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Biogeography notes upload 1

by: Brittany Yee

Biogeography notes upload 1

Marketplace > Kent State University > Biological Sciences > > Biogeography notes upload 1
Brittany Yee
GPA 3.3

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Notes from the beginning of the course through 9/13/16
Dr. Brian Grafton
Biology, geography, evolution, Ecology
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany Yee on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to at Kent State University taught by Dr. Brian Grafton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Biogeography in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
biogeographic rules  Bergmann’s rule- an eco geographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. o Larger animals have an easier time staying warm in colder environments than smaller animals  Allen’s rule- suggests that species at higher latitudes and colder temperatures have smaller appendages o EX: animals in warmer climates have larger ears and longer limbs  Jordan’s Rule- suggested that fish in colder environments (higher latitudes) have more vertebrae and they are smaller in size than fish that live in warmer environments. o Warm environment fish have less and larger vertebrae major developments in the late 20 century  Darwin and Mendel’s modern evolutionary theories  The acceptance of plate tectonics o Originally proposed by Alfred Wegner in the 19 century o If you have species that are on opposite sides of the ocean (especially plant species).. if continents don’t move, then you have to figure out how species got from one place to another o When plates bump into each other, one of three things happens  1) oceanic plates are heavier than continental plates. When they hit a continental plate they buckle under them. This is called subduction. When it gets deep enough to the core of the earth, it eventually melts  2) spreading zone- over time one side of the plate is being reduced and the other side is being produced  Explains the Pacific ring of fire  Phylogenetic systematics (Cladistics) o A classification system relating to common ancestors  The increasing importance of ecological biogeography o The three driving forces in biogeography  Competition, predation, and mutualism- which are ways that organisms interact with each other that affects their distribution  Advancements in technology CHAPTER 3: THE GEOGRAPHIC TEMPLATE The physical environment  Made up of abiotic (nonliving) factors combined with the physical environment give us the geographic template  Has nothing to do with living organisms  Geographic template refers to the different types of environments 3 physical components of the environment  1) Energy o Primary source of energy on the planet is the sun o Earths core and the heat there also gives energy o Energy moves in the environment in the following ways:  Conduction- heat will move from a hotter place to a colder place until an equilibrium is reached  Convection- wind or water flowing across a surface transfers energy  Radiation- primarily solar radiation and wavelengths of the sun that produce heat  Solar radiation at the equator hits earth perpendicular  Solar radiation above or below the equator hits at shallower angles o Tilt of the earth is 23.5 degrees  Solstices are December 22 and June 22. During the summer solstice, the sun is hitting perpendicularly at the tropic of cancer  During the winter solstice, the sun is hitting perpendicularly at the tropic of Capricorn  Also have summer and winter equinox  2) Atmospheric gas o Heat energy from the sun combined with atmospheric gas and precipitation o At the equator, the tropical convergence zone exists o Adiabatic cooling- when warm air rises and cools and loses its water content. When it moves away from the tropics at 30 degrees above or below the equator, the air becomes extremely dry and you have deserts  Hadley cell- the cycle described above  Winds that make up Hadley cells are called trade winds o Polar cells at the north and south that are made up a permanent body of cold descending air. Picks up moist air at between 30-60 degrees north and south  Ferrel cells- the rotating current described above  Winds that make up Ferrel cells are called the westerly winds  Water  These three interact with the characteristics of earth to give: o Shape, rotation on axis, revolution around the sun, and angle of tilt towards the sun o All of this gives us climate El Nino  Water comes up from the deep to replace water that gets removed by wind patterns  Warm water gets moved to the western pacific. The excess warm water gets built up and causes monsoons  You end up with warm water where you would expect cold water. Warmer water is in areas where you would expect cold water, which causes drought, heavy rainfall, and temperature shifts Soils soil formation begins with weathered rock o from precipitation, temperature change, etc soil is partially organic material o remains of dead organisms and organisms that are part of soil weathered rock + organic material + organisms Patterms of producing soil Podzoliation- temperate deciduous and conifer forests o Cool, moist habitats o Accumulation of humus o Loss of bases by leaching makes soil relatively acidic Laterization- soil found in humid tropics o Warm, heavy precipitation o Rapid decay due to high temperature and moisture o Little or no organic debris. No layer of topsoil in tropics. Instead, nutrients are within standing microbes or in trees o Little accumulation of humus o Loss of cations by leaching. Accumulate lots of Fe and