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KIN 300

by: Ixchel Buelna
Ixchel Buelna
California State University, Northridge
GPA 3.16

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Containing notes to help analyze movements at particular joints of upper and lower extremities.
Foundations and Analysis of Human Movement
Christopher McClain
Kinesiology, movement, functional, analysis, Human
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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to KIN 300 at California State University, Northridge taught by Christopher McClain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Foundations and Analysis of Human Movement in Kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
**Breaking down movements into muscles** CHAPTER 1 MUSCLE TISSUE Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle  Multinucleated (peripheral)  Voluntarily adaptive  Striated Force and Tension - used interchangeably; meaning the same thing -muscle support _____ NERVE TISSUE Regulate and control functions of the body  Separate from muscle tissue  Feedback loop CONNECTIVE TISSUE  Separate tissue from the others  Cushioning, extracellular matrices (injury prevention or reduction)  Inflammation response Tendons  Transmit muscle forces to the bone, to then produce movement  Connect muscle to bone  Intertwining of two junctions V  Osteotendinous junction (bone tendon)  Musculotendinous junction (muscle tendon) Ligaments  Connect bone to bone  Support every single joint  10 ligaments in the knee joint  Cushioning, lubrication, proprioception (feedback loop) Cartilage  Hyaline - articular (two surfaces of the bone that rub against each other; interacting)  Fibrocartilage - vertebrae, ligaments, etc. (cushioning disc; menisci) ______ REFERNCE POSITIONS Anatomical position (palms forward) when giving reference points Fundamental position; relaxed position Terms  Contralateral - on the opposite side  Ipsilateral - on the same side  Prone - lying face down, palms down  Supine - lying on back  Dorsal - relating to the back or upper portion  Volar (plantar & palmer) - palm of the hand or sole of the foot Planes  Sagittal (anteroposterior) - divides bilateral segments; sit-up or bending (flexion/extension) o Always a frontal/medial/lateral/coronal axes  Frontal (lateral) - divides front and back; jumping jacks; adduction/abduction o Sagittal axes (antero/postero)  Transverse (horizontal/table top) - divides top and bottom; rotations (cervical/spinal); internal/external rotation OR horizontal adduction/abduction o Longitudinal/vertical  High/low diagonal - upper limbs or shoulder joints & overhand skills; baseball pitch or discus thrower  Low diagonal - lower limbs at the hip joints; kickers and punters **joints are all axes** ***axes and planes are linked*** Axes of rotation (all are perpendicular) - around it or towards it? Movements in joints  Permit movement in different planes  Beyond anatomic position - hyperextension  ROM (range of motion) - measuring degree of movement; anatomic position is considered to be 0 degrees o Normal ranges varies for different people o Goniometer is used to access ROM  Relative joint angle - angle in between the two body segments o Usually less than 90 degrees o Flexion - angle decreases  Elbow  Wrist  Knee  Dorsal flexion (ankle) - moving closer to shin  Plantar flexion (ankle) - moving away from shin o Extension - angle increases  Abduction - moving away from midline o Hip o Shoulders  Adduction - moving back towards the midline o Hip o Shoulders  Circumduction - combination of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction (all at once) o Shoulder o Hip o Finger (MP joint)  External rotation o Shoulder o Hip o Toes o Transverse plane  Internal rotation  Diagonal abduction  Diagonal adduction  Inversion (supination of foot) o Rolling out, bottom of foot (sole) is facing in (personally see sole of foot)  Eversion (pronation of foot) o Rolling in, sole is facing out  Pronation o Movement occurring in forearm  Supination o Movement occurring in forearm Scapula (if you move humerus, the scapula will move also)  Protraction (abduction) o Scapula away from midline/spine  Retraction (adduction) o Scapula toward midline/spin  Depression  Elevation  Downward rotation  Upward rotation  Horizontal adduction o Towards midline  Horizontal abduction (GH) o Away from midline **Shoulder flexion - extension and upward rotation of scapula** Spine  Lateral flexion (side bending) o Movement of head and trunk away from midline  Cervical flexion o Movement of head only  Reduction o Return of spine to anatomic