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ESS 101 Lecture Notes

by: Laura Beyea

ESS 101 Lecture Notes ESS 101

Laura Beyea

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These notes cover every lecture from Profesor McCarthy's class. These notes really helped me study for his tests, and I ended up doing really well in this class.
Introduction to Exercise and Sports Studies
Thomas McCarthy
exercise science
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This 87 page Bundle was uploaded by Laura Beyea on Friday September 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ESS 101 at D'Youville College taught by Thomas McCarthy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Exercise and Sports Studies in Exercise and Sports Studies at D'Youville College.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
ESS 101 Lecture Notes #1:  Exercise studies o More of the focus in ESS o Science  How biology and physiology are affected by exercise  Sports studies o How competition affects society’s health  Exercise studies o Biomechanics  Human movement o Exercise physiology o Bioenergetics  As applied to athletes o Fitness Evaluation  Strength and Conditioning  Exercise Prescription o Athletic Injury o Exercise Epidemiology  Populations o Sports Nutrition  Drivers of ESS Studying o Many more participants in sports  Especially women o Aging Population  Geriatrics  The Baby Boom  Over 100 million Americans over 50 yrs old  They drive the marketplace  Boomeritis  The growing number of sports injuries seen amongst baby boomers  Objective  Raise/extend the quality of life o More awareness about physical conditions  Obesity  Needs intervention  Kids carry obesity into adulthood o They develop adult metabolic disorders in childhood  Is indirectly related to physical activity (PA)  Promoting Physical Activity o Is there access?  There must be the opportunity and resources to be physically active in neighborhoods  Including practicality o Is there safety?  A safe environment for exercise  A well structured environment  Proper instruction and supervision o Is there clarity?  Verification of health articles and information  Need for credible sources ESS calls for answering and explain these questions ESS 101 Lecture Notes #2: Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance:  Sedentary o Little movement o Highest cause for Americans bad health  Why is Sedentary the highest cause for bad health in Americans? o We have been focused on reducing physical work for many generations  i.e. washing machines  the ease of eating and being unhealthy is so much higher today than any time before Physical Fitness and Physical Activity:  Physical Fitness (PF) o Ability to perform physical activity  Physical Activity (PA) o Any bodily movement that increases energy expenditure above resting levels  From tapping your foot to MMA or soccer  Exercise o Type of PA o Has to be:  Planned  Structured  Have repetitive bodily movement o Done with the specific intent to improve fitness  Most important because it differentiates exercise from PA  Lifestyle diseases o ½ of the deaths in US caused by lifestyle diseases o CVD is leading cause of these deaths  Cardiovascular disease o Cause for change in top 10 deaths since the 1900s  Vaccines, antibiotics, sanitary measures, food suppliers Foundations of Physical Activity:  The body was made to have physical activity  When stress/activity is out on the body o Degeneration o Atrophy o Leads to  Dysfunction  Researched through space exploration  PA = stimulus o Not natural  We want to naturally conserve our energy o Stimulus creates  Responses  Acute changes within the system o Very short term o i.e. heart-rate goes up on a run  Responses result in  Adaptation o Long-term change  i.e. a decrease in resting heart rate  People are physically active to o Improve their health  To improve the quality of life o To improve athletic performance Components of Physical Fitness: (absolutely mandatory)  1.) Cardiorespiratory Fitness  Works hand in hand together o A.) Cardiovascular (CV) Fitness  Pumps blood that carries oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs o B.) Respiratory Fitness  Gets the oxygen across the lung into the blood  Ability to take oxygen into the body, utilize it in the cells, and return waste to the environment  VO2 max  Max volume of oxygen your body can process o Training adaptations  Pump blood better  Extract oxygen from the blood better  Have a greater O s2turation  2.) Body Composition  Things that compose your body  Body fat, body water, muscle mass o Methods  BodPod, DEXA