DNA can be damaged… skin cancer ix. UV radiation enhances melanin production d. Dendritic Cell (Langerhans cells) Immune cells stratum spinosum i. All over body ii. Bone marrow then migrates to skin iii. Immune cells can fight off pathogens “guards at wall” c. Where do calluses come from? i. Frequent wear areas ii. Thick epidermis palms of hands and soles of feet iii. Faster production of keratinocytes iv. Stratum basale 1. Keratinocytes are being produced a. stem cells mitosis b. DNA susceptible to damage i. “Basal cell carcinoma” 2. Merkel cells sensation receptor 3. Melanocytes pigment producers picked up by keratinocytes 4. UV filter directly above stratum basale 5. Skin color distribution a. Darker at equator b. “more pigment to block out UV light” disproved 5 c. selective pressure on skin cancer i. normally kills people after reproduction d. Metabolism i. Vitamin D formation bone strength, triggers the intestine to absorb more calcium ii. Folic acid destruction pregnant women, 12 months, UV light 1. Without folic acid spinal bifida 2. Causes a healthy Central Nervous System 6. skin color a. melanin dark versus light b. Carotene yellowish cast, Asian descent—calluses c. Hemoglobin found in blood, pinkish cast, blood flow right beneath dermis d. Dysfunction: jaundice—over production of bilirubin—lack of liver function i. Bilirubin by product of digestion ii. New born lack of digestion, livers aren’t processing yet iii. UV breaks down bilirubin 7. Melasma (aka Chloasma) a. Mask of pregnancy b. Estrogen stimulates melanin production i. Asymmetrical darker pigmentation ii. Never goes away v. Stratum Spinosum cells (artifact not found in intact tissues) cells appear spiny (desmosomesfibers proteins) 1. 810 layers of cells 2. Pigment (not apparent in upper layers) protect from UV 3. Langerhans cells interspersed 4. On way to develop to what they’re set to be vi. Stratum Granulosum 1. 35 layers thick 2. cell disintegration begins a. cells are beginning to flatten out 3. granules: glycolipid and keratin precursors 4. use diffusion avascular a. nutrients and oxygen source deteriorate 5. glycolipid water and oxygen resistant 6. cytoplasm: glycolipid and keratin precursors a. can’t intake nutrients and oxygen vii. Stratum lucidum 1. Visible only in thick skin 2. Flat, dead kerationocytes 6 3. Aggregate in translucent cable a. Looks like you could read through it 4. Palms of hands and soles of feet a. Higher friction= thicker stratum lucidem 5. 35 cell layers and more tightly packed viii. Stratum corneum 1. Outermost 2. 2030+ cell layers 3. waterproof 4. barrier bacteria, physical trauma, absorbs some force 5. very dead and flat cells 6. desmosomes a. fibrous proteins are one of the last to break down ix. Dermis connective tissue 1. Sensory receptors temperature, pain, pressure 2. Connective tissue (all four tissue types) 3. Nerve fibers carry to Central nervous system 4. Blood vessels crucial, serves dermis and epidermis 5. Lymph vessels absorb blood plasma, prevent accumulation of fluid 6. Glands sweat and oil 7. Hair follicle production 8. Two layers a. Papillary top 20% b. Reticular lower 80% x. Dermis: papillary layer ~ papillae nipple (individual hills) individual hills 1. Top 20% 2. Areolar connective tissue (loose) 3. Dermal papillae: a. Capillary loops blood vessels b. Free nerve endings i. Nociceptor= pain (free nerve endings) ii. Mechanoreceptor= physical stimuli iii. Meissner’s corpuscle mechanorecptor 1. Light pressure c. Epidermis/ dermis junction blister fluid filled space d. Epidermal pegs xi. Dermal Ridges 1. Pronounced 2. Deeper than papillae 3. Slope epidermis 4. Fingerprints/ gripping 5. Collagen influences higher layers xii. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue 7 1. Areolar connective tissue similarity some cells, fibroblasts, immune cells 2. Irregular pattern 3. Collagen and elastic have a lot of fibers 4. Withstands tension strength in every direction xiii. Dermis: reticular layer 1. Lower 80% 2. Dense irregular connective tissue makes it up 3. Pacinian corpuscles deep pressure receptors 4. Muscle 5. Hair follicles 6. All form tissue types a. Hair follicles i. Connective and epithelial b. Arrector pilli i. Muscle c. Pacinian corpuscles i. Nervous tissue xiv. Hypodermis (not skin) (superficial fascia) subcutaneous layer fatty tissue connective tissue 1. Adipose tissue similar to areolar connective tissue. a. Differenceadipocytes (fat cells) 2. Loose connective tissue 3. Adipocytes (fat cells) 4. Cushions, insulates and anchors pads muscles 5. Not part of the skin proper xv. Appendages (glands, hair, nails, nervous elements) expand role of skin xvi. Langer lines (cleavage/ tension lines) 1. Flying in and out of wind 2. Patterns of collagen orientation 3. Surgeons don’t want to cut across langer lines a. Change to Csection due to healing and infection rate now versus the vertical incision before 4. Stretch marks a. Tears in dermis b. Connective tissue repair c. Epidermis doesn’t tear d. Connective tissue isn’t a perfect repair i. Collagen is laid over top very thickly 1. 2x4 over a nail hole xvii. hair (appendage) 1. vellus hair (prepubertal stage) a. androgens (testerone and estrogen) i. terminal hair (adult stage) 8 xviii. Hair and hair follicle 1. Dead keratinized cells a. Filament strand b. Hard keratin 2. Cortex/ medulla and cuticle projection from skin 3. Cells in matrix are stem cells a. Produce more hair b. Melanocytes pigmentation 4. Hair supported by follicle a. Epithelial sheath lining the follicle b. Membrane separates epithelial tissue from connective tissue c. Connective tissue anchors and supports xix. Hair cycle no time range 1. Active growth phase a. Grows longer (hair length is determined) b. Root and papillae functional c. Getting formed 2. Regressive phase (still in skin, won’t grow) a. Shutdown process b. Maintain papillae c. Stop adding to length of hair d. Follicle has shut down 3. Resting phase still in skin, won’t grow 4. Reactive a. New pushes old out of way xx. Hair functions 1. Proximity sensor a. Bug on arm – “hey something’s on your arm” 2. Head a. Help limit impact of physical trauma b. Heat loss “lose heat through head” –lack of clothing c. Sun light melanin protects scalp 3. Eyelashes and eyebrows a. Shield an filter sunlight 4. Nose hairfilter a. Catches debris from things (bonfire) xxi. Fingernails 1. Dead keratinized cells 2. Plates, not sheets 3. Modified epidermis 4. Modified scales 5. Protection xxii. Glands, hair, and nails are all epidermal 1. Made of epithelial tissue 9 2. Embedded in dermis xxiii. Exocrine glands 1. (Endocrine glands release into bloodstream) 2. Secrete products into ducts (moisten) or cavities 3. Mucous, oil, sweat, and saliva 4. Goblet cells a. Single celled, exocrine gland that secretes directly onto the surface xxiv. Exocrine gland structure 1. Acinar= alveolar (gland enlarged “grapes” xxv. Glandular secretion 1. Secretion by exocytosis 2. Specified epithelial tissue 3. Gland cell rupture empties contents to ducts 4. Mitosis replaces lost cells 5. Holocrine Sebaceous glands a. Mitotic divisions to replace cells b. Glandular epithelial tissue c. Older cells contain accumulated product (not released) d. New cells form, old cells pushed into lumen e. No oxygen or nutrients i. Cells die and disintegrate ii. Causing cell fragments and products 6. HOLOCRINE AND MEROCRINE DON’T HAPPEN IN THE SAME PLACE! 7. Merocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis xxvi. Sudoriferous glands 1. Produce sweat 2. Under autonomic nervous system (INVOLUNTARY) control 3. Two types: a. Eccrine: smaller, sweat to surface, more superficial b. Apocrine: sweat to hair follicle, larger, deeper, down to hypodermis i. Both: simple tubular glands, both coed –less space, use of merocrine secretion xxvii. Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands 1. Most common a. 3 million throughout body b. dermis c. tubular coiled d. Merocrine secretion e. Duct opens to skin surface to release sweat 2. Sweat a. Aqueous solution 10 b. 99% water i. 1% salt and others c. major ingredients i. metabolic waste ii. antibodies iii. salts iv. dermicidin d. pH 46 (barrier) acidic xxviii. apocrine sweat glands 1. ~2,000 dermis/ hypodermis 2. coiled tubular glands 3. duct open to hair follicle 4. axillary and arogential 5. activate in puberty 6. secrete sweat and lipid ad proteins 7. odorless! a. Breakdown by oxygen and microbes cause smell 8. Analogous to sexual sweat glands