Part 1, 2, 3 Theory Outline
Part 1, 2, 3 Theory Outline CRJ 308
Popular in Advanced Criminological Theory
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Part I I. Classical Theory/ School a. Crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs b. Crime is a freewilled choice c. Developed by Cesare Beccaria and influenced by Thomas Hobbs i. Baccaria had two assumptions: humans are selfinterested and rational ii. Thomas Hobbs Social contract 1. People must give up some personal freedoms to receive peace and security. d. Punishment i. The purpose of laws and punishment is deter crime 1. To be effective punishment: a. Punishment need to be more certain then sever b. Laws and punishments need to be known and understood by the people c. Pain/cost must outweigh the please/ benefit from crime. e. Law should be applied equally “Blind Justice” f. Problems i. Laws are not always read and understood ii. Not all people are rational iii. many other factors influence crime The classical school is one on the foundation of criminological thoughts. In this school it was believed that man were logical thinkers. The decisions they made were calculated. Baccaria believed that humans were rational people who thought about only their benefits. Classical theorist believed people committed crimes because the benefits of the crime are more important than the costs. For example a person might steal a loaf a bread to not starve, even though his hand will get cut off. Being alive with no hand is more important than dying of starvation. II. Positive School a. Cesare Lombroso in 1876 created the foundation for this school. i. “Opposite” of Classical School views 1. Criminals are not normal or rational people 2. Criminals did not freely chose to commit crimes ii. Criminals are “genetic throwbacks” aka born criminals (1/3 of the types of criminals) 1. Criminal tendencies are of atavistic origin 2. Primitive and savages in the modern world, which leads to crime a. Physical traits “caveman” i. Large jaws and cheek bones, protruding lips, abnormally large arm span, extreme wrinkling iii. There are many other kinds of criminals 1. Some effected by environmental factors 2. The other 2/3 of the criminals are habitual criminals a. Occasional offenders b. Criminaloid (minor offenders) c. They look normal b. Focuses on scientific method i. Theories must be tested against observations The positive school has somewhat of the opposite views of the classical school. These theorists believe that criminals are not actually rational. And that they don’t have a choice in the crime they commit. Lombroso believed that criminals are born. But in later years he realized that not all criminals are born, and there are other kinds of criminals out there, but they are minor criminals. The born criminal looked like cavemen, and that didn’t fit in to the changing modern world, which caused them to commit crimes. The positive school also concentrated on the scientific method to help them prove their theories. Part II I. Individual Trait Theory/ Biosocial Theory a. Criminals and noncriminals differ in many biological and psychological traits. They can affect a person directly or indirectly. b. Biological factors can interact with social environment and individual traits can influence social environment. Biosocial think that the sociological theories would benefit from both. c. Glueck and Glueck (1950) i. Multifactor approach to study crime 1. Factors from biological, psychological, and sociological ii. Juvenile delinquency 1. Juvenile delinquency is a result of a. Somatic(physique) , Temperamental, Intellectual, socioculture forces iii. Contributions 1. Embraced multifactor approach 2. Antisocial behavior was related to criminal behavior 3. Antisocial youths not only are shaped by circumstances, but also impacted their social world d. Ellis and Walsh (1997) i. Focus mostly on gene based theories 1. These theories are used to explain why individuals with such traits are able to reproduce at high rates. 2. Certain genetically based traits conductive to crime may provide reproductive advantages ii. 5 genesbased theories divided in two groups 1. Those focused on specific crimes a. Rape and sexual assault b. Spousal and romantic triangle Assault c. Child abuse and neglect 2. Those that can be applied generally to criminal and antisocial behavior a. Cad vs. Dad (The Cheater theory) i. Cad (Cheater) A population of men have evolved with genes that make them more likely to have extremely low parental investment 1. But they will do anything to pass on their criminal genes b. r/K continuum i. people at the r end of the continuum reproduce rapidly as the environment lets them, but they do not put energy towards the child (quantitative) ii. people at the K end of the continuum reproduce very slowly and invest a lot of energy on the child (qualitative) e. Peskin et al. i. Biological harms approach 1. Crime is affected by nongenetic biological factors ii. Genetic factors and biological factors biological factors affect individual traits f. Caspi et. al. (1994) i. Individualtrait theory 1. Stable ways for perceiving the environment and themselves 2. Stable ways for thinking and behaving towards the environment and to themselves 3. Criminal behavior traits a. ADHD, impulsive, irritable, low empathy, poor social skills 4. Super traits a. Positive emotionality, negative emotionality, constraint The individual trait theory has a lot to do with biological and psychological factors, unlike the positive school which had more to do with psychological and sociological factors. There are many traits that can affect a person directly and indirectly. Glueck and Glueck deal with how the environment and the mind affect criminal behavior. Ellis and Walsh describe how parenting and growing up effect criminal behavior, and how criminal genes are passed down to the offspring’s. This theory deals a lot with how biological and social factors affect criminal behavior. Part 3 I. The Chicago School (Social Disorganization) a. Describes how outside forces influenced crime b. Shaw and Mckay i. Characteristics of neighborhoods maybe key to understanding crime ii. Applied Ernest Burgess concentric zone theory 1. Cities grow from outside in 2. 5 zones (1 in center, 5 on the outside) a. Most crime occurs in transition zone iii. Made the social disorganization theory 1. Higher rates of delinquency happens in inner city a. Poverty, rapid growth, heterogeneity, transiency (lead to social disorganization) iv. Social Disorganization 1. Certain areas with higher crime tend to continue to have high crime even though the people change 2. Social disorganization leads to crime because there is a breakdown of social control and of social institutions in the communities. 3. Criticisms a. Does not lead to prediction of individual behavior b. Which came first crime of social disorganization c. Official records are used i. Biased on race, and communities law in enforced d. How is a neighbor hood defined. 4. Robert Sampson (1986) a. Argued that crime was high in inner cities because people could not enforce “Informal Social Control’ 5. Sampson and Groves (1989) a. Measured disorganization 6. Sampson and Wilson (1995) a. Incorporated structural and cultural aspects of race, crime, and inequality to the social disorganization theory b. Found that Structural disorganization and cultural isolation can explain high inner city crime rates c. Macro level theories i. “big picture” of crime d. Micro level theories i. Focus on the individual e. Collective Efficacy i. Sampson Raudenbush and Earls (1997) 1. When people trusted and supported each other, they could control the crime and disorder in their communities This school/ Theory focuses on the community and environment were crime occurs. It is very different from the other theories. The other theories focused on the criminals and this school focuses on the environment where crime occurs. Communities that are well put together and are friendly with each other ten to have less crime then the communities with more disorganization. The rough neighborhoods with broken down social institutions and broken down social control remind me of the broken windows theory. References Cullen, F., Agnew, R., & Wilcox, P. (2014). Criminological Theory: Past and Present. (5 ed.) th New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
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