World Empires Fall 2015 Notes
World Empires Fall 2015 Notes HIS 1400
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Kendall Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIS 1400 at Appalachian State University taught by Judkin Browning in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Empires in History at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
HIS 1400 World Empires Why Europe? World in 1942… China was the most powerful country in 1940 13471353: first outbreak of the bubonic plague Fastest growing city in 1450 located in Mexico Most powerful empire in 1450 was the Ottoman Empire (stretches from the North tip of Spain to the current country of Iraq) Why not Egypt? Why not the Incas? Why not China? European merchants began transporting silks and spices from the East The Crusaders had reexposed Europe to a whole new world, European Christians began to spread the word to other countries (discovered new trading items during this time) Discovery before 1492, Leif Ericsson and the Vikings had landed in Canada in 1000 A.D… Columbus NOT the true founder o Viking history is very oral because they told stories rather than wrote down their experiences, this is why Columbus is more popular Other Possible Contacts: to venture across ocean to South America o Phoencians (7st B.C.) very good sailors and navigators o Romans (1 century A.D.) coins have turned up all over the Americas o Chinese (1200 BC and 1421 AD) o Polynesians (1300s AD) in terms of DNA there are many resemblances to people living in Chile Zheng He (14051433) o An admiral who led over 7 voyages all over the world, comes from China o Chinese sail in large fleets o Attempt to establish their power all over the world especially in the neighboring countries o China decides to stop their voyage WHY Europe? o Environmental factors (immunities to major viral diseases) population around 100 million people Small pox (appears in large animals) o Cultural factors (China insulated itself) – because they were worried about new things entering their country o Technological Factors (investment in art of weaponry and sailing) Why explore? Money, Fame, Conversion The Columbus Myth o Born in Genoa st o 1 to sail the New World o Proved the earth was round o Intended to sail west to reach India because the Silk Rd. was closed by Turks o Sailed 3 small ships t new World o Died penniless The Columbus Reality o Born o Intended to sail west o Sailed 3 ships to New World o Died The Columbian Exchange: From America o American foods became staples in other societies around the world o Corn, potatoes, tomatoes, bean, peppers, peanuts, manioc, avocados, papaya, pineapple o Leads to a dramatic population boom in countries around the area o Europeans introduced many domestic animals to the new world Wheat, horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, chickens Also brought rats, cockroaches and disease Disease killed off 95% of the population o Small pox hits Mexico in earlier year o Disease justified by Gods will, “heathens” being moved out of the way King Louis XI of France (14611483) o United, began trade, devious o Established annual tax on property King Henry VII of England (14851509) o Winner of War of Roses o Strips nobles of armies but you no longer have to pay taxes, but then all other people must pay higher taxes Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (14691500) o Marry each other o United 2 kingdoms, conquer other provinces and combine to form Spain o Force Christianity in Spain o Finance voyage of Columbus Changing Nature of Statecraft o Niccolo Machiavelli wrote “The Prince” in 1513 o Says rulers should abandon all moral considerations to attain power o Italy does not combine HIS 1400 World Empires The Protestant Reformation Occurs in Europe, becomes important all over the world when Europe begins colonizing Foundational faith: Catholicism o Early church fought over the form the church would take o You do what the priest tells you to do o Average person could not understand the sermon Luther never wanted to tear apart the church but wanted to vice his disagreements (1517) Johannes Gutenberg o Perfects a printing press, engraving words in metal (1450) o Can publish mass quantities quickly and cheaply (easily spread word across the world) o Helped protestant reformation take off Protestant Reformation o Martin Luther, nailing the 95 Theses to the Wittenberg Door, 1517 (NOT TRUE) o Instead he sent it to his Catholic peers, it then spread rapidly o He was mad about indulgences/purgatory (stopping on our way to heaven to be cleansed) Indulgence: paying pope to pray for dead person in hopes they will make it to heaven faster (BUT the pope does not have this power – only God does) o Luther was also mad about money, some people do not have money for indulgence – other people pay the pope when the pope cannot work these miracles Worries people will act out because they have the money to pay the pope to get to heaven o Response to Luther’s letter: The church is unhappy with him and he is now considered outside f the faith