World Empires Fall 2015 Notes
World Empires Fall 2015 Notes HIS 1400
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Kendall Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIS 1400 at Appalachian State University taught by Judkin Browning in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see World Empires in History at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
HIS 1400 World Empires Asia’s Role in Global Trade The Mongol Influence o China was invaded and conquered by the Mongols in the 1200s and the Chinese resist and succeed in the year of 1368 The Ming Dynasty (13681644) o Leaders of the rebellion against the Mongols established the Ming (brilliant) dynasty Emperor Yongle (14021424) o Led Ming Dynasty, authorizes expeditions under Zheng He Zheng He (14051433) o Led sea expeditions all over the world o Engaged in exotic trade with Asia and Africa o 1433 trade and expeditions shut down Demise of Ming Dynasty o Series of weak rulers o Era of corruption o Heightened class divisions o Peasant rebellions o Invasions along northern frontier (Manchu) Qing Dynasty (16441911) o The Manchu’s conquered China and established the Qing (pure) dynasty o Han Manchu o Forced hairstyle of shaving head except for top of head and leave ponytail Emperor Kangxi (16661721) the greatest o Supported Chinese Arts o Developed Kangxi dictionary o Issued edict of toleration for Christians (1692) o Devoted to Confucian principles o Forbade Christian missions (1715) Global Trade in China o Fearful of foreign influence on its people, the Qing rulers highly regulated trade with Europeans o They could only trade in the cities of Macao and Guangzhou (Canton) o Emperor Quianlong o Finally gave in on trade with Portuguese o Trade with Europe is cautious Effects of Chinese Trade o 1500: population is 100 million o 1750: population is 225 million o China trades silk, porcelain, lacquerware and tea (with England) The Tokugawa Shogunate (15981867) o Tokugawa Ieyasu proclaimed himself Shogun (military governor) of Japan in 1598, ending decades of conflict o Capital City: Edo (women and children lived here, close to Shogun to keep the men following orders to keep their families safe) Tokugawa Shogun reforms o Reduced power of Samurai o Expelled all European Christians (trouble) o Forbid Japanese from going abroad o Prohibited construction of large ships that could trade with far away countries o Allow few foreign items and no foreign books o Europeans could only trade out of Nagasaki HIS 1400 World Empires The Islamic Empires and Global Trade Islamic Divide (632 AD) o Sunni: Abu Bakr was true heir of the true religion o Shi’a: Ali Ibn Abi Talib was true heir to Muhammed o Either Sunni or Shi’a will take Muhammed’s place on the throne, fight breaks out as to which is more qualified. o Sunni was Muhammed’s right hand man, Shi’a was Muhammed’s son in law Caliph: a spiritual leader Islam spreads like wildfire after Muhammad dies 1096: pope in Rome calls for crusade of Christian knights to redeem the holy land (did not like other religions) The Mongol Influence o Destroy many Islamic kingdoms and conquered lots of territory, burned towns and killed people The Ottoman Empire (12891923) o Suleyman (15201566) o Janissaries (elite warriors) o Gunpowder Empires: empires that grow to power as gunpowder weapons begin to emerge Expansion of Ottoman Empire (1580) Safavid Empire (15021736) The Mughal Empire (15261857) Mughal Golden Age o Developed centralized government with ministries ruling each province o Established religious toleration o Akbar (15561605), Admiral Akbar Trade Addictions of Middle East o Tobacco, coffee HIS 1400 World Empires Russia and Global Trade Russian empire gains power when the Mongol empire beings to crumble Kicking out the Mongols o Ivan the Great (14621505) Stops paying Mongols and they eventually go away became they are too weak to fight back Begins building Russian Independence Moves capital to Moscow to spread the empire Cossacks (traveling horseman/warriors) take over territories for Ivan in the empire Launch rebellions against Russia as payback for being controlled Consolidating Power o Ivan married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Byzantine = Rome (falls in 476) o Took the title of Tsar (Russian for Caesar) o Head of church and state Center of political power shifted to Constantinople (falls in 1453), also the Byzantine empire Orthodox Churches Russian Expansion (14001800) Ivan the Terrible (15331584) o Tried to eradicate the boyars (aristocrats) who opposed his rule o He established a new aristocracy, oprichniki o Civil war broke out upon his death, the Romanov family took over o Serfs, slaves in Russia The Modernizer (Peter the Great, 16821725) o European tour 16971698, brings back ideas for government, machines and technology/military Encouraged industrialization Reformed the Russian army Created a Russian navy Reformed government system Improved tax collection Creates merit based system Built St. Petersburg on Baltic Sea Enforced western clothing and dress styles (shave beard) Beard tax (keep beard, extra tax) Catherine the Great (17621796): The Golden Age of the Russian Empire o “An enlightened despot” o Reformed prison system o Reformed education system o Nationalized church lands o Expands Russian borders Connected by Trade o Traded with Europeans, Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals, and Chinese o Exported furs, leather, and grains HIS 1400 World Empires The Conflicts of Mercantalism Revolutionizing World Trade Empires Disputed Territory in North America o England has 14 colonies in America o French have colonies also and begin to expand more than England Alliances with Native Americans Trade relations o Conflict over land in Pennsylvania will lead to French and Indian war Fort Duquesne George Washington brings on a World War (1753) o 21 year old George Washington leads militia to state Virginia’s claim to Ohio Valley, 1754 o He screws up negotiations and war beings o Chief Half King traveling with Washington, kills peace ambassador o Washington has to surrender, goes back and tells Governor to give up on the land Braddock to go to Fort Duquesne and claim land for the British o Attacked on the way, mortally wounded July 9, 1755 o Buried in road William Pitt (Prime Minister) o Develops new way of fighting war against France o Assumes office in June 1757 o Kick French out of North America Pitt’s Way of War (plan works) o Engage in massive deficit spending o Buy allies to fight in Europe Frederick the Great, King of Prussia o Send Redcoats (British soldiers) to America Hope for numerical superiority o Send promising generals to America o Subsidize colonial troops European Antagonists in America o General, Marquis de Montcalm Thousands of Indian allies, eventually turns them away by hating on their ways o General James Wolfe Wants to capture Quebec British attack (Battle of Quebec), Montcalm and Wolfe killed, French defeated War ends with Treaty of Paris (1763) Romanticizing Victory, Ignoring Reality o Portrait of Wolfe’s death obscures reality o Die glorious in battle o Head terminal illness, tuberculosis Wanted to die in battle Eastern Monopoly o British victory at Plassey, India on June 23, 1757 o Opens door for their colonization of India o Led by Robert Clive British Conquests o 7 year war o Colonies all over the world, war among these is American Revolution o Proclomation Line 1763: no Britains can move west of Appalachian mountains HIS 1400 World Empires Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Ancient Arbiters of Knowledge o Claudius Ptolemy (Church, Philosophy) o Aristotle (Philosopher) o Geocentrism: the earth is the center f the universe Renaissance Revisionists “Heliocentrism” o Nicolaus Copernicus (14731543) Astronomer, theory that the Earth is not the center of the universe but the sun is o Galileo Galilei (15641642) Italian astronomer, “father of astronomy” Supports Copernicus Telescope inventions, says that there is constant change in the sky Believes God must be very smart for creating such an intricate system Lived near head of catholic church Publishes findings before death and the church threatens him Sir Isaac Newton (16421727) o British scientist, focus on math and physics o His work demonstrated that the heavens and earth were both ruled by rational scientific laws, gravity Suggests that God is a god of order and maintenance Creates idea of Deism: there is a god out there Economic Enlightenment o Adam Smith (17231790) o In “On the Wealth f Nations” (1776), Smith argues that markets are determined in a rational, mathematical process o Philosophs: investigators who are constantly researching “Invisible Hand” Neoclassical Economics o John Maynard Keynes (18831946) Says Smith is not completely right, there are times when the market needs assistance o Milton Friedman (19122006) Agrees with Smith, says the market can regulate itself Political Challengers to Monarchy o Voltaire (French philosopher) Religious freedom, freedom of expression, ridicules Catholic church o Montesquieu Similar to Locke, wants political equality o Rosseau Equality, relates to lower class, writes the social contract, can evict king Political Enlightenment (John Locke 16321704) o “life, liberty, property” o Sought the rational principles that would foster political liberty o Becomes very influential in America o Glorious Revolution (1688) Kick out King James II, brings in William Tax Stamps (1765) o Taxes on America o Prevents living beyond Appalachian mountains o Many new rules enforced o In order to get any legal document you must get a stamp, also on newspapers Opposing Taxation o Patrick Henry proposes the Stamp Act Resolutions in the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1765 o No taxation without representation Townshend Acts (1767) o Parliament will not tax on stamps but on certain imported items o Leads to no taxes on necessities, but there is tax on tea (1773) British East India Company, given exclusive privilege of selling tea in America Colonial Protest against Tea Tax o Boston Tea Party (Dec 16 1773) Sons of Liberty dress like Indians and dump tea into Boston Harbor before it can be sold
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