scans, hydrostatic weighing  Body Mass Index, BMI  Body weight (kg)/ height (m-squared) = BMI  Best estimation of body composition for populations  Not good for athletes o As you get older, you most likely will be fatter at the same weight and height then you were when you were younger  3.) Muscle strength  Body’s ability to exert force o Purest test to determine muscle strength  1-RM  Has to be a well-trained individual  1 repetition max  Standard has to be consistent  4.) Muscular Endurance  Body’s ability to generate force repeatedly o Common tests  Sit-ups, push-ups  5.) Flexibility  Range of motion around a joint o Improved by stretching o Sometimes more isn’t better Skill or Athletic Components of Physical Fitness:  Agility o Ability to start and stop  Balance o Ability to maintain a posture (static), to move without falling (dynamic)  Coordination o Ability to perform a task simultaneously with something else  Including senses  Power o Exerting muscular strength quickly  Speed o Ability to move entire body quickly  Reaction Time o Ability to respond to a stimulus quickly ESS 101 Lecture Notes #3:  Health Appraisal and Physical Activity Readiness o Intake procedure  Identifies if there is any risk in engaging of physical activity  Precautions of PA o Safe environment  Risks with PA o Cardiovascular events  Risks associated with a known disease  Risks associated with an undiagnosed disease o Orthopedic events  Aggravation of a known injury  Risk of a new injury  Key components of Pre-Screening o PAR-Q o HHQ/HSQ  Determines the risk factors  Classifies the risk  MR. PLEASE o M  Medical History review  Identifies the presence of CVD, pulmonary and metabolic disease o Immediate placement into high risk category with the identification of one of these diseases  Identifies symptoms  PAR-Q o Self-administered o Physical activity questionnaires o For people who exercise light to moderately  HHQ o More thorough screening o Identifies risk factors  Risk factors  A sign or symptom that is associated with an increase chance of developing a health problem o R  Risk factor assessment and stratification  Based on “M”  Risk Classification o Low Risk  Less than 2 risk factors identified o Moderate Risk  Less than or equal to 2 risk factors identified in the HHQ o High Risk  Known CVD, pulmonary, kidney, or metabolic disease  Signs or symptoms of disease  The potential to have a disease o P  Prescribed Medication Review  Identifies any prescription or OTC drugs and supplements o Can change adaptations from exercise o Controls the disease not negates it  Drugs are considered a risk factor o L  Level of PA  Window of whether they are active or sedentary  Regularity of PA  Duration of PA  Frequency of PA  Activity interests and goals o Helps in exercise prescription o E  Establish the need for Physician Consent  Submaximal Testing o Tells if MD supervision is needed  Only in high risk clients  Medical evaluation o Done to everyone who walks through the doors  Send moderate risk clients to an MD before vigorous activity o A  Administration of Fitness Tests  Not exercise tests o Tests that calculate the resting data  HR, BP, % of BMI  Allowed to do on all levels of risk clients  Exercise tests o Graded tests  Incline tests  Combines speed and grade to predict how much work is done o Sub-max  Predicts the cardiovascular health  Tests CV o Maximal  Measures cardiovascular health  tests VO2 max o muscular strength and Muscular endurance o S  Set up of Exercise Prescription  Put together a program based on all the data collected o E  Evaluation of Progress with Testing  Different for all different risk classes o Measures the progress in the program o Repeat the HHQ o New test on risk factors  If no change is seen then change the prescription  Determining Sport Readiness o Determine level of Intensity of workout o Sometimes physician consent is needed o Generally the coach evaluates o Programs set up by the strength and conditioning coach  Very economically driven ESS 101 Lecture Notes #4: Risk Classification: HHQ-> Known CVD, Pulmonary, or Metabolic Disease including Diabetes -> yes -> High risk or -> no-> signs and symptoms->yes -> high risk or ->no -> risk factors -> >= 2 -> moderate risk or <= 2 -> low risk Risk Factors:  Age o Male  45 or older o Female  55 or older  Family History o Male Family Members  Death before 55 years o Female Family Members  Death before 65 years  Cigarettes o Smoker in the last 6 months  Sedentary Lifestyle o Accumulating less than 30 minutes of activity at least 3 days a week for more 3 months  Anything less than