People backed Luther up and thus the Protestant Reformation began SO he introduces hymnal singing, marries in 1525 (to prove ministers CAN have wives) Began to advocate killing of Jews for not obeying God’s desire to accept his son (dark side of Luther) Luther’s Points o Indulgences are false o Justification by faith alone o To Hell with sacerdotalism (priests are between us and God, only they can communicate with him) Henry VIII’s Religious Power Play o England first to convert from Catholicism to Protestant because of high numbers of infant deaths o All Henry’s wives had children and lost all babies except one o Wanted a son Henry wants a son to be his heir to the throne o Became “defender of faith” when he refutes Luther’s letter o Henry wants marriage annulled because he feels punished for marrying her (Catharine) when she had been married to Henry’s brother Catharine related to King of Spain, pope struggles to annul marriage became he is close t the King Act of Supremacy (1534) creates Anglican church after breaking away from Catholic Church (Henry) Henry divorces, marries Anne, who also has unsuccessful births (tried and killed in curt) o Has 6 wives after, “divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived” Queen Mary Tudor (15531558 reign) o Attempted to restore Catholicism in England o Dies in 1558 after reign of religious tyranny o People of England flee to Europe, city of Geneva (Maryan exiles) Jean Chauvin (15091564) Lawyer o Emphasized doctrine of predestination that became influential o Says God has chosen the elected before they were born Arminianism (Jacob Arminius 15601609) o Predestination is incorrect because it suggests God is evil o There is an element of free will given to us by God to choose to follow him or deny him Calvinism Arminianism Presbyterians Methodists Lutherans Pentecostals Congressionalist Seventh Day of Adventists Anglican Mennonites Episcopalians Amish Reformed Baptists Some southern baptists Southern Baptists Queen of Elizabeth I, reigned 15581603 as a protestant o Puritans want to translate bible to English o England stays protestant Council of Trent (15451563) o Make sure priests are well educated and have strict standards of morality The Jesuits (1540) o “society of Jesus” St. Ignatius Loyola 14911556 o Studied language, literacy and history o Go to different countries and spread the word (missionaries) Catholicism Triumphs in France o St. Bartholomew’s Day Mass (1572) o Henride Navarre – converts to Catholicism and becomes Henry IV (King of France) o French Catholics = huguenot o Feared protestant would become King of France (started massacre) 1589 (war ends) peace agreement known as Edict of Nantes Protestants in France will not be prosecuted (can live peacefully) Spain: Catholicism’s Champion o King Philip II (15561598) o Established Spain as dominant world power o Sought to spread the power of Catholicism (on England and all European countries) War fought for years but Phillip loses, then launches Spanish Armada (1588) to conquer England and reimpose Catholicism HIS 1400 World Empires Exploration and Spanish: Dominance of the New World Spice trade (China and India) of exotic spices, these were expensive and controlled by Arabs and Muslims o Traded to Italy who spreads it throughout Europe Islamic Trade Routes o The sultanate of Malacca gave Muslims access to eastern riches o Europeans get involved around 1400s Technology advances Revolution in military affairs o Improved quality of ships Development of triangular sails Development of navigational devices Astrolabe, sextant, compass Volta do mar = return through the sea o Trade winds: blow in patterns o Portugal’s first to venture out Prince Henry “the navigator” expanded Portugal’s sea power in the early 1400s Wants to engage in sugar trade, discovers sugar cane grows well on islands off the coast of Africa Gets slaves from Africa to help care for crops Sailing to India (1498) o Bartholomew Dias sails around southern tip of Africa in 1488 o Alfonso captures Malacca in 1511 o Dr. Gama successfully sails to Africa and India Christopher Columbus went on four voyages (14921504) o Wants to set up port cities for trade Destruction of Caribbean Peoples o Chief Hatuey rather go to Hell The Aztecs o A powerful society in modern day Mexico in the 14001500s o Moctezuma: Aztec ruler o Tenochtitlan: Capital city o Sacrifice captives for religious traditions and become the most powerful society, controlled many things o Sacrifices are to Gods (heart cut out of captives and offered to Sun God each day at dawn), they believed the sun would not rise without doing this Hernan Cortes (15191521) conquers Aztec Empire o Arrived off the coast of Mexico in search of gold and silver o Battle with Native Americans and succeed o Go to the Aztecs and see the gold and silver, Spanish seem to be friendly Cortes does not like their sacrifice rituals and attempts to convert the people to Christianity o Destroys temples, escapes nearly without his life Aztecs begin to die of small pox, Cortes believes it is Gods doing, population