Al- laterite o Soil in tropics is primarily orange because of the buildup of iron and aluminum in the soil Calcification- soil found in warm arid and semi-arid grasslands and shrublands o Rich humus layer (organic layer on top) o Cool to hot temperatures; scant precip o Little loss of cations by leaching o Accumulation of calcium carbonate (lime) Gleization o Cold, moist polar regions o Slow decomposition- forms acidic layer or peat o Accumulation of gley (organic acids reacting with iron) Stratification of Aquatic Environments  Light o Light penetrates only a certain distance in water depending on condition of water o Photic zone- area where you have possibility of photosynthesis  High productivity because food webs are highly dependent on photosynthetic organisms o Aphotic zone- area in body of water where you don’t get sunlight  Low productivity  Temperature o Epilimnion- warm, low density surface waters  upper layer o Thermocline- zone of rapid temperature change  Area between the epilimnion and hypolimnion o Hypolimnion- cold, high density, deep waters  Salinity o Estuaries- where freshwater rivers empty into oceans  As you get closer to the ocean, you get an increase in salinity  Tide affects this  Dissolved gases o More oxygen closer to the surface of water o Has to do with partial pressure of gases in the atmosphere vs water o There has to be a partial pressure gradient for oxygen to flow from the atmosphere to water o Solubility- some gases are more soluble than others. This can shift depending on temperature and salinity of water  Pressure o Pressure- the force exerted per unit area on a surface by the weight of the water above it o Hydrostatic pressure- as you go down, water pressure gets higher o Intertidal zones- tides dictate how long organisms have to be out of water and in water and during which times of the day Tide  Is a rise and fall of sea water based on gravitational pull of primarily the moon. o The sun as well but the moon is closer to earth so it has more of an impact  Tides change based on the position of the moon relative to earth  Spring tide- occur during full and new moon o The moon and the sun are lined up along the same trajectory relative to the earth o Ultimately are a situation where you have the greatest difference between high and low tides  Neap tides- during first and last quarter of the moon o Least amount of tidal variation between high and low tides o Pulls from sun and moon essentially cancel eachother out  Semidiurnal tides- two high tides and two low tides per day  Diurnal tides- one high tide and one low tide per day  Mixed tides- where you have two high tides, one of which is higher than the other and two low tides with the same situation CHAPTER 4: THE GEOGRAPHIC RANGE  Geographic range- the fundamental unit of biogeography  Can use limits of the range to characterize different species  Can have contour maps that explain variation in density of species  Fundamentally, distributions of species are “patchy” o No matter what scale you look at, species exist in clumps Dispersion  Spatial distribution of individuals in a space  There are 3 basic patterns o 1) Random o 2) Uniform o 3) Clumped  Most species tend to be clumped  Individuals are typically clumped because they’re dependent on a specific resource Population density  Population size is affected by anything that adds individuals to a population  Anything that removes individuals from a population decreases its density  Intrinsic rate of population increase (r)- r=(b+i) – (d+e)  Exponential growth- typically in the short term o Relies on the idea that resources are limited  Logistic growth- incorporates the idea of carrying capacity o The amount of resources available determine the carrying capacity (K) o Organisms can temporarily overshoot the carrying capacity, but it will ultimately cause a decrease in population due to a limited number of resources The Ecological Niche  The way in which a particular organism interacts with its environment  Is a series of variables that can be environmental or biological that affect how it fits in with other species  A “multidimensional hypervolume”  The realized nice- the niche that an organism uses as a result of other species using the same resources  Fundamental niche- the total range of environmental conditions that a species would have if there was no competition for resources by other species  Organisms have both a fundamental and realized geographic range o Fundamental is the area where the organism would typically be found based on the resources available o Realized is where its actually found due to competition  Source population- environmentally friendly to a particular species o “good habitat” o Lots of excess individuals, so emigration rate favors sink populations  Sink population- not environmentally friendly to a particular species but theyre still found there o “bad habitat” Range Boundaries Law of the minimum- there will be one underlying factor that determines the range of species distribution 2 basic categories: o 1) physical (abiotic)- dictate the physical environment  Temperature, light, moisture, soil type, etc o 2)biotic factors- interactions  Commensalism, mutualism, predation Abiotic factors o Temp, light, etc important for plant distribution o Type of animals may affect the type of animals in the environment o Barriers include mountains, rivers, dessert, and changes in climate that may affect species distributions  EX: cold environments are limiting in different ways Short term- if a species can handle the cold but only for a certain period of time Long term Temp also has