moderate activity  Obesity o BMI over 30 o Male  40 inch waist o Female  35 inch waist  Hypertension o Only has to exceed one of these thresholds  Systolic BP over 140  Diastolic BP over 90  Any Hypertension medicine  Dyslipidemia o Considered at risk for a heart attack with any of these risk factors o LDL (low density lipoprotein)  More or equal to 130 o HDL (high density lipoprotein)  Less or equal to 40  Negative risk factor  If HDL is over 60, then it is considered to be a negative factor on the total count of risk factors o If you have 7 total risk factors with HDL over 60 then the new total is 6 risk factors o Total Cholesterol  More or equal to 200  Prediabetes o Fasting glucose is greater or equal to 100 but less than or equal to 125  100 – 125  Anything above 125 is considered diabetic o 45 year old or older o BMI greater than or equal to 25 Risk Classification:  Low risk o Moderate and Vigorous Exercise  No medical exam required  No exercise test required  No MD supervision required  Moderate Risk o Moderate exercise  No medical exam required  No exercise test required  No MD supervision required o Vigorous Exercise  Medical exam is required  No exercise required  MD supervision required  High Risk o Moderate and Vigorous Exercise  Medical exam is required  Exercise test is required  MD supervision is required ESS 101 Lecture #5 Notes: Exercise Prescription:  Factors o Expectations o Changes in health status  Changes in medications o Personal Goals  Set performance goals  i.e. exercising for 30 min a day instead of losing x amount of pounds or inches o Exercise Preferences  Incorporating personal preferences  Especially important in non-athletes o Ability to comply to a program  Able to maintain the program o Genetic Potential  Exercise tolerance varies from person to person o Behavior characteristics  Dealing with mental dispositions  Trying to bring out the desire to get better o Expectations of others  Parents, coaches being supportive  F.I.T.T Principle o Optimizes benefits of exercise o F-frequency  Times per week of exercising o I-intensity  Difficulty of exercise  Manipulated off the goal  For people with sedentary lifestyles  Lower intensities o Used for stress relief and composition control only o Has to be 60 minutes or more 6 times per week  Moderate intensities o Hits the thresholds to improve health o 30 -60 minutes 4 or more times a week  For highly trained individuals  Vigorous intensities o Benefits above moderate activities benefits o 20-30 minutes 3 times a week o Needed to improve or continue progress  Beginners start with low then should quickly move to moderate intensity o T-Time  Duration of exercise o T-Type  Mode of exercise/where you start  1 – decide on the mode  Needs maximum adaptations  Factors  Availability  Person’s ability  Preference  Goals  CV Training  Aerobic or endurance  Dependent on the mode  Aerobic Conditioning  Use of a steady state or continuous intensity  Non-steady state o Variable training  Interval training  Periods of high intensity with low intensity  Measuring training o CV training  Heart Rate  Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) o Gap between resting and max heart rate o HRR = HRmax – HRrest  Predicted Heart Rate Max o HRmax = 220 – age  Most accurate for college-aged individuals  % of HRR o Target HR = [Desired % (HRmax –HRrest)] + HRrest o Desired %  Low  < 40% HRR  Moderate  40 – 60 % HRR  High  > 60% HRR  Rates of Perceived Exertion  Measures how hard someone is working  Uses the Borg or 10-pt scale o Borg  Is most famous and correlates with HR  Difficult to teach to clients o 10-pt scale  Is easier to use  1 is very light effort–10 is maximum effort  Sometimes better than the HR test  METS  Related to energy and oxygen  Measures how many times you are working over rest o i.e. 2 times rest  complicated but widely used  metabolic equivalent o 1 MET = rest  1 MET = 3.5 ml of O2/kg/min o This is wrong o Assume that it is right o i.e. 2 METS = 2x rest  burning two times the amount of calories and consuming 2 times the amount of oxygen then when you’re at rest  Low Intensity o < 3 METS  Moderate Intensity o 3-6 METS  High Intensity o > 6 METS Exercise Principles:  Used to write exercise programs  Overload Principle o A body system has to be stressed by an exercise program in order to improve  Principle of Progression o When threshold rises to a new level,, stress to the body need to rise with it o Logically increase the stresses on the body o Exercise Paradox  The harder you work, the harder you have to work  Principle of Reversibility o When you stop