decreases by 95% Conquering the Incas (15301533) o Franciso Pizarro wants to be like Cortes and goes to South America to the Inca empire o At this time the Incas are at war with themselves over which son is going to be ruler o Incans make Pizarro an ally, he acts as mediator but massacres all except Atahualpa (who won the war) o Atahualpa put in jail, tries to bribe Pizarro with gold and silver to make him leave o Fulfills promise but Pizarro executes Atahualpa and takes all remaining gold Economienda: huge tracts of land granted to conquistadors o Inhabitants are required to work for them (must be obedient and Christian) o Supposed to be benevolent o Conquistadors must provide, but instead they are cruel and gruesome to workers Denouncing Abuse o Bartolome de las Casas tried to end this system o Replaced by mita (all natives must work at certain times of the year) and hacienda (natives work on own land and give Lord what they produce) Classes in New Spain o Peninsulares born in Spain/Portugal Have all the power o Creoles – whites born in America Cutoff from administrative position o Mestizos – born of white and Indian parents No power positions except priest o Indigenous – native born Indians Cutoff from everything o Slaves – born in Africa/African descent Completely disowned HIS 1400 World Empires France & England in the New World What is mercantilism? Not capitalism. o According to Sir William Keith, all products of the colonies must first go to England before they can be traded anywhere else o The colonies cannot place any tax on goods traded from Europe Staking Claims in America o Giovanni Verrazzano (1524) claims America for France o John Cabot (1497) claims America for England Raleigh’s failed colony: Roanoke Island o Sir Walter Raleigh o The Lost Colony: land in 1587, expedition led by John White who sails back to England for supplies and gets stuck there for three years and returns to America to find everyone gone o Croatan mark left on tree, never found the colony Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) o War between England and Spain that prevented White from being able to return to America o Spanish Navy not as skilled as the English Navy o Fire ships Virginia: Jamestown o Virginia Company leaves England in 1606 3 ships, 144 men, no women, 106 die in one year o Die of illness from water and mosquitos o Tried to ferment water into alcohol o Tobacco discovered in Virginia, grows well and sells at high price Separates Pilgrims (Puritans) o Mayflower Compact (1620) o Became a religious settlement Massachusetts: Land of Divine Providence o Squanto helped the pilgrims in their initial year o Squanto spoke perfect English o Died of disease within 2 years of English settlement o Establish General Court of Massachusetts o Congregational Church elects own minister and encourages education Differences Between Settlements Virginia Massachusetts Scattered rural settlements More centralized urban areas Individual settlers, men Family units move together Many farmers Many merchants Cash crop agriculture No real cash crops Money oriented Primarily religious settlement Unhealthy place to live Healthiest place to live Patriarchal society Patriarchal society Single Ladies of Virginia o Lots of power France Joins the Race o Samuel de Champlain settled the city of Quebec, Canada in 1608 o Made an active effort to make alliances with the Indians o French kind to Natives, English rude to Natives HIS 1400 World Empires Africa’s Role in Global Trade Songhay Empire (1450s1591) o Created elaborate trade networks in West Africa o Gao: capital trade center Portuguese Influence (1498) o Vasco de Gama o Da Gama overwhelmed East African nations with technologically superior firepower Kongo Empire (1400s1700s) o King Afonso I led the powerful Kongo Empire o They traded with the Portugese and converted to Christianity o He denounced the corrupting influence of slavery Africa is an agricultural society o Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) Resistance to Europe (1600s) Queen Nzinga led a 40 year resistance to Portuguese colonial rule Queen Ana Nzinga of Ndongo (15831663) Ally with Dutch – Queen gets Portuguese to kick out Dutch and “promises” to make peace. At this time she is fighting against both Population Increase Africa Europe 1500 = 85 mil 1500 = 85 mil 1600 = 114 mil 1600 = 111 mil 1700 = 106 mil 1700 = 125 mil 1800 = 107 mil 1800 = 203 mil 25 mil people taken into slave trade Scale of the Slave Trade o Most slaves went to Brazil and Caribbean Islands o Triangular Trade Sugar, tobacco, cotton to Europe Textiles, rum, manufactured goods to Africa Slaves to the Americas Slavery o The Black Diaspora o Barbary Pirates: traders who stopped ships in the Mediterranean and if they could not pay ransom on the ship everyone on board would be sold into slavery Slave Revolts o Stono Rebellion, South Carolina (1739) o Barbados slave owners come to Americas and bring brutality o Slaves who escape to another country (Florida) will be freed
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