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Intro to Psychology Days 6 to 10

by: Sterling

Intro to Psychology Days 6 to 10 PHI 206

Marketplace > Barry University > Psychology (PSYC) > PHI 206 > Intro to Psychology Days 6 to 10
Barry University
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About this Document

These are all of the notes for the second week of Intro to Psychology.
Intro to Psychology
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Sterling on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHI 206 at Barry University taught by Hendrix in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Barry University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 6 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Major Perspectives of Psychology 0.1 Neuroscience ▯ Views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning 0.2 Cognitive ▯ Examines how people understand and thinks about the world 0.3 Behavioral ▯ Focuses on observational behavior ▯ We seek rewards and avoid punishment 1 0.4 Humanistic ▯ Conducts that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential ▯ A desire to succeed and be good causes to our behavior 0.5 Psychodynamic ▯ Believes that behavior is motioned by inner and unconscious forces over which a person has little control 0.6 Socio-Cultural ▯ Where we come from and how much money we have causes our behavior 0.7 Psychoanalytical ▯ Unconscious thoughts that are born from childhood vents causing our behavior 2 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 7 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. New Term, Psychologys Future, and Operant Con- dition 0.1 Terms ▯ Eclectic { To derive ideas 0.2 Psychologys Future ▯ Psychology will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve. 1 ▯ Neuroscienti▯c approaches will likely in uence other branches of psychol- ogy. ▯ This helps in uence on the issues of public interest will grow. ▯ the issues of diversity will become more important to psychologists pro- viding services and doing research 0.3 Operant Conditioning ▯ Operant Conditioning { A way of touching a behavior through both rewards and punishments ▯ B. F. SKinner { Came up with the operant condition ▯ It believes that we can be able to teach other [humans] almost any possible behavior and make humans better through operant conditioning. ▯ Its been said that it is better to study observable behaviors. ▯ Reward vs. Punishment { Reward: Given to increase the frequency of a behavior { Punishment: Given to decrease the frequency of a behavior ▯ Positive Reinforcement vs. Positive Punishment { Positive Reinforcement: Given an encouraging stimulus ▯ Example: A pat on the back { Positive Punishment: Given a discouraging stimulus ▯ Example: A spanking 2 ▯ Negative Reinforcement vs. Negative Punishment { Negative Reinforcement: Taking away a negative stimulus ▯ Example: The beeping of your car until you buckle up { Negative Punishment: Taking away a desirable stimulus ▯ Example: Telling a kid no more TV 3 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 8 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Classical Conditioning 0.1 What is classical conditioning? ▯ Teaching someone or something that a meaningless stimulus has a meaning 0.2 Ivan Pavlov ▯ Came up with the classical conditioning in an experiment with his dogs 0.3 Unconditioned Stimulus ▯ Naturally causes a response while not learned at the same time 1 0.4 Unconditioned Response ▯ Natural response 0.5 Conditioned Stimulus ▯ A meaningless stimulus has a meaning 0.6 Conditioned Response ▯ Learned response to a meaningful stimulus 0.7 Example of Classical Conditioning ▯ Unconditioned Stimulus: Mints ▯ Unconditioned Response: Extending his hand out ▯ Conditioned Stimulus: Computer sound ▯ Conditioned Response: Wanting another mint 2 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 9 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. The Scienti▯c Method 0.1 Steps ▯ Identifying questions of interest stemming from the following: { Behavioral and phenomenon requiring explanation { Prior research ▯ndings { Curiosity, creativity, and insight ▯ Formulate an explanation { Specify a theory { Develop a hypothesis 1 ▯ Carry out research { Devise an operational de▯nition of the hypothesis { Select a research method { Collect the data { Analyze the data ▯ Communicate the ▯ndings 0.2 Descriptive Research ▯ Describes the associations among variables { Archival research { Naturalistic observation { Survey research { Case study { Correlational research ▯ Does not explain causality 0.3 Theories ▯ Brand explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest { Di▯usion of responsibility ▯ Greater the number of bystanders in an emergency 0.4 Hypothesis: Crafting Testable Predictions ▯ Hypotheses 2 { A prediction that is stemming from a theory stated in a way that allows to be tested ▯ Operational { Translation of a hypothesis into speci▯c and testable procedures ▯ Psychologists reply on formal theories and hypotheses for many reasons. { Permits them to place bits of observations within a coherent frame- work 3 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 10 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Neuroscience and Behaviors 0.1 Inez Beverly Prosser, PhD ▯ Americas ▯rst black female psychologist ▯ Born of a family of 2 children at the end of the 0.2 Neuron’s Structure ▯ Neurons: { Nerve cells, which are the basic elements of the nervous system { Have a cell body that contains a nucleus { Physically held in place by glial cells 1 ▯ Glial cells ▯ Acts like glue and providing nourishment to the neurons { have a distinctive feature 0.3 Dendrite ▯ A cluster of ▯bers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons 0.4 Axon ▯ The part of neurons that carries messages that are destined for other neurons 0.5 Terminal Buttons ▯ Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons 0.6 Myelin Sheath ▯ Insulator y coating which covers some neurons in the control neurons system (to the brain) 0.7 How do neurons ▯re? ▯ Neurons follow an all-or-none law { All-or-none law: the rule that neurons are either on or o▯ ▯ Resting state { The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about 70 millivolts within a neuron 2 ▯ Action potential { An electrical nerve impulse that travels through a neurons axon ▯ Not all neurons are capable of receiving the chemical message carried 0.8 Speed of a Transmission ▯ The particular speed at which an action potential travels along an axon is determined by the following: { axons size { myelin sheaths thickness 0.9 Mirror Neurons ▯ Specialized neurons that ▯re, when a person does any of the following: { Enacts a particular behavior { Observes another individual carrying out the same behavior 0.10 Synapse ▯ The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending ▯ The junction between an axon and a dendrite 0.11 Where do neurons meet and what is bridging the gap? ▯ Excitation message { Makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will ▯re and an action potential will travel down its axon 3 ▯ Inhibitory message { Prevents or decreases the likelihood 4


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