Week 1 & 2 Notes
Week 1 & 2 Notes CRMJ 302
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Luppino70 on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CRMJ 302 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Justin Patchin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Ch. 1 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 10:53 AM Adolescence: The second decade of life with transitions of physical, mental, economic, and social. Going from immaturity to maturity. Early (10-13), Middle (14- 17), and Late (18-21). Time of trial and uncertainty when one is more vulnerable to emotional turmoil, experience anxiety and mood swings. Roper v. Simmons: A Juvenile charged with a capital offense is not eligible for the death penalty Miller v. Alabama: Life sentences without the possibility of parole is unconstitutional for juveniles Erik Erikson Ego Identity: someone develops a complete sense of self; how thy see themselves plus how they fit with others Role Diffusion: Tring different roles and trying to fit in and spread themselves too thin and this causes personal uncertainty and gain an identity from those they are around and not one for themselves At-Risk Youth: a young one who is very vulnerable to negative results from school failure, substance abuse, and early Sexuality. Factors that lead to this are poverty, health problems, racial inequality, self-image issues, family problems, bad living conditions, inadequate education. Cyberbullying: intentional and multiple harm inflicted through social media or other electronic communication. Catfishing are those who create a fake profile in order to attack others or get positive feedback from others, creating a whole new persona. Cyberstalking: following someone online way too closely, making aa fake profile to get attention and follow sometimes. Sexting Juvenile Delinquency: Acts if done by an adult would be a crime Chronic Delinquent Offenders: juveniles arrested for 4 or more crimes and most of the serious crimes Aging Out: youths reducing their frequency in offenses/delinquent behavior as they get older Persistence: juveniles who do not age out and continue in delinquency and crime into adulthood. Most of those who commit crime as an adult had delinquent behavior as a child. Primogeniture: the first born son inheriting everything, other sons would become a military man or a priest. Dower: The fathers daughter would pay the husband of the daughter to get him to marry her. In the medieval era children were immediately put into the workforce and parents often did not care for their kids as well as today, kids were seen as property. Childhood was not thought of as it was today until the last 300 years. It was a paternalistic family. Often kids were publically whipped for disobeying or some public shaming to put them in their place. Juvenile Justice System: The part of the criminal justice system that deals with juveniles only, their own courts, officers and others only for juveniles. Four factors leading to the creation of the juvenile justice system Changes in family structure, marriages were for economic reasons more than intimate reasons, extended families were included more Poor Laws: English laws that had neglected kids have an overseer and be a indentured servant of the affluent The apprenticeships movement, kids would be put in the home of someone with skill and learn that skill. Chancery Courts: English law that oversees highborn orphans or kids who could not care for themselves. Starting to see kids as more than property. Parens Patriae: the state's power to take care and provide for a child, parents can't handle them so we take them. We still operate with this idea in mind but only in the more extreme cases with delinquent behavior taken into account and not the sole reason for removing the child. What is best for the child? In loco parentis the school or state acts in place of the parent as a parent. Before the 20th century there was little difference between the treatment of juveniles and adults. Child Savers: 19th century reformers who created programs for delinquent youth, they wanted new ways to control kids. They did want a new way to treat delinquents and helped create the juvenile justice system. Legal Status of delinquency comes from British Common Law, under age seven you cannot be held responsible, 7-14 the state must prove the child knew what they were doing to be punished, 14 and older were considered adults. A delinquent is a minor who has violated the penal code, and most are charged with being a juvenile delinquent, and treated with a lesser sanctions than an adult would get. Waiver: transferring legal jurisdiction from juvenile to adult court because of serious and experienced juvenile offenders Status Offense: Something that is illegal only because one is underage such as smoking, alcohol consumption, skipping school, etc. The awareness of the need to control youth created several laws such as curfew, parental responsibility laws either civilly or criminally, etc. Wayward Minors: designation of youths who are offenders simply because they are underage ( alcohol consumption. CHIPS kids. There has been the movement in the mid-80s to deinstitutionalize status offenders and only have it for those who are repeated status offenders So should there be rehabilitation or punishment? Care vs. Accountability. If we make more programs we are widening the net Ch. 2 Friday, September 9, 2016 3:51 PM Official Records of Delinquency are the crimes reported to the police. UCR Began in 1930 by a group of police chiefs. Police Departments send their information to the FBI. Part 1 offenses are index crimes and this is only 8 crimes Part 2 is most of the rest of the offenses. This gives us figures and compare crime from previous years and at the rate of per 100,000 citizens. Juveniles had 8.8 million arrests making up 9% of arrests. Good source of data and mostly representative for the country and good at looking at trends over time. Only represents crimes known to the police, only those arrested and caught and only on one crime, not the criminal. National Incident-Based Reporting System: A program that collects data on every crime incident and given with a brief account of incident and arrest. About 20 years old and looks at 46 offenses. Data is better quality but this system is not wide-spread yet. Individual Police department records State or Local Agency Data like schools or DHS Self-Reported Data Dark Figure of crimes and crimes unknown to the police, no record of the incident. National youth Survey (67-87). Monitoring the Future, annual survey that looks at drug use. Juvenile intervention initiative, serious but nonviolent offenders. Giving court ordered services to keep them from re-offending. My National Survey Good at finding the dark