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Intro to Psychology Days 36 to 40

by: Sterling

Intro to Psychology Days 36 to 40 PHI 206

Marketplace > Barry University > Psychology (PSYC) > PHI 206 > Intro to Psychology Days 36 to 40
Barry University
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About this Document

These are all of the notes for the eighth week of Intro to Psychology.
Intro to Psychology
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Sterling on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHI 206 at Barry University taught by Hendrix in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Barry University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 36 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Recalling Long-Term Memory 0.1 Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon ▯ The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows 0.2 Recall ▯ Speci▯c piece of information must be retrieved 0.3 Recognition ▯ Occurs when one is presented with a stimulus and asked whether he has been 1 { Exposed to it previously or is asked to identify it from a list of alter- natives 0.4 Level of Processing ▯ Emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed { At shallow levels, information is processed in terms of its physical and sensory aspects { At the deepest level of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning 0.5 Explicit and Implicit Memory ▯ Explicit Memory { Intentional or conscious recollection of information ▯ Implicit Memory { Memories of which people are not consciously aware ▯ Can a▯ect subsequent performance and behavior 0.6 Flashbulb Memories ▯ Memories related to a speci▯c, important, or surprising vents that are recalled easily 0.7 Schema ▯ Organized bodies of info are stores in memory that bias the way new information are either of the following: { Interpreted 2 { Stored { Recalled 0.8 Memory in the Construction: The Eyewitness on Trail ▯ Mistaken identity ▯ Speci▯c wording of questions ▯ Children witnesses 0.9 Autobiographical Memory ▯ Recollection of circumstances and episodes from our own lives { One tends to forget information about ones own past 0.10 Memory Failure ▯ Essential to remembering important information { Forgetting helps keep unwanted info from interfering { Forms general impressions 0.11 Why Do We Forget? ▯ Failure of encoding { Did not pay attention to material ▯ Decay { Loss of information ▯ Interference 3 { Info in memory disrupts the recall of other information ▯ Cue-Dependent Forgetting { When there are insu▯cient retrieval cues to rekindle 4 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 37 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Thinking and Reasoning 0.1 Cognitive Psychology ▯ Focuses on purposefully manipulates mental representative of information 0.2 Thinking ▯ People purposefully manipulated by mental representative of information 0.3 Examining the Minds Eye ▯ Representation in the mind of an objects or event 1 0.4 Concepts ▯ Mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people 0.5 Prototypes ▯ Highly representative examples of a concept 0.6 Syllogistic reasoning ▯ People draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions { Example: ▯ All professors are mortal. ▯ Dr. Rivera is a professor. ▯ Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal. 0.7 Algorithm ▯ Rule that, if applied, appropriately, guarantees a solution 2 2 2 { Example: a + b = c 0.8 Heuristic ▯ Thinking strategy that may lead to a solution but may sometimes lead to errors 0.9 Representative Heuristic ▯ Rule one applies when judging people by the degree to which they repre- sent a certain category on group of people 2 0.10 Availability Heuristic ▯ Judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory 0.11 Familiarity Heuristic ▯ Familiar items are seen as superior to those that are considered unfamiliar 0.12 Field that examines how to use technology ▯ Imitates the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities 3 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 38 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Problem Solving 0.1 Well-De▯ned Problem ▯ Nature of the problem itself and the info needed to solve are clear 0.2 Ill-De▯ned Problem ▯ Nature of the problem itself and the info needed to solve are unclear 0.3 Arrangement Problem ▯ Requiring the problem solver to rearrange elements in a way that is still satisfying a certain criterion 1 0.4 Problems of Reducing Structure ▯ Person must identify the existing relationships among the elements pre- sented and then construct a new relationship among them 0.5 Transformation Problem ▯ Consist of an initial state, a good state, and a method for changing the initial state into the goal state 0.6 Functional Fixedness ▯ Tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use 0.7 Mental Set ▯ Tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist 0.8 Inaccurate Evaluation of Solution ▯ Conformation Bias 0.9 Creativity ▯ Ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways 0.10 Divergent Thinking ▯ Ability to generate unusual responses to problems 0.11 Convergent Thinking ▯ Ability to produce responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic 2 0.12 Cognitive Complexity ▯ Preference for elaborate, intricate, and complex stimuli and thinking pat- terns 3 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 39 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Language 0.1 Language ▯ Communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules 0.2 Grammar ▯ System of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed 0.3 Phonology ▯ Study of the smallest basic units of speech (phonemes) 1 0.4 Syntax ▯ Ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences 0.5 Semantics ▯ Rules that govern meanings of words and sentences 0.6 Babbling ▯ Meaningless speech-like sounds made by children { Found around the age of 3 months through 1 year { Critical periods for language 0.7 Telepathic speech ▯ Sentences in which words not critical to messages 0.8 Learning Theory Approach ▯ Language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement 0.9 Navist Approach ▯ Genetically, determined, innate mechanism { Universal 0.10 Linguistic-Relatively Hypothesis ▯ Notion that language shapes and determine the way { People in a speci▯c culture perceive and understand the world 2 PSY 206 Introduction to Psychology Fall 2013 Notes L. Sterling Day 40 Abstract Provide a generalization to each of the key terms listed in this section. Intelligence 0.1 What is intelligence? ▯ Capacity to understand the world ▯ Think rationally ▯ Use resources e▯ectively when faces with challenges 0.2 g/g - Factor ▯ The g means general ▯ The single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelli- gence 1 0.3 Fluid Intelligence ▯ Intelligence that re ects would be the ability to reason abstractly 0.4 Crystallized Intelligence ▯ Accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people learn through experience 0.5 Theory of Multiple Intelligences ▯ Gardeners intelligence theory { Proposes that there are 8 distinct spheres of intelligence { Existential intelligence ▯ Identifying the fundamental questions of human existence 0.6 The 8 Forms of Intelligence ▯ Linguistic and verbal intelligence { Good with words and vocabulary ▯ Logical intelligence { Good with math and logic [including solving]) ▯ Spatial intelligence { Good with pictures and [possibly] photography ▯ Body and movement intelligence { Good with movement and sports ▯ Musical intelligence 2 { Good with rhythm and music ▯ Interpersonal intelligence { Good with communicating and people ▯ Intrapersonal intelligence { Good with analyzing things ▯ Naturalist intelligence { Good with understanding the natural world 0.7 Information-Processing Approach ▯ the way people store material in memory and use that material to solve intellectual tasks ▯ Speed of processing 0.8 Lateral Prefrontal Cortex ▯ Managing pieces of information simultaneously ▯ Solving new problems 0.9 Higher Intelligence ▯ Related to the thickness of the cerebral cortex 0.10 Practical Intelligence ▯ Related to overall success in living { Analytical { Creative 3 0.11 Emotional ▯ Set of skills that underlie the following accurate things { Assessments { Evaluation { Expression { Regulation of emotions 0.12 Intelligence Tests ▯ Devised to quantity and measure intelligence an in objective manner 0.13 Mental Age ▯ An age for which a given level of performance in average ▯ Formula: IQ = MA ▯ 100 CA 4


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