position  Cervical rotation o Lateral rotation Wrist/Hand **STUDY**  "that’s rad" - radial flexion  "PU" - pinky to ulna - ulnar flexion  Opposition of the thumb - diagonal movement of thumb across palmar surface (GRABBING) o carpal/metacarpal joint 1 (CMC1)  Abduction  Adduction  Palmar flexion  Dorsal flexion (dorsiflexion) Pelvis  Anterior/posterior tilt  Lateral tilt  Rotation CHAPTER 2 Skeletal System (major calcium storage site)  Structural support  Protection  Movement  Mineral storehouse  Blood cell production **Bones to know**  Ribs o True ribs o False ribs o Floating ribs  Cranial portion  Facial portion  Clavicle  Scapula  Sternum  Humerus  Vertebral column  Pelvis  Radius  Ulna  Carpals  Metacarpals  Phalanges  Femur  Patella  Tibia  Fibula  Tarsals  Metatarsals  Phalanges Bone Histology  Osteoblasts o Build bone  Osteoclasts o Recycle bone (resorbers)  Osteocytes o Maintenance Bone matrix  Water  Calcium phosphate o Strength  Collagen (1/3 of bone made of connective tissue) o Bending, twisting, absorb tension  Ground substance  Minerals Bone structure (vascular - blood supply through Volkmann's canal)  Density (compact) - bone mineral content o Cortical  Solid  Porosity (holes) o A lot of soft tissue o Trabeculae  Spongy  Long bones o Knobby end, long shaft  Short o Knobby end only  Flat  Irregular  Sesamoid o Floaters **label main aspects of bone, emphasis on epicondyles, epiplates, diaphysis on bone structure** Organization  Axial o Protect and support  Appendicular o Appendix - segments o Movement Pelvic Girdle  Connect axial to appendicular  Glenohumeral (GH - shoulder) joint o Scapular movement is linked o **palm rule** Lower Limbs  Femur, tibia, fibula, and foot  Tarsal bones in foot Arches (3 arches)  Plantar fascia arch (all ligaments combined) o Weight/load bearing  Transverse  Lateral and medial longitudinal  Forces carried by ligaments Upper limbs  Humerus, radius, ulna, and hand o Major articulation between humerus and ulna o Major articulation at wrist (radiocarpal) Vertebral Column ("S" curve, straightline)  Cervical o R/L lateral flexion o Can move separate from spinal section  Spinal o Can move separate from cervical spine  Vertebra o Irregular **large ROM to the sides and flexion, but limited with extension** Adaptation  Modeling o Osteoblasts o Addition formation  Remodeling (recycle) o Osteoclasts o Resorption replacement  Wolfe's Law - Function and structure of bone o Bone responds in relation to the loads/stresses it experiences  Multiple ways bone can be loaded  If bone doesn't experience stress, it will remodel o "use it or lose it" o More bone mineral content on dominant side Bone Health  Exercise o Novel loads - lifetime exercise o Different lane actions  Diet o Calcium, vitamin D o Excessive protein intake  Aging o Genetic factors **get bones checked to get EC**  Osteopenia (pre-disease)  Osteoporosis (disease level bone) o DEXA (dual emission x-ray absorption) o BMD (bone mineral density)  T-score (standard deviation score) o Where is your bone in relation to someone, normal and healthy of the same age  Positive is healthy  -1 or greater is normal  -1.5 osteopenia (pre-disease)  -2.5 osteoporosis (anything will break bone)  1 in 2 individuals will experience osteoporosis CH. 4 Muscle structure  Composed of single cells or fibers embedded in a matrix of collagen  Multinucleated  Sarcomere (know how to label) - where contraction occurs o Actin (I band) - thin & only thing that goes through 2 sarcomeres o Myosin (A band) - thick o Etc.  **muscle cell & muscle fiber are the same thing**  Label tendon to sarcomere Physiology  Action potential transmitted through T-tubule  Calcium stores in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)  Hypertrophy - increase in size  Atrophy - decrease in size o Epi - surround entire muscle o Peri - surround each fascicle o Endo - surround each muscle fiber  Sarcolemma (surround myofibrils)  SR  Sarcomere filaments  Cross-bridge between myosin and action (connection)  Power stroke Muscle contraction/muscle action occurring (In muscle producing the movement interacting with other objects)  Concentric contraction (shortening) o Overcoming gravity o If the movement is going against & across gravity o Going faster (quick/explosive) & with gravity  Eccentric (lengthening) o Resist gravity o With gravity but slower than gravity (controlled/absorbing) - controlled o Most important portion of a lift; hypertrophy loading (most muscle damage occurs)  Isometric (no movement) o Contracting without changing position  Plank hold  Isokinetic (equal velocity) **machines - ask what effect are