xxix. Sebaceous glands 1. Avascular, not branched 2. All over except palms and soles of feet 3. Produce sebrum (oil) 4. Holocrine 5. Lubricate hair (without hair growth would be painful) 6. Largest on face, neck and upper chest d. What is skin for? i. Protection melanin, sweat, Langerhans cells ii. Body temperature regulation sweat, blood vessels in dermis iii. Sensation corpuscles, free nerve endings, sensory on hair iv. Metabolism follicle and breakdown, vitamin D formation v. Reservoir 5% blood volume found in blood vessels in dermis, bleeding out feeling cold, forced centrally toward the heart vi. Excretion sweat nitrogenous wastes 4. Chapter 6 Bone and skeletal tissue a. Connective tissue i. Ligaments (bone to bone) ii. Joints iii. Cartilage iv. Tendons (muscle to bone) b. Cartilaginous structures almost all are encased in perichondrium sheath made up of dense irregular connective tissue i. Avascular if vascular, turns to bone ii. No nerve supply damage to surrounding tissues causes pain! iii. Cartilage types 11 1. Hyaline blue 2. Elastic – green 3. Fibrocartilage Red c. Cartilage Hyaline i. Firm ground substance jelly ii. Dense collagen fiber network can’t make out individual fibers iii. Chondro blast, cytes iv. Lacunae (opening) house cells chondrocytes maintain v. Supports and reinforces 1. Cushions vi. Resists compression vii. Hold respiratory passages open d. Cartilage elastic forms the pinna (outer ear) funnel and epiglottis i. Firm ground substance ii. Elastic fibers iii. Some collagen fibers iv. Chondr –blasts, cytes v. Lacunae vi. Maintains shape vii. Allows flexibility e. Cartilage fibrocartilage intervertebral disks, knees (meniscus), pubic symphysis (loosens during child birth) i. Firm ground substance ii. collagen fiber natural less dense individual bundles iii. chondro –blasts, cytes iv. lacunae larger v. tensile strength vi. resists compression/ shocks f. cartilaginous growth i. appositional (exterior) ii. Interstitial (from within) iii. Calcification (can be normal, once skeleton is formed, no longer a positive thing) 1. Cartilage can be turned to bone 2. Arthritis no longer a hyaline joint 3. STAY CARTILAGE, STAY AVASCULAR g. Axial and appendicular skeleton h. Bone shape i. Long humerus, femur, metacarpals, and phalanges ( longer than wide) ii. Short wrist, ankle (more cuboidal than columnar) iii. Irregular vertebrae (fused into odd shapes) pelvis iv. Flat ribs and sternum v. Sesamoid no direct articulation, held in by tendons (patella) vi. Wormian bones sutures in skull 12 i. Bone function i. Support “lumps of flesh slithering around on the floor” ii. Protections Central nervous system protected iii. Movement bones serve as levers for movement iv. Storage for calcium v. Hematopoesis blood cell formation j. Bone compact i. Hard (calcium salts embedded) ground substance ii. Collagen fiber network iii. Osteo, blast (build), cytes (maintain), clasts (collapse), lacunae site of these iv. Support v. Protection density vi. Levers for muscles vii. Stores calcium, mineral, fat k. Bone spongy i. Hard ground substance ii. Collagen fibers network iii. Trabeculae “flake”, fluid filled space, red bone marrow iv. Lacunae are slightly larger v. Lighter skeleton vi. Hematopoiesis l. Bone: gross anatomy i. Markings: muscle attachment grow larger to support the movement 1. Tendon and ligament attachment associated with the joint 2. Joint surfaces 3. Conduits holes for blood vessels and nerve innervation ii. Gross anatomy: compact 1. Spongy m. Gross anatomy of a long bone i. Diaphysis narrow shaft, composed of compact bone ii. Medullary cavity central cavity, yellow bone marrow in adult’s, in children red bone marrow. In the case of extreme blood loss, yellow marrow can turn back to red. iii. Epiphysis either end, compact external spongy internal iv. Periosteum outer sheath of bone, DICT (outer fibrous layer), cellular layer wedged between with osteoclasts and osteoblasts v. Endosteum thin wispy connective tissue, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, covers EVERY free surface internally. LOTS of endosteum, lots of osteoblasts and osteoclasts found on internal surfaces, also covers medullary cavity. vi. Epiphysis each flake is a trabeculae, red