figure of crime, finding victimless crimes, differences in who was caught. Failures could be potential misreporting, not remembering, under-reporting of drug use. Most self surveys and official reports show a decline in the crime rate. Victim Survey National Crime Victimization Survey: Done with the US Census and nationally representative. This helps since many people do not report a crime due to either self-incrimination or feeling of shame, etc. The trend has been a 50 percent drop in arrests in juveniles in the last 10 years. The trends in crime can come from age, more youth means more crime, economic conditions linked with criminal behavior (not sure on this), immigration, drugs, media, social problems, abortion, guns, gangs, and policy. Things that correlate with delinquency Time and Place, more in the summer, between 3-5pm, in urban places Gender, mostly boys will be in delinquency Race, minorities are disproportionally represented. SES Age, between the ages of 16-24 Chronic Offending Wolfgand, Figlio, and Sellin found the "Delinquency in a Birth Cohort" The Chronic 6%. 6% of kids are responsible for the most of the offenses. Glueck & Glueck looked at social factors related to offending for over 30 years and found the most important factors are family relations (supervision) and individual factors too. Two factors to predict recidivism Seriousness of the original crime, if the first thing that happened was serious then there is cause for alarm Severity of Disposition, the response to the crime and doing so can cause the path to continue. Severity is more important than frequency. Juvenile Victimization Youths are more likely to be victims than adults Teens are ten times more likely to be a victim than someone over 65. Teens are usually victimized by their peers, usually during the day and at or around schools Disaggregated: seeing the relationship between two or more independent variables while controlling a dependent variable Age of onset: When youth begin their delinquent careers Ch. 3 Monday, September 12, 2016 4:26 PM Rational Choice Theory: people are delinquent by rational choice of weighing out benefit against cost and sees that gain outweighs the possible punishment. Utilitarianism Classic Criminology: Deterrence, punishment of crime outweighs any possible gain. Punishment is based on seriousness of the crime. Focus on the act and not the person so as to reduce the behavior. Crime has a supernatural element to it, people commit crime because of that. Beccaria & Bentham Routine Activities Theory: crime is normal function of routine activities of modern living. Crimes come from motivated offenders with a suitable target and the lack of capable guardians. Cohen & Felson (1979) Controlling Delinquency General Deterrence: Fear of the penalty of crime to keep possible law breakers from breaking the law. Specific Deterrence: Punishing offenders to deter them from a future criminal activity. Incapacitation, if need be to put delinquents into a detention center Situational Crime Prevention: reducing crime opportunities by making them more difficult to perform, reducing their reward, and increasing the risk. Target Hardening: Making it more difficult to perform an illegal act like installing security cameras. Trait Theory: delinquents engage in illegal behavior due to a physical or psychological trait. Acting on impulse and not rational choice. Positivist Criminology: Something internally causes us to act in criminal ways. Not able to see right and wrong. Data came along and is more scientific. Lombroso measured everything physical he could to find some link between physical traits and crime. Delinquents are biologically and physiologically more primitive. Sociobiology: Combining social and biological factors. Equipotentiality: everyone has the same potential to be anything, everyone is born a blank slate Vulnerability Model: direct link between traits and crime, some people are more susceptible to committing crime Differential Susceptibility Model: some are predisposed to environmental influences. Biochemical Smoking and drinking while pregnant Environmental contaminants Lead contamination Diet Hormones Neurological Minimal Brain Dysfunction: Damage to the brain that causes anti-social behavior. Nervous System damage as well can have an impact Learning Disabilities School Failure making kids more at risk from frustration about not being successful Susceptibility ADHD Arousal Theory: Aggression comes from the need of stimulation or arousal from the environment. The more stimulation they need the more aggressive they act to get that arousal. Cheater Theory, people who have undesirable traits are going around and reproducing more. Psychodynamic Theory: human personality is controlled by an unconscious mental process that developed early in childhood. The mother and child bond being very important Id, pleasure principle, do whatever feels good regardless of the consequences Ego, trying to satisfy the Id while being in line with the Superego. The reality principle Superego, the morals that judges what one does as right and wrong Attachment Theory: ability to form attachments to others that will effect ones psychology from adolescence on. Mental Disorders that can lead to crime Psychosis, obeying the Id all the time Schizophrenia Mood Disorders Alexithymia: Unable to be aware of their feelings or understand or talk about their thoughts Disruptive Behavior Disorder: behaving in a disruptive way, unable to go along with social norms in a more concerning way like Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder: A disorder of childhood chronic behavior problems including defiant and anti-social behavior Free Will: People can make their own choices uninterrupted by their environment. Predatory Crimes: violent crimes against people and stealing directly from the owner. Shame and humiliation, more cops equals more arrests. Diffusion of Benefits: When trying to prevent one crime turns out to prevent another crime. Contagion Effect: delinquency spreads from kids copying each other. Identity Crisis: Uncertain about ones role in life. Latent Delinquent: youths with troubled family life will seek instant gratification without regard of right and wrong or feelings for others. Behaviorism: Studying observable behavior instead of looking for a unconscious process. Social Learning Theory: Behavior is learned through observation, either directly or indirectly. Interactions that are rewarded are copied, those that are punished are avoided. Cognitive Theory: Perception of reality and the mental process required to understand the world we live in. Nurture Theory is that intelligence comes from mostly the environment, Nature Theory is that intelligence comes from genetics.
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