an effect on growing season  Neotropical migrants- birds migrate not because of the temperature but because of the food and the competition of food in cold environments. This is part of the reason why birds fly south for the winter  EX: saguaro cactus- in southern California and new mexico. The area is all desert but there is a shift in climate in a specific area (see ppt) that gets very cold. Is an example of short term/long term cold environment species range Interactions that can limit species distributions Competition (-/-) – detrimental to both members of the competing species because they use energy to compete with each other o Exploitation vs interference  Exploitation- indirect  Diffuse competition  Interference- physically competing with another species by fighting them for a resource o Competitive exclusion Predation (+/-) o Includes herbivory and parasites o Leads to an evolutionary arms race between predators and prey  Ex: crypsis- organisms that are typically preyed upon develop camouflage so they aren’t eaten  Ex: Aposematic coloration- bright colors that deadly organisms evolve o Presence or absence of predators has a huge impact on species distribution  Nile perch- Rift valley lakes. Lots of cichlids in the river. The nile perch was introduced to the Rift valley lakes, and they wiped out the cichlid population Symbiosis (+/+) or (+/0) o Commensalism (+/0)- one organism is positively affected and the other isn’t affected  Ex: Cattle birds. They follow around herds of buffalo. In doing so, they get the insects that are kicked up when the cattle as they graze in fields. So the birds are getting red and the cattle aren’t being affected  Ex: remora- the fish that attach to the bottom of sharks. By attaching to the bottom of the shark, they get fed and the shark isn’t affected o Mutualism (+/+)- both positively affected  Ex: pollination- plants produce nectar or edible pollen and in return they get their gametes/pollen dispersed  Ex: Lichens- a combination of fungus and bacteria  Ex: Ants and Acacia- plant and animal interaction for protection. The Acacia plant provides housing and food for ants, and if anything touches the plant the ants attack and swarm Multiple interactions  Diffuse competition- have a number of competitors instead of a single competitor that negatively affect eachother  Keystone Species- species that if you remove them from an ecosystem there are multiple affects o Ex: Ficus. Unlike other plant species, Ficus species can fruit throughout the year. They are not climate dependent. During the winter, this is important because food is hard to find during the winter. They don’t have a “fruiting season.” Predator mediated coexistence- if you have a predator, the predator keeps the size of prey species in check CHAPTER 5: ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES  Are populations of multiple species in a particular habitat  Communities are dynamic and change over time Major traits that influence an organisms effect on its community  Body size- there is a relationship between body mass/size and metabolic rate (an inverse relationship) o As body mass increases, metabolic rate decreases o Think of metabolic rate in terms of absolute vs relative. Relative to body mass, smaller animals actually have higher metabolic rate even though a larger animals needs to eat more than a smaller animal. But smaller animals have a higher metabolism o Heat loss is proportional to surface:volume ratio. Absolutely speaking, larger animals need more food. But relatively speaking, smaller animals have to have a higher metabolic rate than large animals o Large animals- are better at energy storage. Small animals cant store excess energy well because they have higher metabolic rates so they are constantly sing energy.  But, smaller animals are better able to partition in an environment than larger animals  Microhabitats can be used by smaller animals. They can live in more places than larger animals, which gives them an advantage  Because they are large, large animals require more space. This has a large effect on the species distribution. They have to follow food  Trophic status- the kinds of food they eat and how they get their energy o All ecological communities are based on producers at trophic level 1 o Level 2: primary consumer (herbivore) o 3: secondary consumer (carnivore) o 4: Tertiary consumer (predator)  Body size and trophic level are the major keys to how communities are formed  Can also look at an ecosystem based on the number of organisms o Pyramid of numbers and pyramid of energy flow o Pyramid of biomass- total weight of all living things Ecological communities Have limits. The edges of a typical ecological community can include a beach, where you are going from a terrestrial environ to an aquatic environ Ecotone- a gradual change from one community to the next. o Ex: forest to grassland. In the middle you have some shrubbery  Communities can be separated in the following ways via the Environmental or geographic gradient: o Discretely o Species distributions- mostly discrete o Somewhat discrete communities- gradual replacement o Species distributions- independent o Nested species distribution Ecological succession  General idea is that communities are replaced over time  2 major models. Proposed by Clements in reference to plants o 1) Primary succession- idea that a community would start from nothing. Species gradually disperse and build a community over time o 2) Secondary succession- start from something. If a catastrophe happens, part of the community is still there and then rebuild from there  