bone marrow fills in the gaps in spongy bone vii. Epiphyseal plate active growth, cartilage 13 viii. Epiphyseal line turned to bone in people when finished growing ix. Periosteum all are Connective Tissue, allows innervation and blood vessels, nutrient foramen (holes in the bone) 1. Insertion point for the tendons and ligaments 2. Sharpey’s fibers composed of collagen, keeps the periosteum held in place n. Anatomy of flat, short, and irregular bones i. Compact external perimeter with spongy bone wedged between ii. Diploe (compact spongy bone internal) lots of bone marrow iii. Flat bone sites of red bone marrow production, sternum and hip o. Bone: Microscopic Anatomy i. Compact bone ii. Spongy bone 1. Trabeculae bear stress a. Oriented along stress lines and oriented in the same direction (maximally bearing stress) b. Spaces lighten skeleton iii. Osteon 1. Made up if 3 layers of tissue (the column) a. Compound of lamellae b. Over 20% water c. Osteons run vertically (columns are very strong) iv. Distribution of blood nutrient foramen allows blood and nerves to run external to internal 1. Haversian (central) canal distribute vertically 2. Volksmann’s (perforating) canals laterally p. Lamellae: 34 in an osteon i. Collagen fiber bundles make it harder to twist them to prevent damage 1. All oriented in different directions ii. Compact bone 1. Between lamellae: a. Lacunae b. Osteocytes iii. Osteocytes get trapped between layers iv. “fissures” canaliculi (Little canals) 1. connect to become lacunae a. “service tunnels in a subway” v. Blood runs through central canal 1. No blood in lacunae, uses diffusion a. Osteons become limited due to oxygen and nutrient diffusion vi. Processes reach out into cannuculi 1. Osteocytes make physical contact with each other q. Bone Chemistry: Organic Components 14 i. 35% of bone mass ii. Cells osteoblast, clasts and cytes iii. Osteoid= extracellular matrix in bone (ground substance and collagen) iv. Tensile strength v. Osteoid made of osteoclasts vi. Vinegar soaked bone, minerals dissolved, left dense collagen matrix r. Bone Chemistry Inorganic Components i. Hydroxyapatites make it hard (ca+) phosphate crystals ii. 65% bone mass iii. harden iv. resists compression v. baked bones have no give s. Why is bone strong? i. Osteons of compact bone ii. Collagen bundle orientation iii. Hydroxyapatites iv. Trabeculae of spongy bone t. Intramembranous Ossification i. Formation of bony skeleton 1. Begins at embryonic week 8 2. Two mechanisms a. Intramembranous ossification b. Endochondral ossification Intramembrous ossification 3. Bone comes from mesoderm Membranebone a. 3 embryonic germ layers: ∧ i. endoderm ii. Mesoderm, which produces connective tissues Mesenchyme iii. Ectoderm ∨ Cartilage modelbone b. Intramembranous ossification Endocondral Ossification i. Embryonic week 8 Age 10 ii. Mostly flat bones iii. Mesenchyme fibrous membrane bone 1. Osteoblasts form at ossification center 2. “soft spot, thick membrane (no bone yet)” 3. vascular a. brings in signals through blood, decide on osteoblasts begin to form at the ossification center iv. osteoid secretion form osteoblasts, osteoblasts that are trapped from osteoid v. osteocyte conversion vi. trabeculae form around vessels, osteoblasts create osteoids 15 vii. Mesenchyme condensing periosteum viii. Bone collar forms compact that encases spongy bone ix. Diploe with red bone marrow enclosed 1. Blood flow gets cut off, break down stem cells red bone marrow forms x. Mesenchyme 1. Outside is periosteum made of DICT 2. Inside endosteum, loose CT c. Endochondral ossification i. Essentially all bones form this way starting embryonic week 8ish ii. Mesenchyme> hyaline cartilage model> bone 1. Chondroplasts lay down cartilage into cartilage model 2. Perichondrium d. Blood vessels penetrate perichondrium osteoblasts form produce osteoid around the diaphysis bone collar formed e. Bone collar cuts off the cartilage from the blood flow cartilage gets everything it needs from diffusion chondrocytes die cavitation (form a cavity in the diaphysis (medullary cavity)) primary ossification center f. Periosteal buds invade the cavity osteoblasts form trabeculae pinched g. Medullary cavity forms, osteoclasts eat away at bone in