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Chapter 3 & 4 Notes

by: Kelsey Notetaker

Chapter 3 & 4 Notes BIO 1050

Marketplace > Wright State University > BIO > BIO 1050 > Chapter 3 4 Notes
Kelsey Notetaker

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About this Document

Notes for chapter 3 & 4 of Food Biology. Study guide for test will be uploaded later today, in case you want to not get these and opt for the Chapter 1-4 test study guide!
Biology of Food
Amy Wissman
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Kelsey Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1050 at Wright State University taught by Amy Wissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biology of Food in BIO at Wright State University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Chapter 3 Digestion - 4 functions of the Digestive System - Ingestion • the intake of nutrients -Digestion -the physical and chemical breakdown of large molecules of food into smaller absorbable molecules -Absorption- -the movement of these small nutrient molecules across the cell membrane of cells lining the digestive track -At the cellular level -Lumen -Elimination- -elimination of undigested food residue from the body -What Makes Eating Enjoyable? -Hunger & Thirst - Physical needs drive how much and how often we eat. -Appetite -Unreliable (psychological) 1 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -What is Digestion? -Processes of breaking down food into absorbable components. -Gastrointestinal tract consists of -Mouth, pharynx -Esophagus -Stomach -Small intestine - Large intestine -Accessory organs -Salivary glans -Liver -Gall Bladder -Pancreas -Digestion is mechanical and chemical -Mechanical -Breaks down large food molecules to smaller molecules -biting, and grinding food in mouth, churning food in stomach, etc. - Peristalsis: the forward, rhythmic musical contraction that moves food through GI tract. Keeps food moving through the digestive tract. -Segmentation: in intestines (mixes) 2 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -Chemical -Digestive juices and enzymes break down food into absorbable nutrients. -Enzymes -Proteins -Have a specific shape that determines its function. -Speed up reactions (catalyzes) -Can break bonds of food molecules (chemical digestion) -Are reused -If a word ends in “ase” its an enzyme. (but doesn't HAVE to end in “ase” to be an enzyme) -Digestion allows us to -absorb nutrients from foods -after digestion nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the intestines into body’s two transport systems -Circulatory system (blood) -Lymphatic system (lymph fluid) -Nutrients go to liver for processing before delivery to the body’s cells. -GI tract is highly efficient 92-97% of nutrients from food are digested and absorbed. 3 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -What happens in the individual organs of the Digestive System? 
 - Mouth -Breakdown of food begins here -Mastication: mechanical digestion (chewing) -Saliva: chemical digestion -contains water, electrolytes, mucus and enzymes (enzymes include: salivary amylase, lipase) -Bolus: -Food mass -Moves into pharynx, is swallowed and enters the esophagus. -Epiglottis: prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow -Esophagus: -Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) -“Cardiac Sphincter” -Closes to prevent back flow of hydrochloric acid (HCL) from stomach -“Reflux” of stomach acid causes “heartburn” 4 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -Stomach -Stores, mixes & prepares food -Mechanical action: churning mixes food with digestive juices for several hours -Chemical digestion: digestive secretions -enzymes, hormones, HCL. - Chyme: semi-liquid substance of partial digested food and digestive juices -Pyloric sphincter: located between the stomach and small intestine, allows about 1tsp of chyme to enter the small intestine every 30 seconds. -prevents backflow of intestinal contents -Liquids, carbohydrates, low-fiber and low-calorie foods exit the stomach faster. -High fiber, fat & protein foods exit slower, keep you feeling full longer. -Any absorption? -Not much, aspirin & some liquids. Small Intestine: -Long, narrow, coiled -Three segments -Duodenum -Jejunum -Ileum -Interior surface area tremendously increased by circular folds, villi, and microvilli. 