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Logic & Critical Thinking Notes 8/30/16-9/8/16

by: carmen.bobbie33 Notetaker

Logic & Critical Thinking Notes 8/30/16-9/8/16 Phil 1313

Marketplace > Oklahoma State University > Philosophy (introduction to bioethics) > Phil 1313 > Logic Critical Thinking Notes 8 30 16 9 8 16
carmen.bobbie33 Notetaker
OK State
GPA 3.8

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These are the notes I have taken in class from 8/30/16-9/8/16
Logic and Critical Thinking
Dr. Drohan
75 ?




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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by carmen.bobbie33 Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Phil 1313 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Drohan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Logic and Critical Thinking in Philosophy (introduction to bioethics) at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Logic & Critical Thinking Notes #2 09/13/2016 ▯ 8/30/16 ▯ As a ‘society of friends’, its important that we consider the arguments of others generously and charitably ▯ We don’t want to foist implausible views on others ▯ The goal of rational argument isn’t to ‘win’, rather, its to further the truth and to come up with views and positions that are as reasonable and defensive as possible. ▯ Have a ‘cool head’ when doing philosophy ▯ Seek clarification from your opponent before arguing against them. ▯ Without clarity, your arguments will likely fall apart pretty quickly. ▯ An ambiguous statement is one that contains key terms that have more than one meaning ▯ A vague statement is one that makes very little sense. ▯ An obscure statement is one that all or part makes no sense. ▯ Referential ambiguity occurs when one sense of a word is confused for another. This is usually easy to clear up. ▯ Grammatical ambiguity arises from the grammatical structure of a sentence. ▯ Analytic Statements are true by definition ▯ Contradictory statements are false by definition ▯ Synthetic statements are true if there is evidence to support them. ▯ You can establish the truth or falsity of a statement is considering its type ▯ A statement is descriptive if it literally describes the facts that are the case ▯ A statement is evaluative if it includes a judgment about the fact at hand. ▯ ▯ 9/1/16 ▯ People often pass off statements as simply being descriptive and neutral when in fact they are also evaluative and judgmental. This is a loaded statement. Questions can also be loaded, these would be called a ‘loaded statement’. ▯ As we converse with others, we are constantly making arguments. ▯ Nonetheless, we often do so in a very haphazard and ambiguous way. ▯ IN order to reconstruct written arguments, we need to follow a number of steps:  Find the conclusion and underline it  Identify all premises and put them in parenthesis  Identify and label all missing premises ▯ It is extremely important to attribute an argument to its proper author ▯ There’s a difference in kind between reporting an argument and adopting its position as ones own. ▯ When using the arguments of others it is also important to give them due credit—otherwise you are open to accusations of plagiarism. ▯ It is often hard to tell is someone is simply reporting an argument or if they genuinely believe its position. ▯ Explanations have premises and a conclusion, just like arguments. ▯ However the conclusion of an explanation is never in doubt: it is a statement of fact that all parties are agreed on. ▯ In this way, explanations are kind of like arguments in reverse ▯ The person explaining attempts to infer the reasons why or how the facts are the case. ▯ Although we know the conclusion of an explanation is a fact, we can certainly doubt the explanation for it. ▯ Thus a doubtful explanation will need to be separately argued for. ▯ If there is any doubt about causal relations that lead to an explanations conclusion, it must no longer be considered an explanation, but a probative argument (i.e. an argument needing proof). ▯ ▯ 9/8/16 ▯ Every argument contains 2 things  All premises are true  The premises either logically lead to the conclusion or arranged with a strong argument ▯ Arguments are critiqued according to their two necessary components: True premises and valid or strong form ▯ When an argument-whether it be deductive or inductive-has poor form, it is likely because it contains a logical fallacy. ▯ Fallacious arguments appear to be valid or strong arguments, nonetheless they contain erroneous logic or weak inferences that ruin the argument. ▯ You can evaluate an argument based on whether or not they satisfy the necessary criteria for a good argument. ▯ False premises are one of the ways in which an argument can fundamentally fail. ▯ You need to assess whether or not a premise is acceptable. ▯ We can evaluate arguments with their relevance to the conclusion. ▯ We can judge an arguments through adequacy ▯ Critical approach to assessing arguments  Premises must be acceptable  Premises must be relevant  Premises must be adequate ▯ 8 step method for assessing arguments  Identify the main conclusion  Identify the premises  Identify the structure/ form of the argument  Look for fallacies  Check the acceptability of the premises  Check the relevance of the premises  Check the adequacy of the premises  Look for counter arguments ▯ ▯ ▯


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