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Wet and Organic Chemistry Bundle

by: Shelby Bussard

Wet and Organic Chemistry Bundle BIO 1120 - 01

Marketplace > Wright State University > BIO 1120 - 01 > Wet and Organic Chemistry Bundle
Shelby Bussard
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

This bundle covers week 2 and 3; wet and organic chemistry! More on organic chemistry is to come with week 4 notes. Good luck!
Cells and Genes
Dan E. Krane
Chemistry, Biology, WSU, wright, state, dan, krane
75 ?




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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Friday September 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1120 - 01 at Wright State University taught by Dan E. Krane in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 2  Wet Chemistry Dan Krane WSU ­ All living things are associated with and dependent on water ­ Cells are 70%­95% water ­ Our overall body weight is 75% ­ Life cannot develop without water; an important molecule  ­ Water  ­ H20 ­ It is easier for oxygen to fill its outermost shell because it is  electronegative  ­ Oxygen likes to take up electrons ­ Polar covalent electrons are not being shared equally  ­ Hydrogen’s electrons spend more time near oxygen  ­ Covalent Bonds ­ Sharing of electrons ­ Electron orbitals are overlapping ­ Strongest chemical bond ­ Getting the outermost shell empty is the goal  ­ Electronegative ­ When an atom likes to take up electrons ­ Polar covalent ­ Electrons are not being shared equally ­ Valence ­ The number of unpaired electrons in its outermost orbital ­ Represents its bonding capacity  ­ Ionic bonds ­ Balancing charges ­ NaCL ­ Table salt ­ Sodium has one extra electron in outer shell ­ 11 protons  ­ Chlorine has 9 electrons ­ Chlorine steal sodium’s electron ­ Sodium has net positive charge ­ Chlorine is negative ­ Situation where one outer shell is empty and the other is filled  ­ Cations ­ Positively charged ions ­ Hydrogen bonds ­ Occurs when a hydrogen atom covalently bound to one  electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom  ­ Hydrogen bond ­ An association between partial positive and partial negative  charges  Water’s Cohesiveness  ­ Each water molecule can form a hydrogen bond with a total of 4 other water  molecules ­ Can create 4 hydrogen bonds ­ Water can be pulled apart (puddles) ­ Water molecules like to stick together ­ Why paper towels work; hydrogen bonds occur in  the paper towel and suck up all the wate (keep climbing up when one  molecule is pulled up) ­ Capillary pressure ­ Water molecules high up on a column pull up other molecules ­ Specific heat  ­ Water molecules need a large amount of energy to be invested  into them before they can move quickly ­ Hydrogen bonds have high specific heat ­ Temperature is a measure of how fast molecules are moving  ­ Temp is changed by adding or removing heat energy  Temperature Buffering ­ Sweating is an example  ­ Frozen bodies of water ­ Molecules are moving so slowly that they lock into  other molecules and solidify  ­ Because ice is less dense than liquid, ice floats ­ Because ice floats, water is a better temperature  buffer (no other liquid has a less dense frozen solid) Water as a solvent ­ Solvent ­ Something that dissolves things ­ Solute ­ Something that gets dissolved ­ Things that are dissolved in water are said to be an aqueous solution Mechanics  ­ Polar molecules have patches of positive and negative charges just like water  and behave in the same way in a solution  ­ Water acts like a solvent for itself  ­ Positive Na ions in table salt have a liking for negative charge of water’s oxygen  atoms ­ Negative Cl ions have a liking for the positive charge of water’s  hydrogen atoms  Mole ­ 1 Avogadro’s number = number of a mole  (6.02 x 10^23) ­ NaCl = 58 grams = 1 mole of NaCl  ­ The concentration of hydrogen ions have a special name and unit of measure ­ pH ­ P= negative of the log of concentration ­ Water has a pH of 7 (neutral) ­ Acids (less than 7) ­ pH solutions would be 4 and 1  ­ Something that increases hydrogen ions  ­ Basic (greater than 7) ­ pH solutions would be 10 and 14  ­ Buffers ­ Molecules that minimize changes of pH in aqueous solutions  ­ Carbonic acid in our blood ­ Reaction is reversible ­ Can help to remove hydrogen from solution that  has too many ­ Donate hydrogen to solutions that have too few ­ Carbon bonds ­ Chemistry involving carbon molecules is organic chemistry Organic Chemistry  Dan Krane WSU  Pre­Quiz question  ­ How does an acidic solution differ from one that has a neutral oH?  ­ Acids have a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than neutral  solutions ­ Nonpolar covalent  ­ Equal sharing of an electron ­ High energy bonds ­ Satisfies nature's laws ­ Oxygen gas ­ Electronegative (hungry for electrons) ­ Water ­ Has potential of one water molecule to interact with another water  molecule ­ Negative quality of oxygen creates a basis of an interaction ­ Water is a good solvent ­ Has positive and negative charge  ­ Organic chemistry ­ Chemistry associated with carbon molecules ­ Ethan ­ There is nothing about ethane than water wants to be apart of  ­ No basis for an interaction  ­ Has a lot of energy; has a lot high energy bonds  ­ Is a gas ­ Oil and water no not mix ­ Ions avoid each other  ­ Carbon can make 4 covalent bonds ­ 4 different kinds of atoms that we build molecules with ­ Hydrogen ­ Oxygen ­ Nitrogen ­ Carbon ­ Atoms in the same column in the PT behave similarly on a  molecular level because they have the same valence (unpaired electrons) ­ Similar valences tell us how many covalent bonds  atoms can make  ­ Structural isomers ­ Differences in structure of carbon chains ­ Cis isomer ­ The two x’s on a chain are on the same side ­ Trans isomer ­ The two x’s on a chain are in the opposite directions  ­ Hydroxyl group ­ Alcohols  ­ Is polar as a result of electrons spending more time near the  electronegative oxygen atom ­ Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve  organic compounds such as sugars  ­ Carbonyl ­ When oxygen bonds with carbon ­ Ketones if the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton  ­ Aldehydes if the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon  skeleton ­ Aldehyde ­ If oxygen is near middle ­ Ketone ­ If oxygen is near end  ­ A ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as  is the case for acetone and propanol  ­ Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugars, giving rise  to two major groups of sugars ­ Ketoses  ­ Containing ketone groups ­ Aldoses ­ Containing aldehyde groups  ­ Carboxyl ­ Carboxylic acids; organic acids ­ Acts as an acid; can donate hydrogen because the covalent bond  between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar ­ Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of negative one  and called a carboxylate ion  ­ Amino group ­ Amines ­ Acts as a base ­ Can pick up a hydrogen from the surrounding solution (water) ­ Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of positive one  ­ Sulfhydryl  ­ Thiols ­ Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond ­ This cross linking helps stabilize protein structure  ­ Cross linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness  or straightness of hair  ­ Phosphate group ­ Phosphates  ­ Associated with high energy bonds and often cause molecules to  be acidic 


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