Facilitation- setting up the next group to move in o Coloniserspioneers  Celements- orderly sequence up to a “climax community” which was an equilibrium state of communities  Gleason- had a more individualistic idea of how communities change over time o Said there was no “large scale” super organism quality to how communities change over time. Said communities are continuously changing and that there was no equilibrium or climax community o Non-equilibrium communities o Pollen records Biomes  Tropical broadleaf evergreen forest: the rainforest o Equatorial Africa, Southeast Asia, Southern America o High temp, rainfall, diversity o Richest ecosystems on land o Very high diversity: 1200 species of butterflies in a single square mile  Tropical dry forest o North and south of tropical rainforests. Less wet than true rainforests, and there is seasonality  Tropical savannas o North and south of the rainforest belt o Outside of the Amazon, Northeast and South tropical Africa, India, Southeast Asia, center of Australia o Much less rainfall. Seasonally warm o Tropical and subtropical grasslands o Occur as a transition ecosystem between tropical rainforests and deserts o Serengeti and Llanos o 50-125 cm rainfall/yr  Deserts o Plants and animals cant depend on any rainfall o 30 degrees N and S latitudes due to global circulation patters  Mediterranean shrublands o Most of this type of ecosystem found around the Mediterranean o Prolonged summer drought o Dominated by evergreen shrubs (drought-adapted)  Temperate grasslands o Prairies, pampas, steppes, veld o Rich soilds o Not as dry as deserts not as wet as savannas because savannas have trees o Very high diversity and high degree of productivity  Temperate broadleaf deciduous forest o All of the eastern U.S. o Mild seasonal climates and plentiful rains  Temperate Rain Forest o Evergreen forests o The Pacific Northwest o Occur along coastlines with temperate climates o Cool, very wet. Dominated by conifers  Taiga (Boreal Forest) o Stretches in unbroken circles around the entire globe in the north only o Dominated by conifers, large animals (Moose, polar bears, caribou)  Tundra o Above the arctic circle o Very short growing seasons o Very long days in the summer; the sun almost never goes down. Opposite in the winter o Not a lot of trees. Permafrost seen here. Low productivity Marine Biomes  Top layer is the photic zone  As you move down the continental slope, you reach the aphotic zone o Deoxygenated, benthic organisms  Oceanic trench  Rocky shores o Intertidal zones o Provide a lot of microhabitats  Sandy or muddy shores o For organisms that burrow Lotic Ecosystems  Freshwater environments  Lotic ecosystems are streams and rivers and running water systems  Lentic ecosystems o Ponds and lakes o Most of the species are around the edges or near the beach environments o Still have photic and aphotic zone depending on how big the body of water is  Littoral zonelinnetic zoneprofundal zone Different kinds of lakes  Depend on productivity  Oligotrophic lake- low productivity  Eutrophic lakes- have high degrees of productivity o Algae  Wetlands- areas that have standing water and support different kinds of aquatic plants and different animals depending on the types of plants o Extremely diverse  Net primary productivity-  Biomass per area- highest in tropical forest (terrestrial) and swamps and marshes (aquatic)  Total surface area of the planet- dominated by the open ocean, which is low in net primary productivity and biomass per area o If you take surface area into consideration, the open ocean has just as high of a net primary productivity and tropical forests FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES OF BIOGEOGRAPHY  3 processes: o Evolution o Extinction o Dispersal  At the small scale: universal. All species have to disperse from one place to somewhere else  A basic aspect of organismal biology  Large scale dispersal: movements that change geographic distribution of species  In order for a species to change its distribution, the species has to be able to travel to a new area from where it originated and has to be able to withstand any unfavorable conditions it may find itself in along the move, and it must be able to survive and reproduce  Dispersal is different for every species Dispersal mechanisms  Jump dispersal- a relatively fast movement o Animals found on islands are characteristic of jump dispersal o Islands typically have a salt water barrier  Non-volant species are not able to cross the salt water barrier  Diffusion- slower than jump dispersal o It follows an instance of jump dispersal o Ex: cattle egret birds- they dispersed from Africa to south America (jump dispersal) and then gradually diffused into new habitats in southern parts of north America and various locations in south America o Ex: European Starling- jump dispersal by humans to north America and then diffused to the entire united states in a short period of time o Muskrat- initial introduction by humans for their fur into northern Europe. Ended up diffusing throughout most of Europe and are now considered a pest  Secular migration- the slowest kind of dispersal. Its so slow that evolution occurs as the migration is occurring o Ex: Camels- originated in north America. They subsequently migrated slowly into south America and then to Asia and northern Africa. Since then, they have become extinct everywhere else except in Africa. Their movement was so slow that all of their intermediate forms went extinct and they are only found in places other than where they originated


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