you having on the weight plates** Motor units - exert force  Parasympathetic -  Sympathetic - fight or flight  Depolarization - -70 to 0, Na channels open  Repolarization - from peak back to -70, Na closes, K opens  Hyperpolarization - anything below RMP  …  Calcium enables actin and myosin to bind o w/o cross-bridge, no muscle contraction o Power stroke  Myosin/myosin head pulls actin towards the M line (concentric action)  Eccentric movement = less fibers are needed o Damage = forced lengthening of the myosin head  Proprioceptors o Protect muscle or tendon (musculotendinous unit)  Muscle spindle  Cause contraction (agonist) to resist stretch  Inhibit antagonist muscles (relax)  GTO (Golgi tendon organ)  Stimulated by muscle tension/contraction  Activation inhibits muscle contraction o 2 different types of tissue = weak spot o Stops overlengthening o Cause of injury - forceful concentric contracting o Deactivates concentric contraction Muscle fibers  Slow twitch - type I - Slow oxidative (SO) o Fatigue resistant o Don't contract as rapidly and forcefully o Aerobic - rely on oxidative energy system o Low intensity  Fast twitch - type II - Glycolytic o Contract rapidly and forcefully o More efficient SR o Fatigue quickly (second to minutes) o Rely on non-oxidative energy system - non-aerobic o High intensity  Fiber % (50/50) **lactic acid causes fatigue & not soreness** Muscle fiber arrangement  Fusiform (longitudinal) o Bicep o Best for speed  Unipennate (half-feather) o Semimembranosus o Force  Bipennate (feather) o Rectus femoris o Force  Multipennate (wing) o Deltoids o Force  Triangular (fan) o Pectoralis major o Both fore and speed o Tendon does not go all the way through Length-tension relationship (tension = force)  Elastic properties of muscle and tendon  Passive tension - length of tendon (ligaments) - joint capsule  Active tension - length of muscle (created by muscle contraction) muscle and tendon  Combination of Pa/Ac -  A muscle is strongest when slightly stretched Stretch-Shorten Cycle  Eccentric contraction immediately followed by concentric contraction  Stored elastic energy Classification of joints (**know an example of each one**)  Synarthroidial o No movement o Fibrous joints (sutures)  Amphiarthroidial o A little bit of movement o Cartilaginous joint (hyaline)  Diarthroidial - synovial joints o Movement - freely moveable joints o Forms joint capsule with synovial membrane (bone to bone) and fluid o Articular cartilage that covers articular surfaces of the bone o Pelvis changing shape o Types  Gliding (do not rotate) - slide against each other  Carpals and tarsals  Planar only  Short bones  Hinge - reduce movement in one direction (flexion/extension)  IP joints  Elbow  One plane  Pivot  Radius and ulna  Sagittal plane  Condyloid "knuckle" - convex/concave  MP joints  Radiocarpal joint  Flexion/extension  Abduction/adduction  Movement in two joints  Saddle  Opposition (frontal plane movement) & sagittal plane  CMC1  Ball-in-socket  GH  Hip and shoulder  Permits movement in all three planes Support of joints  Actively supported by muscle  Passively supported by ligaments (non-contractile tissues) o Joint capsule o Ligaments  Menisci o Fibrocartilage (discs)  Attach to articulating surfaces Degrees of freedom**  Smaller degree of freedom, the least # of planes & vice versa  Larger degree of freedom = more free (more ROM) o 1 plane, 1 axes, 1 plane o Freezing - limiting ROM for a segment that has 3df o Freeing - Double-jointed (greater ROM - subluxation) - extra degrees ROM  Try to find the origin of double-jointed **EC**  Two-joint muscles (origin and inserts) - EXAM 2 o Span through two joints o Bicep and elbow  Stabilizer at shoulder  Provides flexion at elbow o Primary mover - o Secondary mover - o Gastrocnemius  Primary mover at the ankle  Secondary mover at the knee Joint movements (from anatomic position for THAT person - individually based) Pelvic movement (hip flexion also occurred)  Anterior/posterior tilt o Lumbar curves or flattens  Lateral tilt (R/L) o Drop in one side of the body  Rotation (R/L) o Spinal rotation involved o Degree of the frontal view changes Knee (tibiofemoral join)  Bicondyloid joint - not a real hinge  During final extension tibia and femur rotate relative to each other (screw-home mechanism) o Not a real hinge (can't do adduction/abduction) o Lock into place  Menisci (extra cushioning discs for load bearing joints) Ankle and foot  Talocrural (plantar/dorsiflexion) o Plantar (open, unstable position) - loose fit o Dorsiflexion (close packed position) - snug fit  Less rate of injury  Subtalar (inversion/eversion) Shoulder movement  Glenohummeral  Also need to talk about movement in the scapula Elbow and forearm  Humeroulnar o Main articulation o Pronation/supination  Humeroradial Wrist and hand  .. Head, neck, and spine  TMJ is only moveable joint o ..  