5 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Absorption Methods - Passive Diffusion -Nutrients pass through the cell membrane - Facilitated Diffusion -Requires a specific carrier but no energy is needed to cross the membrane - Active Transport -Requires both a carrier protein and energy to cross the cell membrane - Endocytosis -Cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process. -Large Intestine -Absorbs water & some nutrients -Ileocecal sphincter: at ileum/cecum juncture -prevents backflow of waste matter into ileum -Large intestine has sections -cecum -colon (asc, transv, desc, sigmoid) -rectum -Appendix -vestigial organ/tissue 6 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -Very little digestion -Bacterial action on remaining waste -fiber and undigested carbohydrates -some vitamins produced -absorption of those vitamins, electrolytes, & water -Waste forms stool/feces -stored until eliminated Gastrointestinal tract consists of: (IN ORDER) - Mouth, pharynx -Esophagus -Stomach -Small Intestine -sphincter between these -Large Intestine *Accessory organs: salivary glands, liver & gall bladder, pancreas. LIVER -secretes bile -bile emulsifies fats -detoxifies -stores nutrients or releases them into bloodstream 7 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 GALLBLADDER -stores bile -releases bile into small intestine when fat is ingested PANCREAS -secretes -sodium bicarbonate (neutralized acidic chyme, protects enzymes from inactivation by acid. -digestive enzymes -amylase: digests carbohydrate -lipase: digests fats -proteases: digest protein -trypsin, chymotrypsin, & carboxypeptidase ENZYMES
 -Lock & key with a substrate -Work different at different pH levels Hormones Gastrin- Ghrelin - hormone that tells you you're hungry Leptin- hormone that is released by fat cells & tells you you're done eating Secretin- Cholecystokinin- 8 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Getting Nutrients Transported circulatory system- transports nutrients to liver & rest of body lymphatic system- distributes larger fat molecules through lymph into blood Which enzyme breaks down protein? -Pepsin Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is an example of -Chemical Digestion What are some Common Digestive Disorders? -Esophageal problems -heartburn (acid reflux) -GERD gastro-espohageal reflux disease -Gastroenteritis -Peptic ulcers -Gallstones -Lactose intolerance -celiac disease -autoimmune disorder, inability to digest gluten -malabsorption disorder REVIEW Q’S - Nonnutritive compounds in foods that may play a role in fighting chronic diseases are • Phytochemicals 9 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 -Which of the following is NOT one of the 6 classes of nutrients -Fiber -Nutritional Genomics Group given the placebo (fake) is called the control group Chapter 4 Carbohydrates-Intro Carbohydrates -energy-yielding macronutrient -plant based & organic -Formation -linked units of sugars (glucose, fructose, etc..) -Plants make based unit of carb - glucose / fructose through photosynthesis (plants use sunlight to produce glucose) -Plants store energy to use when needed (growth) = Starch 10 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 2 Types of Carbs -Simple & Complex -Simple Carbs - Monosaccharides - single sugar molecule -Glucose, Fructose, Galactose - Disaccharides - 2 monosaccharides linked -Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose -Lactose = glucose + galactose - Complex Carbs - 3 Types: -Starch, Glycogen, Fiber - Starch -Storage form of glucose in plants - Glycogen -Storage form of glucose in animals -Stored in liver and muscle cells -Body can convert it to glucose when needed - Fiber -Indigestible to humans (we don't break down/absorb it) -Cell walls of plants (cellulose) -Can be soluble or insoluble (usually get both in food) -Insoluble moves quickly through your body -Soluble moves slowly through your body -Fills us up “satiety” 11 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 The Whole Grain -Bran layer is fiber & nutrients -Germ layer is protein & nutrients -Endosperm is starch, protein and B-vitamins Blood sugar level is regulated by 2 hormones from the pancreas - Insulin -lowers blood sugar -helps glucose enter cell (opens a gate) -blood shower level lowered -extra glucose stored as GLYCOGEN (& above that…fat) - Glucagon -secreted when blood sugar is low -releases stored glucose from liver into the blood -blood sugar level increased Fasting -go through livers supply of glycogen (converted to glucose -body breaks down fat for glucose/energy -fat breakdown for energy=ketone bodies -blood becomes highly acidic… if long term = bad -protein also used in the process..therefore..muscle is broken down 12 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Carbohydrate Intake -DRI is -130 m/g day Diabetes -when blood sugar remains high due to 1 of 2 reasons -pancreas is not producing insulin -cells resistant to the insulin that is present -glucose cant enter cells/sugar high in the blood. so body thinks its fasting since sugar isn't entering cells -liver pumps out stored glucose -fat broken down— releases ketones, acidic blood. Type 1 -less common/rare -autoimmune disorder— body attacks insulin producing cells of pancreas -need external source of insulin Type 2 -more common— 90% of diabetics have this type -overweight at increased risk of developing -insulin resistant cells -and/or over-exhaustion of the insulin-producing cells for years = little or no insulin production of their own 13


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