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Unit 1 Class Notes

by: reh5282

Unit 1 Class Notes HST 319


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Notes from the first Unit of class (before Exam 1)
History of Spain
history, Spain, Unit1, notes, mccarthy
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by reh5282 on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HST 319 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of Spain in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
HST 319 – Unit 1 Notes Spain - Impressions: o Conservative/progressive o Religious o Dry land o Proud people o Not 100% European o Racism o Black legend  Lazy  Cruel  Sensuous Spain: Geography - Location: Europe/Africa; Mediterranean/Atlantic - Mountains, altitude - Rivers, river valleys: Ebro, Tagus, Guadlaquivir - Climate: hot, arid, cold winters inland - Regions: Galicia (Portugal), Asturias, Leon, Basque provinces, Aragon, Cataluña, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, Extremadura, Baleares Canarias - Contemporary Autonomias: 17 Ancient Iberia - 1 people: ca. 500,000 BCE (recent discoveries of older bones) - Neanderthals, ca. 200,000 BCE - Homo Sapiens, ca. 40,000 BCE o Stone tools, worked horn and bone, javelins, arrows o Cave drawing at Altamira (similar to Lascaux in France) - Climate change ca. 7000 BCE (heat increased) o Population moves to highlands - Neolithic Revolution, ca. 5000-4000 BCE o Similar throughout habitable world - Megalithic societies (or people of Almeria from ruins there) o “Acropolis-style” complex at Almeria 3000-2000 BCE o Cult of the dead, complex society, engineering - Metallurgy ca. 2500 BCE o Copper working possible introduced from Crete - Pre-Basque invaders ca. 2500-2000 BCE; societies decline ca. 2000 BCE - Introduction of bronze manufacture 1900-1600 BCE o Similar to elsewhere, but flourishes in Iberia (copper, tin mining) - Phoenicians appear o In search of metals o Found Cadiz (Gades) ca. 11 BCE o Found la Coruna (w/ famous lighthouse)  To assist with sailing to Cornwall (rebuilt under Romans)  Known as Tower of Hercules - Iberia connected to vast commercial empire (N. Africa, Levant) Ancient Spain: influx of peoples - Celts: come overland ca. 1200 BCE o Confined to N, NW o Galicia – remnants of Celtic societies; similar to Brittany, British Isles - Greeks: arrive ca. 630 BCE o Name peninsula Hiberia o Attracted by lore of wealthy Guadalquivir valley o Found Merseille (Massilia); trade along Catalan coast o Introduce olives, grapes, coins o Interaction with empire in So Italy, Sicily, Greece Ancient Iberia: Carthage - Phoenicia declines: Carthage as powerful outpost after Persians take Tyre (until defeated by Rome) o Carthage controls Mediterranean Iberia o Barcelona perhaps named for Hamilcar Barca o Catalan soldiers recruited into Carthaginian armies - Punic wars (264-146 BCE) o Hamilcar Barca incorporates inland areas of Iberia o Found Cartagena (New Carthage); encourages inter- marriage o Hannibal invades Italy from Cataluña o Rome brings war to Iberia, Scipio Africanus o Rome takes Iberia by 205 BCE, increases territory by 1/3 - “Dama de Elche” as example of high culture, ca. 4 c BCEh Roman Spain: conquest - Iberia as first great overseas province of Roman Republic o Assimilation is a lengthy, difficult process o Resistance among Celt-Iberians to ca. 130 BCE - Involvement in civil wars at the end of the Republic o Marius uses Iberia as base; seeks independence o Pompey arrives 72 BCE to “pacify” o Pompey as member of Triumvirate, 60 BCE  Administrator of Iberia - Julius Caesar defeats Pompey’s sons, Cordoba, 45 BCE o Advocates full Roman citizenship for conquered peoples o Augustus Caesar completes conquest; Zaragoza named for him Roman Spain: society, economy - Prosperous time o Many in Roman army o Roads, aqueducts built o