Spinal deformities (know where these occur) o Scoliosis (single side dominant sport)  Lateral curvature of spine o Kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve)  Sagittal spinal deformity  Thoracic  Hunchback o Lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve)  Lumbar region Intervertebral discs  Cushioning disc  Allows for compression and allows to bend CH. 5 **Primary mover muscle ONLY listed in the book** **Internal and medial; external and lateral rotation used interchangeably** Stabilizers, synergists, neutralizers - secondary movers/actions CH.6 **applied dynatomy** First - law of inertia (resistance to action/change) Second - law of acceleration (F=ma) Third - law of action/reaction (equal and opposite)  Motion cannot occur without a force o Types of motion  Linear  Rectilinear motion - motion along a straight line  Curvilinear motion - motion along a curved line  Linear displacement - distance that a system moves in a straight line  Angular (rotation around an axis)  Axis of rotation is provided by the various joints  Angular displacement - change in location of a rotating body  General motion  Linear + angular o  Center of gravity hovers around belly-button (half of height)  Affects how we perform in certain physical activities  Center of gravity can leave body o Base of support - area within body contact on the surface (SA) = stability  COG around base of support = stable  Directionally appropriate (sport context dependent) o Mobility - change in base of support to enhance movement  COG leaves base of support = unstable/mobile o Kinetics = FORCE (associated with the motion of a body) o Kinematics - description of motion o Distance - total ground covered/traveled o Displacement - change in position from start to finish  Straight line (dist./disp. Are the same) o Velocity - directionally inclusive measure of how fast an object is moving  Vector (depends on magnitude and direction)  Know positive velocity, negative acceleration & vice versa Acceleration - change in velocity (over time) o o Friction - force that results from the resistance between surfaces of two objects from moving one another  Differs depending on surfaces; will result in more or less resistance  Static - the amount of friction between two objects that have not yet begun to move  Always greater than kinetic  Always more difficult to initiate dragging than to continue it  Kinetic - friction between two objects that are sliding upon one another o Coefficient of friction - ratio between force needed to overcome the friction over the force holding the surfaces together o Rolling friction - resistance to an object rolling across a surface such as a ball rolling across a court or a tire rolling across the ground  Always much less than static or kinetic o Machines - used to increase mechanical advantage  Musculoskeletal  Levers (most common)  Wheel-axles  pulleys Movement analysis homework Separate R/L movement in joints UPPER BODY JOINTS  GH  Elbow (RU)  Wrist (RC)  MP  IP  DIP  CMC1 LOWER BODY JOINTS  Pelvic  AF (hip)  TF (knee)  Subtalo (inversion/eversion)  Talocrural (dorsi flexion/extension)  MP  IP  Toe flexion/extension  Phases (verbally or *PICTURE* - for reference point)  Phase 1 - how does it differ or relate to anatomic position  Divide movement skill into phases  No conflicting movements at any given joint within each phase  Based on movements at any one joint o Initial/stance phase o Preparatory phase o Movement phase o Follow-through phase o Recovery/return phase (some will/will not have)  Joints involved  Producing, stabilizing or neutralizing movement  Every joint (maintaining a gaze involves the cervical region)  Movement  Flexion, extension, abduction, etc.  Muscle action  Eccentric, concentric or isometric  Muscles  Agonist only 1st law  Body in motion tend to remain in motion   Resistance to change o Tendency for the current state of motion to be maintained  Higher resistance to change - harder & vice versa  Moment of inertia - resistance to angular motion - COG and axis meet o Change physics to max sport performance o Mass moment of inertia - resistance to being moved about an axis o Area moment of inertia - resistance to bending o Polar moment of inertia - resistance to twisting (torsion)  fracture run entire length of bone 2nd law  o change of acceleration is directly proportional to the force causing it o Inversely proportional to the mass of the body  Acceleration - the rate of change in velocity  Mass - the amount of matter in the body o Affects speed and acceleration  Effect of applied forces depends on: o Magnitude o Location o Direction o Duration o Frequency o Variability o Rate  If direction of force applied is changed, magnitude will have to be increased ? 