exercising, the threshold will reverse itself o Use it or lose it o Can happen within 2-4 days  Principle of Recovery o Giving the body enough time to recover after exercise  Principle of Overtraining o Losing capacity when insufficient recovery time is taken  Seeing a decrease in performance  Seeing fatigue or possibly illness  SAID Principle o All biological systems o Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands  Training specifically  Train to the adaptations you want  Principle of Individuality o Deals with genetic blueprints that allows some people to respond better to exercise programming ESS 101 Lecture #6 Notes: CV Training  Aerobic Conditioning o Aerobic  Supported by oxygen o Steady-state exercise  Working to provide oxygen  Hypothetically enough oxygen to perform exercise indefinitely o Variable Exercise  Working at varied intensity o Interval Exercise  High intensity is most efficient  Involves a higher degree of anaerobic metabolism  Anaerobic  Without oxygen  Tabata  Experimented with Japanese speed skaters  Formulated a test o 8 reps – took about four minutes  Work hard for 20 seconds  Work at low intensity for 10 seconds  Highly effective when combined with steady-state exercise  Protocol of Interval Exercise:  Intensity of exercise interval  Duration of exercise interval  Duration of recovery  Amount of reps  Resistance Training o Increases:  Muscular strength/power  Generating force quickly o Develops explosiveness o Low reps  Muscular endurance  Focus on type 1 fiber  High amount of reps  Hypertrophy  Focus on a lot of muscle types  Thickening of muscle fiber  Moderate reps  Not hyperplasia o Laying down new cells o Does exist o Minor mechanism o Repetitions  Amount of times completing a cycle  Eccentric and concentric  Goal dependent o Sets  A group of repetitions o Muscular contraction  Concentric  Muscle is shortening  Eccentric  Muscle is lengthening  Isometric  Contractions that results no change in length of muscle  i.e. wall sits  be careful to not use these exercises in high risk patients  skyrockets BP o Types of Resistance Training  Isometric  Muscular contraction with no change in length  Isokinetic  Speed of movement is controlled o Use of specialized equipment  Isotonic  Muscle exerts a constant tension o i.e. lifting 100 lbs in the beginning of workout and the middle and at the end  Variable resistance  Operates through a cam, a lever, or pulley on equipment  Resistance is altered though range of motion (ROM) o Determining Resistance  Resistance=intensity  1 Repetition Maximum  Most common prescription method  Have to know what their Repetition Maximum (RM) is o If not use 10 RM  To work: o Strength: < 5 RM o Power: 3-7 RM  Sometimes o Hypertrophy: approx. 6-12 RM o Muscular Endurance: High RM o Training Variables  Volume  Sets*reps*resistance o Reps and sets  Relative to goals and intensity  Length of Rest periods  Selection of exercises  Made to match the goals  Order exercises properly o Complex -> simple o Fast -> slow o Compound -> simple/isolation  Type of equipment  Speed of muscle contractions  Fast -> slow  Type of muscle contractions  Concentric, eccentric, isometric Structuring an Exercise Program  Session order o Start with warm up  Increases blood circulation  Increases body temperature  Increases the metabolic rate  Stretches postural muscles  Reduces risk of musculoskeletal injury o Next: Skill development/mechanics  Make sure to go from high intensity exercises to low intensity exercises  Progress from RT exercises to CV exercises o End with cool down  Gradual reduction of BP and HR  Improve Venous return  Return of blood to the brain  Reduce risk of CV symptoms  Helps clear lactate  Exercise Order o High velocity exercises -> low velocity -> moderate velocity  High  Explosive exercises o Plyometric or with medicine ball  Where you have rapid eccentric motions followed by rapid concentric motions  Low  Heavy exercises  Moderate  Hypertrophy or muscular endurance exercises o Large Muscle groups -> small muscle groups o Compound Movements -> simple movements o Multi-joint movements -> single-joint movements (isolation) Common Exercise Prescriptions  Fartlek Training (aerobic) o Blends continuous (steady state) with interval training o i.e. easy running using < 70% Vo2 max with short, fast burst using > 80% Vo2 max  DeLorme’s Model of RT o 3 sets of 10 reps o Light -> heavy o Also known st the pyramid model  i.e. 1 set: 10 reps at 50% 10RM  2 ndset: 10 reps at 75% 10RM  3 set: 10 reps at 100% 10RM o Cuts down on injury o Only manipulates the volume  DAPRE Model o Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistance Exercise  Manipulation of intensity and volume  4 sets with reps ranging from 10 to 1  100% of 1 RM  Only for advanced trainees  Periodization o Planned variation o Some periodization is vital to keep from stalling out on a program o Creates variety in a program o Cycles of Periodization:  Macrocycle  Months to years o Depends on what athlete  Mesocycle  Weeks to months o Shifts in focus  Microcycle  Very short  Days to weeks  Works only one capacity ESS Lecture #7 Notes: Bioenergetics  Energy for life, fuel for exercise  Flow of energy  Conversion of food into energy o Food -> extract energy -> produce ATP -> break down ATP to do work  ATP  Molecules that stores energy  Metabolism o Sum of all the reactions in the body  Catabolic reactions  Reactions that tear down  Complex to simple  Anabolic reactions  Reactions that build up  Simple to complex  Coupled reactions  Breaking down complex units to simple units to store then building back up to complex units  Catabolic + anabolic  Reactions  Where you get energy from  Phosphorylate o To add a phosphorous o Add a phosphorous to ADP to make ATP  ATP  Energy currency o Energy is stored in phosphate bonds  Called high energy phosphate bonds  Substrates o Energy providing nutrients (macronutrients)  Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/gram  Fats: 9 kcal/gram  Proteins: 4 kcal/gram  Storing of substrates o Carbs (sugars)  Glucose  Starches are long-chains of glucose  Main site of storage  Liver o Glucose is broken down to be able to get into the liver, then is built back up to a starch then stored as glycogen  Stored in the liver as glycogen o Fat  Stored in cells as triglycerides  Glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Main site of storage  Adipose tissue  Some stored in liver and muscle  Stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides o Proteins  Broken down into amino acids which enter the bloodstream  Main site of storage  Muscle cells/fiber o Stored as a protein  Stored in muscle cells as protein  ATP o Very little is stored o Therefore, a process is needed to replenish ATP  Regenerate ADP repeatedly  Ripping ATP apart then building it up again o Ways of replenishing ATP  Aerobic systems  Uses oxygen to produce ATP  Slow process  Has a huge capacity to store ATP  Used in long term exercise (endurance running)  Oxidative System o Aerobic glycolysis  More sustaining/endurance  Stops the anaerobic process at pyruvic acid  Pyruvic acid o Only lasts for an instant, then it loses a hydrogen and it forms pyruvate  (same process for lactic acid)  Then, pyruvate converts to Acetyl CoA which then enters the Krebs cycle  Krebs cycle o Acetyl CoA: The beginning/gateway of aerobic metabolism o Produces: per 1 acetyl CoA molecule or one turn of the Krebs cycle  1 ATP  3 NADH and 1 FADH  Used to produce more ATP outside of the Krebs cycle by the Electron Transport Train (oxygen is used to keep the system from backing up by forming H 2)  1 NADH = 3 ATP  1 FADH = 2 ATP  Pyruvate 2 : 2 Acetyl CoA  Glucose 1 : 36 ATP  Anaerobic Systems  Produces ATP in the absence of oxygen  Very fast process  Low storage capacity  ATP – CP o Immediate energy system/ short term  Aka phosphogen o Depleted in 10 seconds or less o ATP is broken down to form ADP which releases energy, because ADP needs another phosphorous to form ATP it joins/runs into a Creatine phosphate, because the CP does not want to give up its phosphate an enzyme called creatine Kynase forces creatine to give up the phosphate (enzymes make reactions more likely to occur by holding molecules together in the right arrangement), then the ADP forms an ATP and the creatine is left over o CP 1 : 1 ATP  Fast but limited  Anaerobic Glycolysis (Fast glycolysis) o Uses glucose to produce ATP  Start with glucose from outside the cell or with glucose form inside the cell o Lasts for max exercise-90 secs, completely depleted in under 3 min o When glycogen is broken down, it is called glycogenolysis o Primary fuel is glucose o Process only uses carbs o Put glucose into the system which ends up as 2 pyruvic acids which turn into 2 lactic acids o Glucose 1 : 2 ATP  Takes longer because it is more complex then ATP-CP  Tissue breakdown or micro tears causes muscle soreness, not lactic acid o Lactic acid causes muscle burning ESS Lecture Notes #8:  Lipolysis o Breakdown of fats  Lipase o Enzyme that assists in fat breakdown o Chops fatty acid, allows it to enter blood stream, enters mitochondria courtesy of carnitine  Beta Oxidation o Process of cutting up the lipid  