PHIL 1313 Weeks 1-2 Notes
PHIL 1313 Weeks 1-2 Notes Phil 1313
Popular in Logic and Critical Thinking
Popular in Philosophy (introduction to bioethics)
This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by carmen.bobbie33 Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Phil 1313 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Drohan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Logic and Critical Thinking in Philosophy (introduction to bioethics) at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Logic & Critical Thinking Notes 08/30/2016 ▯ 8/18/16 ▯ Facts and statements can either be true or false ▯ There are other linguistic expressions that are not statements (questions & commands) ▯ We express facts in the form of linguistic statements ▯ A statement or fact does not explain why it is true or false ▯ Ideas are linguistic representations that explain why it is true or false ▯ On their own, facts don’t explain why the world is the way it is, Ideas do ▯ Ideas are linguistic representations that explain why the facts are the way they are ▯ Ideas offer reasons why facts are the way they are ▯ The formulation of ideas and the reasons behind them requires not only thought or inferences ▯ And inference is a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence ▯ This evidence justifies the conclusion ▯ The process of justifying our inferences is known as arguing ▯ A formal argument is not the same as what most call an ‘argument’ ▯ Facts, reasons and ideas that make up and argument are called premises. ▯ In a good argument, the premises will all logically lead to the arguments conclusion. ▯ The premises will all be either reasonable statements or facts or reasonable ideas. ▯ A deductive argument is based on the logic form, ▯ The premises of a deductive argument should logically support the conclusion. ▯ An inductive argument is based on empirical (sensory) evidence. ▯ Deduction is a matter of logically working with generally accepted premises or definition toward a specific conclusion ▯ Induction is a matter of observing specific physical events with our senses and the using these observations to make general claims about the world ▯ Induction depends entirely on sensory observations. ▯ 8/23/16 ▯ Induction claims must be concretely demonstrated in such a way that anyone can repeat them & get the same results. (ex. Science is an inductive claim) ▯ If the form of a deductive argument is logical then it is said to be valid. ▯ An argument is valid if it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true. ▯ Validity concerns the structure of the argument, not the content. ▯ Thus, and argument can be valid if all facts are true. ▯ An argument is sound if it is valid and the premises are true ▯ Only deductive arguments can be sound ▯ And argument is strong if it is improbable that the conclusion is false when the premises are true. ▯ There are degrees of strength. ▯ Only inductive arguments are strong or weak. ▯ An argument is cogent if it is strong and the premises are true ▯ Only inductive arguments can be cogent ▯ Descriptive Conveying factual knowledge about the world ▯ Evaluative To render judgment on the facts, whether that judgment be aesthetic, moral, economic, technological, scientific ▯ Emotive To express emotion and other subjective states (feeling & sensation) ▯ Evocative To evoke a emotion, feeling or sensation in others ▯ Persuasive To convince others to think or act a particular way ▯ Interrogative To elicit information from others ▯ Semiotic (Signs & signifiers; expression & content) ▯ Structuralist (Words & power; word & social norms) ▯ Pragmatic (Words & utility) ▯ The different meanings are called the different senses of the word ▯ Reparative definitions explain how a term is used ▯ Stipulate definitions designate a particular meaning for a term relative to a specific situation or task. ▯ Essentialist definitions reveal the essential nature of a particular term. In philosophy, we’re generally working with essentialist definitions ▯ Ostensive Defining the term through examples and or observations ▯ Contextually Defining the term in reference to the statement in which it occurs ▯ Operationally Specifying quantitative or qualitative restrictions on the term. This is often done when composing a stipulate definition. 8/25/16 ▯ Minimize defining terms that are too broad. The definition applies to move more than the key term. Or to narrow, which applies to less than the key term actually involves or too broad/narrow,-applies to both more and less than the key term ▯ Too circular The definition includes the key term ▯ Too obscure The definition uses vague or metaphorical language ▯ A good argument should begin with some clear definitions of its key terms ▯ Our goal is to get at the abstract ‘essence’ of the key terms that we’ll be using in our argument ▯ This essence should be argued for and not just stipulated ▯ Often an essentialist definition will list all the conditions necessary for something to sufficiently defined by it.
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