3rd law  For every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction  Ground reaction force - force of the surface reacting to the force we place on it  We provide action force, while the surface provides reaction force 1 Levers (know advantages and disadvantages)  Cannot be changes, but can be utilized more efficiently  Used to gain mechanical advantage  Improve simple or complex physical movements  Habitually use human levers properly  Can develop habits of improper use o Levers - rigid bar that turns about an axis of rotation or a fulcrum  Axis (A) - fulcrum - the point of rotation  Point (F) of force application (usually muscle insertion)  Point (R) of resistance application (COG of lever) or (location of an external resistance)  E = effort o Axis - point of rotation about which lever moves  Change body position 1st class o Axis is between force and resistance (FAR) o Produce balanced movements  Seesaw  scissors 2nd class o Resistance is between axis and force (ARF) o Produce force movements, since a large resistance can be moved by a relatively small force  Calf raise  Wheelbarrow  nutcracker 3rd class (most common) o Force is between axis and resistance (AFR) o Produce speed and ROM movements  Biceps in elbow flexion  Torque - moment of force - turning effect of an eccentric force o  Needed for rotation to occur  No axis, then applied force is not in line with objects COG o Amount of torque is determined by multiplying amount of force by force arm   Greater distance of force arm, more torque produced by the force  o Inverse relationship (with constants) between:  Force and force arm - longer force arm, less force required  Resistance and resistance arm - short resistance arm, greater resistance o Proportional relationship:   Long lever = more linear force  Short lever am = quickness  Moment arm is perp. Distance between force and axis o Mechanical advantage VS. disadvantage o Furthest from axis and perp. to produce less force (gain leverage) o Away from 90 degrees - moment arm gets smaller and force gets higher o  Pulleys o Single pulleys function to change effective direction of force application  Balance - ability to control equilibrium, either static or dynamic (more desired) o Important in resting and moving bodies o COG falls within base of support o Larger base of support = more balance o Greater weight = more balance o Lower COG = more balance o COG near edge of base = less balance  Equilibrium - state of zero acceleration where there is no change in the speed or direction o Static - at rest o Dynamic - constant state of motion o  Static equilibrium - body is at rest or completely motionless  **to control equilibrium and achieve balance, stability needs to be maximized**  o Enhanced by determining the body's COG and appropriately changing it o o  Force (muscles) o Produce of change movement of a body segment, body, or object o Push or pull on an object F = mass X acceleration o o Mechanical work is performed by a force acting through a displacement of that force o Power  Rate over which wok is performed o Energy is the capacity to do work  Potential energy  Gravitational  Deformational - change in shape  Kinetic  Linear  Angular Momentum  o Measure of a bodies quantity of motion = mass X velocity o Conservation/transfer of P  External forces and effect o Produced from outside the body and originate from gravity  Internal forces (excessive tissue deformation due to mechanical loading o o Compression - standing o Shear - *body not good at handling* o Bending -combination of compression and tension on opposite sides of the bend o Torsion (twisting) - *body not good at handling* **know relationships of equations (proportional?)