Fat o Substrate of choice  What your body wants to run off of o Our way of storing energy o Most plentiful storage of energy o Example:  Not true but close enough  1 lb. of fat = 3500 kcal 1 mi. of walking = 100 kcal Have to walk 35 mi. to burn 3500 kcal or 1 lb. of fat For a 150 lb. male: With 20% body percentage of fat 30 lbs. of fat x35 mi. = 1050 mi. to burn 1 lb. of fat =105,000 kcal burned o Don’t need that much energy though o Our bodies our phenomenal at storing fats  We crave:  Sugar: easiest to find in nature  Salt: very hard to get to in nature  Fat: have to kill something  Why? o These were the hardest to find in nature o Developed so that we could survive  Adipose tissue o Stores triglycerides in cells in the adipose tissue  These cells are called adipocytes  Adipocytes o Fat cells  Stores triglycerides o Enzymes in this tissue need to break down the fats  This process is known as lipolysis  Lipolysis o Break down of fats  These enzymes are lipases  Lipases o Beta Oxidation o Snip off fatty acid that the body wants and releases it in the blood stream  Goes through the blood stream till it reaches the muscle which also has lipases in it, but to get into the mitochondria the shortened fatty acid has to take a “shuttle” or carnitine (amino acid) into the mitochondria, once fatty acid is in the mitochondria, the carbon chain gets chopped into two carbon structures (1 Acetyl CoA), 8 carbon fatty acid produces 4 acetyl CoA’s, 1 carbon chain (triglycerides or fatty acid) produces a whole lot of ATPs  Protein o A very minor contributor to energy production o Important in endurance/ultra-endurance exercises o Gluconeogenesis  Making glucose from something other than glycogen  Protein and amino acids to make glucose o The body’s favorite way to make glucose  A new way to make glucose  1.) transamination o Taking a nitrogen from one structure and hand it to another structure o When a pyruvate takes a nitrogen from an amino acid  Amino acid turns into an alphaketogluterate  This acid is part of the Krebs cycle o Gets a partial turn out of the Krebs cycle  Pyruvate turns into alanine  Alanine o Amino acid that spills over into the blood out of the muscle, then travels to the liver which is the site for gluconeogenesis, in the liver the alanine gives up the nitrogen and returns the nitrogen to the amino acid, the alanine returns back into pyruvate which the liver returns back into glucose. o Happens in the muscle and liver o Happens before deamination  2.) Deamination o Happens in the liver  Stealing/removing the nitrogen  After the transamination in the muscle, a nitrogen is stolen from an amino acid in the liver but instead of the nitrogen being returned to the amino acid, the nitrogen is turned into urea which enters the bloodstream, travels to the kidney and gets excreted  What affects the amount of fat or carbs you burn o Diet  High fat + low carbs = burns a lot of fat  High carbs + low fat = burns a lot of carbs o Intensity  Low or rest = burns fat  Moderate = burns half carbs half fat  High = burns sugar o Duration  Long duration (looks like rest) = burns fat and preserves glucose  Low intensity most likely  Short duration = burns carbs  Metabolic Continuum o You seldom use just one system to do work  ATP-CP, Anaerobic Glycolysis, Oxidative System (aerobic)  All overlap each other o Rare for one activity to just be one system  Anaerobic metabolism often works on top of the aerobic system o Aerobic is baseline  Everything else is above this ESS Lecture Notes #9 and 10: Flow = rate x volume (for all flow)  Exercise Physiology o How the body responds to the stress of exercise o Systems based approach  Dealing with one system at a time  Not the way the body works because all of the systems are integrated together o Two broad ways of dealing with exercise stress  Immediate response  Acute o Short term  Chronic Adaptation  Longer time scale  Repeated exposure  SAID Principle  Why we adapt to anything during exercise  Imposing stress on a system o Exercise  Stress and a demand  Body deals with stress by maintaining its internal environment  Causes an increase in VO 2 o Homeostasis  Condition of the body maintaining its internal environment  In the past  We thought that everything stayed the same  Now:  We know that our systems are constantly making little adjustments  Example: o BP  Mean BP  100-110 (average)  Diastolic BP  80  Systolic BP  120  These measurements can be very misleading because you have moment to moment small variations  But it’s in homeostasis because it stays near the mean  All homeostasis is dynamic  Changing