World Empires Fall 2015 Notes
World Empires Fall 2015 Notes HIS 1400
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Date Created: 09/13/16
HIS 1400 World Empires Western Revolutions: US and Latin America Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) o Boston Port Act: closed down the port of Boston to any commerce until the people pay for tea they wasted o Massachusetts Government Act: any government will be appointed by higher ups o Administration of Justice Act: anyone tried for crime must go back to England to see his fate st o Quartering Act: leads to creation of 1 continental congress 1774 Lexington and Concord (April 1775) o Shots fired at Lexington Commons April 19, 1775 The Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775) o Casualties of the British 1828 wounded 228 killed Jefferson, Franklin, and Adams write the Declaration of Independence (July 4) Washington adopts a new strategy: no more battles against the army o Crossed Delaware River December 25 1776 Battle of Trenton (December 26 1776) o Washington’s small army attacks Hessian outpost at dawn Who served in the Continental Army? o Poor people o Landless people o People in jail o Servants Why did these people serve? o Promised money bounty for enlisting o Promised 100 acres of land o Both those rewards were only available if we won The Saratoga Campaign (1777) o General John Burgoyne – he was going to march the army from Canada to New York to break up New England o Lands in Saratoga and finds an army that takes his army o Saratoga surrenders October 17 1777 Benjamin Franklin o Leads French to partner with America Implications of American Victory British army surrenders to a combined American and French force at Yorktown on October 19 1781 o Treaty of Paris 1783 ends war Revolution St. Domingue (Haiti) 1793 o 40000 whites o 30000 free people of color o 500000 slagves Wanted to gain freedom, started by whites who want a government/governor Blacks begin to kill the white slave owners Francois Domingue Toussant (L’overture) o Successfully played the British, French, and Spanish forces against each other o Arrested, put in prison in France, dies here o Haiti wins independence in 1804 (only successful slave revolt) Latin American Independence o Simon Bolivar led much of Latin America in a successful revolt against Spain o Wanted to unite the continent into one country (Gran Colombia) Begins in 1819, lasts 12 years, ends 1831 Died of tuberculosis in 1830, disappointed in that endeavor HIS 1400 World Empires French Revolutions Road to Revolution o Massive debts forced King Louis XVI to call together the Estates General to raise more taxes in 1789 o Alexander Hamilton proposes the “Assumption Plan” 1791 President should assume all states debt Sell treasury bonds Buying and selling 100 acre land Nobles and clergy no longer pay taxes Estates General o Clergy: 1 estate (100000 members) o Nobility: 2 estate (400000 members) o Everyone Else: 3 estate (24000000 members) Meetings o First decide on how to vote (all estates get one vote) National Assembly (June 1789) o Declaration of Rights of Men (August 1789) o Liberty, Equality, Fraternity o Abolished first estate People’s Revolt o Storming the Bastille (July 17, 1789) France’s Changing Political Leadership o Absolute monarchy o Constitutional monarchy (17891792) Executive branch, ruled by king o Republic known as “The Convention” from 17921795 o The Directory (17951799) o Napoleon (17991815) Jacobin Rule During the Republic o Girondists (want many things) o Committee of Public States Maximillian Robespierre (The Incorruptible) o Closed churches and forced priests to marry o Promoted a new cult of reason instead of Christianity o Reorganized calendar into 10 day units, no religious days o Encouraged wearing working class clothes (sans culottes) o Reign of Terror to get rid of enemies of the state Executed 40000 people and arrested 300000 more in one year Napoleon Bonaparte (successful) o Wins most every battle o Declared himself first Consul (makes sure people are cared for) 1799 o 1802: declared himself consul for life o Becomes Emperor of France (1804) Napoleon the Good o Made peace with catholic church o Allowed religious freedom o Established a Civil Code (law) All laws of France except the ones people did not like Napoleon the Bad o Opposed representative government o Quelled free speech, lots of censorship o Established a family dynasty Napoleon the Ugly o Established secret police and arrested hundreds to thousands of people Napoleon controlled nearly all of continental Europe by 1812 o One country he cannot get is Great Britain, needs navy (army cannot sail) but Great Britain has a good navy o Napoleon tries to make peace (turns out to be fake) Battle of Trafalgar (October 21, 1805) o Napoleons plan to control the English Channel and invade England were thwarted by Admiral Horatio Nelson who dies in battle and the British fleet at Trafalgar In 1812 Napoleon decides to invade Russia o Russia violates law and trades directly with Great Britain Invaded with 650000 men (June 1812) Many die of disease and malnutrition Engage in battle of Borodino, defeats them Russia does not surrender, Moscow burns Napoleon attacked on journey home and only 20000 men return to France HIS 1400 World Empires Industrial Revolution Changing Economic Systems o Mercantalism: government regulates the trade and industry for the growth of its own wealth o Capitalism: private individuals/corporations own the means of production and trade on a free market for their own advantage Coal: Fuel of Industrialization o Cotton (Calicoes in India) England imports lots of cotton from India Calicoes are lightweight colorful fabrics to wear England begins to make calicoes Industrialization Boosters o Flying Shuttle (1733) By John Kay Increased speed by which fabric could be made from threat o Spinning Mule (1779) By Samuel Crompton Increased amount of threat that could be made (x 100) Steam Engines o James Watt credited with improving steam engine designs in 1765 o Steam power on boats fuels trade and strengthens connections between countires Henry Bessemer created blast furnace that could produce steal cheaply and in mass numbers (1855) o Steel becomes building material of choice Cotton Textile Industrialization