** CH. 7 **READ**  Muscles are grouped together according to concentric function  Work in paired opposition to an antagonistic group  Roles of muscles o Agonist (primary) o Antagonist o Stabilizer o Neutralizer  Movement phases (early and late phases) o Stance  Assume comfortable and balanced body position  Setting various joint angles in correct positions o Preparatory (cocking or wind-up)  Lengthen appropriate muscles so that they will be in position to generate more force and momentum  Becomes more dynamic as need for explosiveness increases o Movement (acceleration, action, motion, contact)  Summation of force is generated directly to object or opponent  Near maximal concentric activity in involved muscles o Follow-through (deceleration)  Begins immediately after climax of movement phase  Negative acceleration  Body segment velocity progressively decreases over a wide ROM  Greater acceleration in movement phase = greater length and importance of follow-through phase o Recovery  Regain balance and positioning to be ready for the next demand  Muscles used eccentrically in follow-through to decelerate body will be concentrically used in recovery  Efficiency - output VS. cost o High output, low cost  Kinematic assessment - measurement of movement o Quantitative - mathematic, numerical o Qualitative - form, aesthetics  Kinetic assessment - force related measurement of movement o Force plates o Dynamometers  EMG (electrical activity of muscle) o (electromyography) used to measure muscle activity for skeletal muscle  EC or EKG to measure cardiac activity  Our extremities consist of several boy segments linked by a series of joints o Any one link in extremity may be moved individually w/o significantly affecting other links if the chain is OPEN or not attached at one end  Open kinetic chain - distal end of the extremity is not fixed to any surface  Shoulder shrug  Seated hip flexion  Beneficial in isolating a particular joint to concentrate on specific muscle groups  Not functional for most PA, especially lower extremity that require multiple joint activity involving numerous muscle groups simultaneously o If the chain is securely attached or CLOSED, substantial movement of any one link cannot occur w/o substantial and subsequent movement of the other links  Distal end of the extremity is fixed (push-up, dip, squat, or dead lift)  Movement of one joint cannot occur w/o causing predictable movements of the other joints  Multiple plane movements  Very functional; strongly correlates to most PA  Most common activities - closed chain lower extremity & open chain upper extremity _____________________________________________________________ CH. 8 Fundamentals of posture *gait pattern?* = any movement pattern (context dependent)  Posture is the alignment of the body and its parts to accomplish a specific goal (static or dynamic) o Walking posture o Running posture o Sitting posture  Postural control o Balance - maintenance of postural control o Equilibrium - ability to maintain balance (context dependent)  Postural sway o Movement with purpose to maintain balance o Anything that would occur to achieve that goal  Ex. When on boat, to when you arrive back on land, body sways because it believes it is still on the boat Static posture (anatomic position)  Involved little movement (steady state posture)  No locomotion o Head - erect position o Body weight on two feet o Bilateral structures, same level o Spinal curvatures  Changing postures is best - reduce single point impacts/stresses o Decrease injury  Balance forces (COG) & their effects  Gravity will produce movement depending on which side of the joint it is on o COG behind joint - produce movement in that way (vice versa) Standing postures  Asymmetric - weight shift to one leg, with knee fully extended  Nilotic - one legged stance, with opposite leg supporting behind the knee  Normal - anatomic Sitting postures  Correct sitting posture (changing) - always varies, by definition it is one that reduces stress/strain to any one specific region o Reduces impact points to reduce injury Lying posture  Hard surface o Prone o Spreads point of contact on greater amount of space; reduction in force  Soft surface o Supine o less localized pressure  Normal surface o Lying on side o Keeps spine in-line Dynamic postures  Postural control o Static - COG or LOG (line of gravity) within base of support o Reactive - unexpected shifts to LOG, slipping or tripping, LOG is within BOS  Don't see something (hit) coming o Anticipatory - adjusting BOS to resist oncoming forces  See something coming and change posture o Adaptive - context dependent  Learn how to change gait  Need experience first Sensors  Proprioceptors (muscle spindle, GTO, joint receptors, vestibular apparatus) o Where body is in space  Exteroceptors o External senses Postural alterations and perturbations (repeated changes)  Change in postures caused by physiologic, psychological, environmental, anatomic, or developmental factors Developmental consideration (milestones) Babies  Sitting alone (6 months) - S-curve starts to develop  Standing (11 months)  Walk (12 months)  Jumping (2 years OR 24 months) Older adults (reverse of