from second to second but staying near the mean o Physiology controlled by feedback  Negative feedback  When the body responds to something by reducing the initial stimulus o i.e. body sends out insulin to negate the glucose  works in opposition to reduce the initial stimulus  Positive Feedback  Or additive o More and more o Works with the initial stimulus to increase the initial stimulus  i.e. Fever or breast-feeding o Enhances rather than diminishing o Physiology of the Cardiovascular System  Would be useless without RS  Flow is Cardiac Output for CVS  The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute  Set CO at rest o 4-5L/min  Always five liters trained or not trained  During exercise o 20-25 L/min  During exercise, CO is increased by 4-5x what CO is at rest  About 25 L  Major contributor to VO2  Heart Rate and Stroke Volume o SV  The amount of blood pumped out of the heart per contraction per beat  Peaks around 40% of VO ma2 and then will stabilize  Increases at the beginning of exercise then stabilizes  Increases when more blood comes back to the heart  Veno-constriction  When you exercise, your veins and venules constrict which releases more blood into the system which means that more blood will come back into the heart, which means that the heart is going to fill more. When the heart fills more then there is more stroke volume  When the heart fills more, there is more stroke volume Due to Frank Starling’s Law o When we fill the heart, the wall of the heart stretches which allows us to gather elastic energy and aligns contractile proteins in the heart so that the walls have a good length- tension relationship.  They can generate more force which allows them to push more blood out of the heart o Force of a cardiac contraction is a function of the length of the fibers  More blood=lengthening of fibers  (above) results in stronger contractions and aligning two muscle filaments (actin and myacin) which when aligned properly can contract harder  This is a length-tension relationship  Major contributor to CO  Increases linearly  as work rate increases heart rate increases to max HR  max HR = 220 – age  Prediction  How does the heart know to increase HR  Autonomic nervous system controls the rate of the heart  HR < 60 BPM = Bradycardia  Means slow heart rate  Parasympathetic nervous system dominance  Inner hippy, rest and digest o Slows HR down  HR > 100 BPM = Tachycardia  Sympathetic nervous system dominance o Work-aholic, fight or flight o Redistributes blood flow  THR  A way to prescribe and identify exercise intensity  Problem with THR for fat burning zone o Not burning enough calories to actually be beneficial  Or how could the fat burning zone be misleading o Even though you may be burning a higher percentage of fat calories, you will still burn more calories at a higher THR then in the fat burning zone  As we age we lose ability to have high CO  Endurance trained athletes have lower RHR due to adaptation of an increase in SV o This adaptation is that the ventricles can hold more blood  Causes an increase in SV and a decrease in HR  Untrained individual o CO = increase HR x SV  Trained individual o CO = Decrease in HR x increase in SV  Resting Heart Rate  Marker of how hard the heart is working o Shows how much stress is on the heart at one time  Heart rate is used to measure intensity  Measure how hard the heart is working at rest  A very high RHR at rest means your heart is working very hard at rest o Not good  The more you train the lower your RHR will be o Low RHR means a healthy heart  Average RHR is 60-80 BPM  Athletes average RHR is 40-60 BPM  3 components  Heart o Why does the heart beat  To establish CO or flow o A muscle  Made up of cardiac muscle  Can conduct electrical currents through it o Skeletal muscle can do this  Can conduct electrical currents from one cardiac cell to another o Skeletal muscle cannot do this  can contract in a pattern that allows it to pump blood because of electrical current capabilities  blood is pumped through 2 circuits (in the CVS) o pulmonary circuit o systemic circuit  carries blood (on the arteriole side) that is:  rich in O2  low in CO 2  low in metabolic waste  high in nutrients  the O 2nd the nutrients are passed to the tissues across the capillaries  blood returns to the heart through the veins that is:  high in CO 2  high in metabolic waste o at rest we can pump about a gallon of blood per minute o automaticity of the heart  internal electrical system of the heart  SA node  Alternate pacemaker of the heart  internal HR of 100 bpm o use parasympathetic nervous system