Agriculture extremely prosperous  “breadbasket of Rome”  Wheat, grapes, olives o Mining further developed o Active trade with Italy, North Africa - Latifundia developed (lasting results) - Urban society developed (lasting results) - Emperors Trajan and Hadrian from Iberia (Italica) Roman Iberia: Law, Religion, Culture - Law spreads, helps unity o Re-codified, Justinian, 5 c CE - Christianity o Tradition: St. James came (Santiago) o Faith grows as Rome declines o Aryan heresy present (non-divinity of Christ) o Martyrs: Sta Justa, San Pelayo - High culture o Latin language adopted o Roman literary forms o Seneca (philosopher, advisor to emperor Nero) from Iberia Visigothic Spain - Germanic traditions o Forest peoples; autonomous o Bearded kingship  Bravest among warriors  Primitive “democracy” o Praised by Tacitus (Germania) - Invasions of Rome o Increasing contact with Empire 150 CE on o Multi-tribal organization gradually o Incursions into agricultural lands; serving in army; Christian conversions o Constantine moves capital 333; Hun invasion forces action after 375 o Alaric the Visigoth sacks Rome 410; Rome falls to Odoacer 476 Germans in Iberia o Suevi, Alans, Vandals enter Iberia from Gaul  Beginning 409 CE  Pushed by Huns o Suevi (Suabians): Galicia o Alans: Lusitania (Portugal) o Vandals: Baetica (eastern Anadalusia)  Also active in N. Africa  Remain more powerful there Visigothic conquest, occupation th - Enter Roman Empire at Dacia, 4 c. o Converted to Aryan Christianity  i.e., Jesus not divine - Sack Rome 410 CE under Alaric o Inspires Augustine, City of God - Get “contract” to re-take Spain for Rome o (i.e., from Suabians, etc.) o establish HQ at Toulouse, 440s - Defeat Vandals (dispatch to N. Africa); nearly annihilate Alans - Theodoric II defeats Seuvi at Oporto o Breaks with Rome, r 453-466 Establishment of Kingdom - Euric, r 466-484 o Completes conquest of peninsula o Loses Gaul to the Franks  Franks attack Visigoths as heretics - Kingdom always has few Germans, more Iberians - Euric defines law code o Incorporates Roman and Germanic law  Very different – code vs. precedent o Generally two legal systems persist - Legacy: how much did German rule influence Iberia? Byzantine Incursion - Emperor Justinian (r 527-565) o Attempt to re-capture Roman Empire o Takes much of Italy (including Rome), Vandal N Africa - General Count Belisarius (victorious in N Africa) o Invades Balearic Islands and Iberia 533 o Province of “Spania” survives until 624  So Spain to Valencia, Guadalquivir valley - Capital at Cordoba - Much local resistance throughout period - Scant Byzantine presence by 7 c; only Balaerics after 624 - Effect similar to Visigothic rule: how much did it reach the locals? Visigothic religious settlement - Issue: Aryanism v Roman Christianity o Q: Divinity of Christ o Answered for Rome by Council of Nicea 325 CE - Visigothic Kingdom strong in West, sit of Aryanism o Roman Church seen as threat to Iberian culture - King Reccared converts to Roman Church 586 CE o Roman Church confirmed @ Council of Toledo, 589 CE o Toledo becomes center of Church in Spain - Jews tolerated (Emperor Hadrian had resettled 50K families in diaspora) Isidore of Seville (560-636 CE) - Brother of Bishop of Seville o Succeeds him in position 601-636 - Active at Council of Toledo, 589 - Close advisor to King Sisebut (r 612-621) - Started educational movement at Seville - Helped to spread primacy of Germanic law - Insists that every cathedral church have a seminary - Etymologiae, 20 vol attempt to catalogue all knowledge o Famous, consulted across Europe for centuries - Wrote ecclesiastical histories of Goths, Vandals, Suevi - Example shows that Visigothic kingdom was not bereft of culture Reputation of Visigothic Era - German tradition of “election” of kings o Seen to be chaotic, ineffective - Little effect on common