baby milestones)  Postural changes  Decline in vision  Loss of vestibular function  Muscle loss  Increased sway  Impairment of sensory info  Slower response/reaction times  Decreased ROM  Disc issues/pain Postural dysfunction - everything affects gait/posture Locomotion - walking - gait  Act of moving from place to place  Particular form of walking  Gait cycle - refers to sequential occurrence of stance and swimming phase for a single limb o Stance phase - foot contacts ground (each leg occur at the same time but separately/off cycle) - 60% of gait cycle in stance  Double support - both feet on floor  Single support - one leg in contact, one leg in swing phase o Swing phase - leg moving forward - 40% of gait cycle in swing  Terminal swing  As velocity increases, swing increases  Stride period from initial contact of one leg until the next initial contact of the same leg) o One stride = two steps o Longer than a step  Cadence is the step rate = steps/min o Velocity = step L * cadence o Velocity = stride L * stride frequency LTO - left toe off RHC - right heel contact Gender gait characteristics  Step width differs  Normal walking gait occurs at about 3 mph  Young and old are on the same developmental level o Smaller, waddling steps Life span perspective  Crawling (military crawl)  Creeping - using hands and knees  Gait characteristics o Stride length increases Gait deficiency  Trendelenberg gait - paralysis or imbalance of hip abductors  ACL - deficient knee; quad avoidance  Cerebral palsy - muscle dysfunction and paralysis *develop S-curve in spine, not born with it* *opposing muscles group for gravitational moment* *women have steeper pelvic angle, pillow between legs helpful* *know difference walk (always in contact w/ground with one or both feet) VS run (only in contact with ground with one foot; fight phase)* *know how to label phases of gait cycle* CH. 9 Running  Running speed = 4.5 mph  Single support and flight phase  Life span perspective levels o 1 arm assist - feet flat and swing leg abducted o 2 arms swing trunk rotation - knee flexion speed increase o 3 arm swing increase - heel sagittal toe-off o 4 arm independent trunk opposition (uncoupling) Jumping  Landing on both feet Hopping  Take off and land on same foot Leaping  Take off from one foot, and land on another ________________ Basic jump  Counter movement - stretch-shorten cycle (SSC) o Primarily eccentric o Absorb and explode  Foundational movement  Squat  Hip-knee o Extensors give you flight o Arm swing important for more flight  End of flight phase o Anticipatory o Flexion softens everything for eccentric landing  Children o 2-2 (jump off two, jump onto two) o 1-2 (off one, on two) o 2-1 (off two, on one) o Move forward; overtime, jump over objects  Jumping injuries o Knee extensor mechanism (KEM)  Quads-patellofemoral-tendon o Patellar  Maltracking  Tendinitis  Chondromalacia (degeneration) o Quads  Tendinitis Throwing  Projectile (object) o Under the influence of gravity and air resistance  Trajectory (apex)  Release height  Release speed (distance throwers)  Release angle  Ballistics (study)  Phases o Preparatory  Favorable position for executing throw  Maximize ROM  Larger body segments to initiate throw  Make use of SSC  Muscle length-tension curve  Store elastic energy o Action  Proximal to distal muscle action and transfer of momentum and kinetic energy o Recovery  Slow down, decelerate body and limb segments  Eccentric Throwing injuries  Impingement syndrome  Medial epicondylitis o ME:LE = 1:5  Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) o Over-use injury o Inflammation response Kicking  Proximal to distal movement pattern  Phases o Approach - momentum build-up o Pre-impact - non-kicking leg support; thigh swing o Impact - 1 sec or less o Follow-through Life-span  Injuries  ROM  Push to impact Lifting techniques  Squat VS. Stoop o Gravity goes with load  Good at vertical loads (keep load as normal as possible) o Distribute gravity throughout joints o Use of large muscle groups Injury related  Children older adults o Muscle strength dependence  Lifting and back disorders o 80% o $ - affect money you can make o Reduce loads - increase strength  Safety guidelines o … *triple jump has hop, step, and jump* *why we squat* *% of stance/swing* *speed of walking and where it changes* *developmental changes* CH. 10 Analysis of exercise and sport movements *know exercises -* *extensors are larger* *if you move humerus, shoulder is also worked* *working triceps also works chest* *biceps - back* *why do a wide VS. narrow squat*


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