to get down to RHR o use sympathetic nervous system to get above 100 bpm  during exercise  Blood o Main reason why we want to move blood through the system  Because blood has oxygen in it and in order to support our ATP production we need Oxygen in our periphery o Flows from the lungs to the tissues o How does blood hold oxygen  Hemoglobin  Housed in red blood cells o Red blood cells travel thought the body and deliver oxygen to tissues that love oxygen more than hemoglobin  Makes O tzansport possible o Can grab onto oxygen and hold it very tightly  Likes O 2o much because it has Iron in it o 55% of blood is Plasma  Contains a lot of water – 90% of plasma  Very important during exercise o i.e. sweat comes from the blood o 45% of blood is cells  Red blood cells (major) white blood cells and platelets (Minor) o during exercise our demand for O is 2oing to go up as a function of our work rate  the harder we work the more O we’2e going to need  Means we need a greater ability to deliver O 2  Increased VO n2ed is going to drive an increase in our CO o 3 ways heart responds to exercise  Increasing CO  HR x SV  Amount of blood pumped from the heart in L/min  Redistributing blood flow  During exercise, tissues are working which causes metabolic waste which redistributes blood flow o cardiac waste redistributes blood flow o the more metabolic waste that a tissue produces, the more blood we’re going to send to that tissue  One major adaptation of exercise is that we increase our blood volume  Allow us to have a higher SV (lower HR), resist hydration, carry O 2etter  Blood vessels o Arteries and arterioles  High resistance  Resistance vessels  Tend to carry blood very rich in oxygen o Veins and venules  Vessels of capacitance  Holds a lot of blood  Low resistance o Capillaries  Site of exchange  All exchange or diffusion takes place across the capillaries  CVD is leading cause of death in USA  Lifestyle disease  Exercise protects the CVS o When people suffer a cardiac injury, someone who is well trained and exercised gets about 1/3 the damage to their heart as opposed to the person who does not exercise o Physiology of the Respiratory System  Flow is minute ventilation  Amount of ventilation we are getting into the lung at any given minute  Vm= BR x V T o BR  Breathing Rate  Amount of breaths per minute o VT  Tidal Volume  Volume of air/breath  Lung has a lot of excess capacity  It’s not the lungs fault that you have a hard time breathing during exercise in a healthy lung o High CO 2s the reason for heavy breathing  This excess capacity is destroyed by smokers who have smoked for at least 20-30 years  Lung can increase V bm 17-20x during exercise  Lung will never be a limiter to exercise o Only if lung disease is present  A true close synergistic relationship between RS and CVS  Would be useless without CVS  Where does O in2the blood come from?  From the lungs  Oxygen goes from the environment to the lungs then is diffused into the blood  O 2ravels in the blood to the tissues then enters the mitochondria o Cellular Respiration  Happens in the mitochondria  If we’re using a ton of O2in the mitochondria, then we’re producing a lot of CO w2ich comes from the Krebs cycle  High CO is the primary driver of 2 breathing not O 2  2 functions of RS  Ventilation o Flow of air  Diffuse gases o Exchange gases  The primary function of RS is to be a surface for gas exchange  Pulmonary respiration  Lungs -> blood  Cellular respiration  Blood -> cells o Physiology of Neuromuscular  Nervous system + the muscular system  The nervous system controls the movement because it controls the muscles  The degree to which you stimulate skeletal muscle is always dependent on the nervous system  Types of Muscle Groups  Skeletal Muscle o Over 600 skeletal muscles throughout the body o Voluntarily controlled from higher levels of cortex (brain) o Easiest way to look at these  Through motor units  Lower motor neurons in all of the fibers that they innervate (connect with) o Striated o Cannot transmit electrical activity from fiber to fiber o Epimysium  Layer of connective and protective tissue on muscles o When you cut through the epimysium into the muscle group you find fascicules  Long things running out of the muscle  Has bundles of fibers inside of them  Perimysium  The fascicule’s own protective tissue  Dissected into Muscle fiber (see below)  Surrounded by endomysium o Its own protective tissue o Dissected into myofibrils  Dissected into sarcomeres (the contractile unit of the cell)  Where shortening takes place


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