diaphysis (medullary cavity), secondary ossification center h. Epiphyseal ossification, around birth, cartilage remains epiphyseal plates and articular ends u. Bone development i. Osteogenesis formation of bone ii. Ossification process iii. Bone is changes in: 1. Embryonic development a. Childhood i. Osteogenesis 1. Intramembranous ossification 2. Endochondrial ossification b. Childhood Early adulthood i. Longitudinal growth (^ length) ii. Appositional growth (^ girth) c. Adulthood 16 i. Bone remodeling ii. Bone fracture/ healing v. Formation of the bony skeleton i. Embryonic week 8, prior cartilage ii. Mesoderm has to choose to be mesenchyme 1. Differentiate step closer to whatever its going to be w. Intramembranous ossification i. Flat bones ii. Finishes at age 10 with brain development iii. Development genes “at this place” over this time, this is going to happen later change the signals iv. Osteoblasts expand until they fill the membrane v. Trabeculae form around blood supply, compacts (mesenchyme periosteum) vi. Inner layer of periosteum, osteoblasts start laying compact bone outside of spongy bone plate vii. Blood vessels break down to form red bone marrow x. Endochondral ossification long and short bones i. Cavity becomes open ii. Periosteal buds (worms) invade cavity iii. Osteoblasts form inside the cavity due to chemical signals 1. Start to produce spongy bone iv. Osteoclasts breakdown bone v. Two very different interior designers Osteoblasts want bone everywhere, osteoclasts ensure there’s a medullary cavity vi. Periosteal bones invade the epiphysis to form secondary ossification centers vii. Epiphyseal plate allow growth (cartilage) viii. Articular ends are cartilage allow bones to glide across each other y. How bones grow i. Longitudinal growth (longer) appositional (width) ii. Growth adds length to diaphysis iii. Length in diaphysis iv. Take cartilage, turn to bone in diaphysis; epiphysis doesn’t 5. Chapter 9 a. Muscles and muscle tissue (Myo, Mys, Sarco) i. Functional characteristics of muscle 1. Excitablereceives and responds to stiuli, when it responds there is electrical currents 2. Contractility ^ tension (frequently leads to shortening) a. Generate tension 3. Extensibility ability to lengthen 4. Elasticity muscle can return to resting length ii. Muscle types and locations 17 1. Cardiac heart and only heart (involuntary) a. Branched b. Uninucleated c. Striations because of internal organization structure very important to function d. Intercalated discs connections between cells that are incredibly complex desmosomes hold together cells, stable connection gap junction communication through electrical currents (contraction) e. Function i. Propels blood through cardiovascular system ii. Move blood to where it needs to go 2. Skeletal discreet packages “muscle” muscle belly a. Upper esophagus (voluntary) b. Muscle fiber single cell as long as the muscle belly it resides in c. Long cylindrical d. Multinucleated due to formation, individual cells fused together e. Striated internal organization that’s important for contraction f. Voluntary g. Adaptable choose the amount of force exerted h. Functions i. Stabilze joints ii. Producing movement iii. Maintain posture iv. Protect viserca nat as good as bone, but still protection i. All 3 types of muscle generate heart due to ATP j. Skeletal makes most heat most abundant k. Skeletal muscle: gross anatomy i. Epimysium DRCT all of the collagen fibers are organized in the same direction 1. Surrounds the muscle belly ii. Perimysium loose CT (collagen fibers) 1. Contains a bunch of muscle fibers (bundles called fascicle) iii. Endomysium loose CT (reticular fibers) 1. Surrounds every muscle fiber iv. Superficial fascia outside the epimysium “hypodermis” 1. Adipose and arelor v. Gross anatomy 18 1. Blood supply: one artery supplies each muscle belly a. Can be multiple veins b. Very specialized 2. Nerve supply a. One nerve supplies each muscle belly b. One point of nerves input to each muscle fiber i. Multiple could contradict each other ii. Central location due to length of time 3. Attachments a. Span joints (attachments on 2 bones) b. Direct (no tendon) c. Indirect (has a tendon) d. Periosteum (DICT collagen fibers) sharpey’s