people o Most Iberian by ethnicity and language o Effectiveness of law questioned - Chaos blamed for ease of Muslim conquest Islamic Spain Islam - Muhammad: 571-632 o Merchant, married to widow o Angel Gabriel: hegira 622 - Islam = surrender o Profess, pray, pilgrimage, fast, donate - 1 caliph, Abu Bakr - Quick and extensive spread of Islam: o Syria (535), Persia (637), Egypt (646), West Africa to Atlantic (680s), Nigeria (1000), Gujarat (8 c), Sumatra (1250), Mughal empire (1520s) Invasion, conquest - Visigothic kingdom succession contested (711) o Achila (son) v Roderigo (popular) o Roderigo invites Tariq (Tangier) to help - Tariq invades, easy victories across peninsula - Capture of Zaragoza (714) completes - Leaders Syrian (also Arab, Yemeni), soldiers mostly Berbers o Large class distinctions o Arabs settle valleys, cities, Berbers in rural areas (land tax rebellion 740) - Christian Spaniards refer to all as Moors (Moroccans) - Far north and northeast retained for Christianity French resistance - Frankish opposition to Visigoths - Idea of Christendom emerging o Unified cultural area (not called Europe) - Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers (732) o Hailed in some circles as saving the west - Charlemagne fails to take Zaragoza (778) o Rearguard attacked at Roncesvalles pass o Inspires Chanson de Roland - Charlemagne creates Holy Roman Empire (800) o Barcelona as one of his original “counties” Al Andalus - New dynasty at Baghdad: Abassids o Replace Umayyads of Damascus - Abd al Rahman I, Umayyad leader at Cordoba (756-788) o Had escaped from Syria - Cordoba becomes splendid city of Islamic world - Famous successors: o Abd al Rahman II (822-852)  Cordoba’s greatest splendor: mosque, Vikings defeated at Seville o Abd al Rahman III (912-961): proclaims self Caliph (926)  Medinat al Zhara; Cordoba largest city in Europe; 400K vol. library Civil Strife, Taifa states - Abd al Rahman’s son reigns as minor o Replaced by 980 by Al Mansure  Soldier, son-in-law of vizier  Holds caliphate until death 1002 - Civil wars, 1002-1031 - Party states (1031-1200s) o Toledo, Zaragoza, Seville, Cordoba, Granada o Gradually fall to Christians (fall of Toledo in 1085 key blow) o Still known for power, sophistication, wealth, culture - Almoravid incursion, 1080s-1145 o Fanatical asceticism; temporary re-unity of al Andalus - Almohad incursion: Spain appended to Moroccan kingdom 1172- 1212 Islamic Spain: splendor - Part of huge free trade empire o Merchants travel to Lisbon, N Africa, Near East o Trade in cloths, luxuries, metals o Arabs introduce citrus fruits o Seville become big Mediterranean port o Much gold brought in from Africa - Cordoba = Cairo, Damascus, (Baghdad #1) - Embassies from all over Europe - Al Andalus the greatest power in Europe o Cordoba by far the largest city (Naples, London) Islamic Spain: learning - Islamic tradition: leaders are scholars o Job is to continue to reveal creation o Known for math, astronomy, optics o Court life intellectual, literary - Languages: Arabic, Latin, Almajia (Castillian written in Arabic) - 700 mosques, 70 libraries, 60,000 publications per year - Poetry, architecture: delicate, nature, love poems, heroism - Avicenna (980-1037) translations of Aristotle, influence Thomas of Aquinas - Maimonedes (1135-1204) – physician, active in Egypt, from Seville (fled Almoravides) - Averroes (Ibn Rushd, 1125-98), physician/philosopher o Comments on Aristotle, race, Spain, attaining “nobility” by achievement Islamic Spain: society, convivencia (living together) - Minorities rule over majorities o E.g., Romans, Visigoths, Muslims, some Christians as they take party states - Many Christians convert to Islam: 80% by 1100 o Intrepid Christians flee, live as taxed Zimmi o Many live as Mozarabs (just adopt Arab culture)  Recognition of more sophisticated culture - Notion