o Large employment rate Change in Nature of Work o Old way: Apprentice – Journeyman – Master o Industrialized Way: unskilled factory laborer Luddite Revolt (18111816) o English hand craft workers went on a rampage and destroyed textile machines that they blamed for their low wages and unemployment Industrial Innovations = Mass Production o Eli Whitney introduced the idea of having interchangeable parts (1801) o Henry Ford creates the assembly line (1913) Monopolies o Horizontal Integration (buy out your competition) o Vertical Integration (control every step of the process from field to store) What does industrialization bring? o Rise of corporations Hurts small businesses Hurts raw material providers Changes work conditions o Creation of Social Classes Upper class: owners of industry Middle class: skilled workers and small business owners Lower class: unskilled workers Effects of Industrialization o Creates bad living conditions for workers Long hours, low pay No insurance, dangerous workplace High mortality rates No job security Social Reformers o Friedrich Engels o Karl Marx Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat o State was an agent of capitalist power Police and law o Music, art, literature, and religion reinforced capital power Capitalism o Stage 1: socialism Means of production are socially owned by state, goods distributed cooperatively o Stage 2: Communism Means of production owned by everyone, goods distributed according to need HIS 1400 World Empires Worldwide Revolutions Decline of Ottoman empire (1700s1800s) o Military power declines, become weak o Internal disputes in empire o Lots of palace coups o Lagged begin in strategy, tactics, weaponry and training o Empire flooded with European mass produced goods o Extraterritoriality for Europeans European citizens are not held to Ottoman laws Muhammad Ali Challenges Ottomans o 18051848 o Builds army, trained by the British Incase French try to invade o Expands within Egypt Britain fears a collapsed Ottoman Empire would allow Russia to expand to get warm weather trade in Mediterranean Reform before Traditionalism o Tanzimat (reorganization) 18391876 Tried to adopt enlightenment principles Reformed legal system Reformed penal system Reformed educational system o Abdul al Hamid II ended that phase and tried to reimpose autocratic rule on Ottoman Empire (18761908) Young Turks = Mixed Blessing o Universal suffrage o Equality before the law o Freedom of religion (Islam) o Free public education o Secularization of state o Emancipation of women Ugly Side of Reform o In desire to create a new empire, they also brught in genocide o 1.5 million Christian Armenians were killed between 1915 and 1918 Russian Empire o Wants access to Mediterranean Crimean War (18541856) o Russia learns it is far behind western European powers technologically Revolution in Russian Society o Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom in 1861 and instituted a rigorous industrialized program o Riots and revolts Unreasonable taxes o Socialism spreads to Russia o Tsar is assassinated in 1881 o Brutal police repression Russo Japanese War (19041905) o Expand Russian empire ore by taking from china o Japan conquers China, Russia fights Japan for China The Opium War (18391842) o Secretly trade opium o Grows well in Turkey and India o Britain trade to China, China got addicted Treaty of Nanjing (1842) o Ceded Hong Kong to Britain forever Gave back after 157 years o Opened 5 Chinese ports to Britain o Gave Britain most favored nation trading status o Granted extraterritoriality rights to Britain o Other European nation soon followed this example All trade conducted in 90 port cities is controlled by Europeans Taiping Rebellion (18501864) o Hong Ziuquan leads revolt Claims to be brother of Jesus Christ Wants abolition of private property Communal wealth to be shared according to need Free public education Industrialization o As many as 30 million people died during this rebellion Boxer Rebellion (1900) o Empress Dowager Cixi (18351900) threw her support behind anti foreign uprising o Crushed by western powers o Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists HIS 1400 World Empires The British Empire Why imperialism in 19 century? o Strong nationalist sentiment Desire to spread civilization o Industrialization Better weapons Better transportation o Three centuries of trade arund world Advanced knowledge Imperialism (1870s) o Domination by force of arms o Control a country’s trade, investment and business for own profits o Influencing affairs without having direct political control o White Mans Burden: religion no longer a primary goal Not Your Father’s Colony o Europeans did not settle in colonies in large numbers o Government and commercial agents controlled domestic and foreign policies European business techniques Education Culture Sepoy Mutiny (1857) o British soldiers executing Indians Sepoys (Indians serving in British army) Conflict began between British and Indians (pay lowered, abused) Revolts break out in central India, not everywhere o 1858: British Raj begins (direct British control of India) ends in 1947 Land Down Under (Australia) 1787 o Settled in 1787 o Originally a colony for prisoners o British brought violence, disease, and forced relocation programs (for those already living in Australia) o Aboriginie population declines from 700000 to 90000 from 1800 to 1900 o White population went from 5000 to 3.75 million from 18001900 Industrial Innovations o Suez Canal (1869) expands reach of empires o Panama Canal (1914) cuts off sail time o Submarine cables allow telegraphs to be sent from sea 1870: telegraph cable connected to India 1902: all of British empire connected by submarine cable Berlin West Africa Conference (18841885) o Countries begin to claim land in Africa, profit from resources Zulu War (1879) o January 1879: a Zulu army massacred 900 British soldiers at Battle of Islandiwana o British tried to take land from Zulu o Britain abolishes slavery – Boers continue anyways – constant tension – gold and diamond in Boer territory began the Boer War The Boer War (18991902) o 6000 Boer dead, 22000 British dead o 27000 Dutch settlers dead (24000 are children) o 25000 Africans dead
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