fibers e. Epimysium covering the muscle DRCT collagen 4. Direct no tendon a. Epimys and posimys periost 5. Indirect tendon a. Epimys and perimys corm tendon leading to periost 3. Skeletal Muscle Microscopic anatomy a. Fiber diameter 10100 um b. Fiber length up to 100s of centimeters c. Each cell is a fusion from embryonic development d. Sarcoplasm= cytoplasm of muscle cells e. Myoglobin= hemoglobin holds oxygen f. Glycosomes store glycogen glucose storage for ATP g. Organelles ribosomes h. Myofibrils contractile rods rod made of protein; packed inside of muscle fibers (80% of muscle volume), striations (made of sarcomeres) i. Sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle cell ii. Mitochondrion iii. Dark A and Light I bands i. Sarcomere region of myofibril between two z discs i. Smallest contractile unit 1. Can’t take anything out and be able to make it contract j. Thick filaments 19 i. Myosin fibrous tail, globular head ii. Myosin wants ATP and Actin specifically k. Thin filaments i. All actin and all myosin attached= permanent rigor mortis ii. Tropin complex 1. 3 parts 2. Regulates position of tropomyosin a. controls/ blocks myosin binding site during relaxation l. M and Z lines are protein assemblies that are holding things in place 4. Myofibrils must line up to form striations a. Myofibrils are made up of sarcomeres b. Myofibrils overlap i. Proteins in z discs interact to overlap and line up c. Striations are due to z disc organization factors 5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding each myofibril (covers every muscle cell) a. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum produces lipids, detox substances and ability to sequester b. Terminal cisterna(e) Ca2 release c. Sequester (packaged and held inside cell) and release ca2 d. Transverse tubules (gold) and triads i. Transverse tubules ii. Made of membrane iii. Ttubule membrane is continuous with that of the sarcolemma e. AI band junction where ttubules are found f. Terminal cisternae found on either side of the ttubules (one on each side) membrane continuous with sarcolemma g. Sarcolemma holes allow ttubules to pass through h. Electrical signals which trigger… i. Ca2 release 2 terminal cisternae and 1 Ttubule j. Muscle contraction iii. Sliding Filament model and contraction 1. Contraction does not equal shortening 2. Cross bridges, connection of actin and myosin, and thick and thin filaments interact 3. Shortening sarcomere, distance between z discs decreases iv. The model 1. H bands disappears, complete overlap 20 2. A bands stays constant in length 3. I bands shortens, pulled to overlap with the thick 4. Z to Z siatance v. For contraction to occur, neurons and muscle cells must send electrical signals. This involves… 1. Electrical current generated from ions across membranes cause by electrochemical gradient, gradient caused by Na+/ K+ pump measured and voltage charges 2. Membranes cellular membrane 3. Ions 4. Electrochemical gradient caused by a difference in solutions 5. The Na+/K+ pump 6. Voltage changes vi. Electrochemical gradient 1. More positive outside 2. More Na+ outside 3. More K inside vii. Electrochemical gradient resting 1. Na+ more outside 2. K+ more inside 3. More positive outside 4. Less positive charge inside viii. Ion Flow 1. Na+ channel opens and Na+ flows in 2. More positive less positive 3. Ions go down concentration gradient 4. K+ flows out with concentration, against electrical gradient a. SLOWLY! b. Can be shifted to allow flow easier ix. After Ion flow 1. More equal on both sides x. Sodium Potassium Pump 1. Moves against gradient 2. ATP mitochondria produced 3. 3:2 xi. Voltage change diffuse across membrane 1. One side of the membrane isn’t negative just less positive a. Extracellular: Relatively positive b. Intracellular: Relatively negative less positive than extracellular 2. Smooth walls of hallow organs (involuntary) a. Spindle shaped b. Central nuclei c. Arranged into sheets walls of hallow organs 21 d. Not striated e. Involuntary f. Functions of smooth muscles i. In walls of hallow organs: regulates passage of substance ii. Regulates pupillary response iii. Forms arrector pili muscle 22
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