of convivencia (living together) o Jews, Christians, Muslims o Popular concept – some validity  Some restrictions, hostility, intermarriage forbidden, wars - Overall: flourishing, affluent, dynamic society Early Christian Kingdoms, Portugal Early Christian kingdoms - Not conquered by invades o Distant, over mountains - Isolated o Mountainous, rainy o Separated from Spain o Fishing culture - Impoverished - Some Christians and Visigoths came from south - Gravitate toward Europe, France - Small pockets of resistance to Islam here and there Expansion as Crusade - Disgust with Muslim culture, decadence - Resentment of Muslim power, wealth - Disgust with converts and Mozarabs - Inspiredsty Christian crusades to Holy Land o 1 crusade (1095), takes Jerusalem Beginnings of Armed Resistance - 718 revolt against tribute payment o i.e., very soon after Muslim invastion o Christians win at Covadonga - Alfonso I (739-757) f. kingdom of Asturias o Extends frontier to Cantabria, Galicia - Alfonso III (866-910), extends to Duero River o “no man’s land” -> castles, Leon o Leon as “capital” of Kingdom o Influx of Mozarabs occasionally - Celebration of Santiago (St. James) o Body allegedly found (808) o Santiago as pilgrimage site, symbol of Christian Spain Navarre - Local centers of resistance to Muslims o Inspiration from failed French invasion (778) - Sancho Garces III (1000-1035), “King of the Spains” o Divides “realm” among three sons o Leon/Castille, Navarre, Aragon - Permanent divisions: these three plus Portugal o (as Reconquista moves south over centuries) o other kingdoms subsumed: Asturias, Galicia -> Leon o Cataluña, Valencia -> Aragon o Leon -> Castile (esp after Pxian capture of Toledo in 1085) o Andalusia -> Castile o Navarre remains separate; Basque provinces Beginnings of Leon - Leon as capital of Christian kingdoms (ca 900-1000) - Ruler calls self “emperor” as other “kings” emerge - Largely empty buffer zone between Xpians & Muslims - Tradition becomes one of vast empty spaces o With castles on ridges (“Castile”) - Leon/Castile eventually becomes core identity of Spain Appearance of Portugal - Part of Islamic Party Kingdom of Badajoz o Lisbon as flourishing trade center - Galician language, culture, literature, food o Climate similar: Atlantic, rain, wind - Part of Leonese kingdom (“empire”) o Becomes “county” of Leon - Affonso Henriques (r 1128-85) o Related to Burgundian ducal family; declares self king 1128 o Fights Leon for 10 years o Victory of Muslim force at Ourique; officially king 1139 o Heroic status in Portuguese history (still) Taking of Lisbon - Inspiration of Crusades to Holy Land - Crusading fleet stops at Porto (1147) o 164 ships; English, Flemings, Germans - Affonso promise crusaders land o To help him take Lisbon o Siege of 17 weeks o Leaders holed up in C Sao Jorge o Food placed out as bait; walls breached - Portugal now possessed of wealthy port city o Commercial and cultural connections to Islamic North Africa The Algarve - Most of region part of Seville party kingdom o One of the most culturally active - Castilian reconquest takes Seville 1248 o Muslims largely retreat to Granada o Algarve not heavily populated - Affonso III sends fleet 1249 o Takes Faro o Marries daughter of Castilian King Alfonso X (Sabio) o Gets to keep Algarve as part of Portual o Portuguese-Spanish border longest lasting on the planet today Portuguese culture - Traditional Galician culture, language, literature o Libro de Buen Amor o Seafood, stews - Lisbon unites north and south - Add dazzling Islamic poetry, math, wealth o Venetians come to trade; additional wealth, culture - 13 century mini-“Renaissance” o As elsewhere in Europe o Affonso III (1245-79) and son Dinis (1279-1325) patronize high culture o Dinis wrote 130 songs, popularized troubadour culture (along w/ Aquitaine) - Development of Portuguese language; used in gov’t documents; official in 1290 Portugal as emerging European power - Commercial connections with Venice, Bruges o 1 known insurance contract (1293) - Participation in 100 Years War o Long alliance with England (wine trade) o Sides with Romans against Avignon popes (occasional st switching of side to ameliorate Castile) - 1 nation to recover population from Plague o leads in, pioneering labor laws, dignity for sailors o land use: 1375 law decrees all land to be fully used - Frequent intermarriage with Castilian royal family o Ultimate results: Portugal remains independent but does not take Castile o First modern overseas expansion to Ceuta (1415) Medieval Cataluña and Aragon Cataluna - Louis the Pious takes Barcelona o As buffer (March) vs. Moors - Title: Count of Barcelona o Eventually Marquis – ruler of a March - Wilfred I (the Hairy) (874-898) o Declares independence from Franks o Endows monasteries - Al Mansur devastates Barcelona 986 - Christians quickly recover and retain independent status Catalan Culture - Maintain cultural and economic ties with Provence - Adopt feudal organization of society (somewhat) - Heavily influenced by French monastic tradition - Joined to Aragon 1137 o Marriage of Ramon Berenguer to Count’s daughter - Associated with Albigensian heresy early 1200s (anticlericalism) o Peter II sides with heretics; fights against Papal troops - Ramon Llull (1232-1315), Franciscan philosopher, writer from Majorca o First major work in Catalan language - Barcelona figures heavily in Aragonese maritime, commercial culture Aragon - Nucleus in Pyrenees o Sancho Garces (d 1035) creates kingdom - Zaragoza as strong Taifa state - Zaragoza fell to Christians 1118 - County of Barcelona appended to Aragon 1137 o “crown” of Aragon (Catalonia, Aragon, Valencia) o Cataluña retains autonomous culture, poetry o Catalan language spreads along the coast - Crown of Aragon develops eastward, maritime orientation o Strong Parliamentary tradition (Cortes)  Privileges afforded to supporters/warriors; absentee kings (Naples) Aragonese Reconquista - Zaragoza captured 1118 - Valencia captured by El Cid 1099 (lost 1102) o Example of soldier of fortune becoming ruler o Re-taken 1238 o Many Catalans move in; Catalan becomes language - Abiding hostility to Islam not as strong in Aragon (or Portugal) o (with exceptions everywhere) o Muslims permitted to remain throughout Crown; many remain (eventual expulsion 1525) Aragonese society - Stable peasant society created (but without feudalism) o Calm, modest, prosperous, politically stable - Agriculture as key o Crown includes areas of olive cultivation (brought by Athenians) o Citrus fruit cultivation (brought by Arabs) o Extensive irrigation techniques (noria-pump) o Rice cultivation in Valencian Huerta (paella) - Comparatively large Jewish population o Extensive banking; some conducted by Genoese and other Christians Aragonese Empire - Catalan merchant community o Significant, active, thriving o Carries Aragonese products throughout Mediterranean o Barcelona (with political clout of Aragon) leading Med. Port (like Genoa, Venice) o Eventual trade as far as Alexandria, Bruges - James I (1213-1276) begins expansion into Mediterranean o Takes Mallorca (1229), Valencia (1238), Murcia (1243-later goes to Castile) o Treaty with France (1259) legally incorporates Cataluña - Peter III (1276-1285) Sicily (1282); Aragonese claim to throne through 19 cth o Offers privileges and noble titles to military supporters v France, (Angevin) Sicily  Sicilians supportive against Angevin rulers (War of the Sicilian Vespers)  Aragonese soldiers of fortune take Athens for awhile - Further expansion: Sardinia (1327); Naples itself (1442-1443) th 15 c. strife, relative decline - Black Plague affected region, 1349 on o King Peter IV’s wife Leoner died o Many estates in Catalonia abandoned; workers mobile - Legislation to restrict mobility (“vagabondage”), regulate jobs, wages - Martin I dies without and heir (1410) o Throne vacant for awhile; committee offers to Ferdinand I (1412-16) o Son of Castilian king, wife Castilian, kids rich, live in Castile o Ferdinand’s successors live in Naples; splendid Renaissance court - Juan II of Castile marries daughter of Ferdinand (Maria) o Left a lot of governance to Alvara de Luna o Son Enrique IV cannot sire a child (both he and father though homosexual) o Civil wars Enrique vs his half-sister Isabel; Isabel married Ferdinand II of Aragon Medieval Castile Origins - Count of Castile created 930 o Frontier province of Leon - Beginning of granting of fueros - Sancho Garces’ son Ferdinand kind (1037) o Extracts tribute from nearby Taifas - Burgos: first bishopric (1075) Fueros - Special sets of laws - Privileges to entice migration to frontier o (connotation either laws or privileges) - Earliest offered to Basques o Becomes Navarrese common law - Alfonso V, Leon, Fuero de Leon (1017) - Granted to Church (tax exemption) - Granted to Mesta (grazing rights) - Granted to individuals (land, titles, privileges, tax exemption) - Legacy: o Regions, cities in Castile very autonomous o Resented as privilege Reconquista - Alfonso VI (1047-1109) o Captures Toledo (1085) o Enormous symbolic significance o Center of Spanish Christianity o Easy to defend; difficult to take o Inspires Almoravid invasion - Ferdinand III (1217-1252) o Takes Seville (1248) o Perhaps more significant than Toledo o Introduces military orders to Andalusia (Alcantara, Santiago, Calatrava) - Castile associated with spirit of Reconquista Castile: the soul of Spain - Castles - Arid climate: said to reflect personality - Sheep (Mesta) - Military: source of all glory, honor - Catholic faith: Strong point of identity - La Mancha: Castilian culture suits - Latifundia: huge estates - Hidalguia/Hidalguismo: mania for titles, prestige, Christian lineage - Machismo: dignity associated with militarism, opposes Muslim homosexuality - Andalusian Culture: flamenco, bullfights 13 century Renaissance - Similar to other parts of Europe - Gothic architecture replacing Romanesque - University of Salamanca f 1215 o Becomes leader in Europe o Many Islamic translations o Toletan Tables - Alfonso X (El Sabio, 1252-1284) o Sponsorship of culture intended in part to unify regions o Sponsors translations, poetry, other writing - Toledo as center of European culture due to Islamic knowledge Convivencia? - Mosques converted to Christian churches - Subjects encouraged to convert - Long stretches of military peace o Extract tribute from subjects, other states - Cultural hostility always present - Laws of separateness ignored (e.g., intermarriage) - Closes contact with Seville (strong Islamic culture) - Most Muslim peasants expelled 1263 - Groups: o Mudejars: Muslims in Christian territory o Mozarabs: Christians in Muslim territory (implies Islamic cultural assimilation) o Moriscos: (insincere) Muslim converts to Christianity o Conversos: Jewish converts to Christianity o Marranos: born and raised Christian, but Jewish background/ancestry (pejoratieve) th th 14 , 15 century squabbles - Intermarriages with Portugal, Aragon - 100 years war o Castile ally of France, enemy of England o Aljubarrota: huge Portuguese victory 1385 - Revolt against Pedro the Cruel (1350-69) o Becomes civil war; Pedro killed 1369 - Enrique II Trastamara as king, r 1369-79 (half brother and murderer of Pedro) - Pogrom against Jews (1391) - Juan II (1406-1454); influenced by talented but resented Alvaro de Luna - Enrique IV (1454-74) o Weak personality, could not sire children; daughter Juana la Beltraneja o Lost civil war to half sister Isabel (married to Ferdinand of Aragon)


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