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Week 1 +2

by: Kayla Lusk

Week 1 +2 HIST 4700

Kayla Lusk
GPA 3.6

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Weeks 1 and 2, starting to get a feel for Texas History
Texas History
Dr. Andrew J. Torget
texas, Spain, Indians
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Kayla Lusk on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 4700 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Andrew J. Torget in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Texas History in History at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Indian Country Nacogdoches: The first Spanish Mission in Texas. East Texas, near caddo villages, 1690­93,  Caddos became more hostile because the Spanish ran out of goods to trade and the Caddos liked  being Caddos. The Caddos die from Small pox. Not all, but 90%. The remaining Caddos got  hostile and ordered them o leave or die, so they left. 600 miles on foot to new spain. These were  all friars btw.  The French go back to the Southern region, set up Mobile and Biloxi (MS) in early 1700s 1716: Spanish go back to Texas to settle, go past Nacogdoches into modern day Louisiana to set  up Los Adaes, the “Capital” of Texas. Very Isolated from everything Spanish.  San Antonio: 1718: 5 Missions on the San Antonio river to act as a midway point between Los  Adaes and New Spain, in Cohuiltecans territory (not for long). Went better than Nacogdoches or  Los Adaes, but that isn’t say much.  La Bahia: Site of LaSalle’s failure, 1722, they moved it to now Goliad, on the coastl Karankawas raided often.  None of these missions did very well. They were all raided often and couldn’t grow enough food. Most lived in huts. If you were the Governor or whatever, you got a very nice bunker to hide  everything you own in. Ex: Veremendi Palace Raided by Apaches 1710s – 1730s Enter the Comanches They come down from Colorado, following the buffalo on horses. Shoshone offshoot, but with  horses. Completely war like, focused on raids and asserting their dominance in the territory.  15,000 people at this point.  Apaches vs. Comanches, and the Apaches lose time and time again as the Comanches get  stronger every passing year. This forces the Apaches near San Antonio. They raid the  Cohuiltecams who go to the missions for shelter, then raid the missions.  ALL MISSIONS IN TEXAS FAIL AT THEIR GOAL OF CONVERSION (Into Spaniards, not  just Catholics) So what does Spain do? THEY MAKE MORE FUCKING MISSIONS Map to Spanish Settling Texas Spanish ignored Texas for about 100 years because it was a province that they could not extract  gold or silver from, and the Natives in the area were ferocious and unwilling to cooperate  (Understandably) Spain, the mother country, is doing well. Her province of New Spain (Mexico) is doing well.  Everywhere else, not as well. They also go to the Incas in Peru during this time and get more  silver.  They will extract the silver from mines and quarries North of MX City, and put it all in wagons,  and then go to Vera Cruz, the crown sanctioned port to send the precious metals to Spain so they  keep getting infinitely richer. The wagons have to be escorted because the Indians in the territory would love nothing more than the Spanish to leave. The Indians will get high on peyote and bum rush the wagons, naked, causing a great disturbance.  Spanish come up with a solution: Presidios and Missions Presidios: Forts with soldiers to hold down the region, used as stops along the route of silver  shipments. Very Costly. Missions: Long term solution, using Franciscan friars to educate and convert the natives into  Catholic Spainards. They want the Indians to live there and become apart of the empire. Like a  Boarding School with a chapel. They don’t force them in, they have to come willingly. Which  they don’t Spanish is infinitely wealthy but spends no time or money on Texas. Changes the entire power  dynamic in Europe.  Robert LaSalle: A French man who saw the wealth that spain had and thought that he should  grab some land for France, God Glory and Gold. From the Northern Most part of the Mississippi, He travels down in 1682, and claims the entire river for France. Puts a post on the mouth,  modern New Orleans, called the whole territory Louisiana after King Louis XIV. This starts the  Colonial Arms Race of the 18  Century.  He sends word to colonize along the Mississippi, and 300 families come on down to  Nawlins and settle. But in 1685 the entire fleet lands in Matagorda Bay, Texas. They get raided  constantly by Karankawas. Repeat of Cabeza de Vaca. They find the Rio Grande. The Survivors  decide to head north to Canada. They kill LaSalle along the way for leading them further away  from where they needed to be. They walk. And walk. And walk. All the way to Canada. A few  dozen make a fort in St. Louis. 5 MAKE IT TO CANADA to tell of the horrible failure of this  expedition.  ­This matters because the Spanish hear of LaSalle and franticly search for him all over Texas  trying to find him and kill him. They send 11 expeditions all over Texas in 1686. The French  were getting too close to their precious silver so they tried to devise a plan.  1689: The Last Expedition to find LaSalle=> They go along the coast talking to Karankawans,  and see a particularly pasty one with a beard and confronted him. He was A Frenchman that was  captured. He leads them to LaSalle’s fort, and it’s a broken down hovel on the coast.  The Spanish are finally satisfied with their search, seeing that he is gone from Texas. THIS IS  WHY THE SPANISH TRY TO SETTLE TEXAS. Using the Mission System.  They go around Texas trying to find the perfect location and perfect Indian Tribe to set up their  missions near. Cohuiltecans wanted it the most, they needed the protection and food, they were  being hunted by Apaches. Karankawans are not Spanish enough for their taste. They settle on the Caddos because they had the most “sophisticated” economy and hierarchy. NOT ON THE  COAST to protect their shipments, but far enough east to stop the land expeditions.  1690: Spanish launch a settlement 1.5 miles outside Caddo Villages. Caddos thought that they  wanted to trade. Nuh­Uh. The Spanish wanted to make a whole tribe of loyal Spaniards. Huge  fuck up. The Spanish start their mission system on Texas. THEY ALL FAIL. Texas History Week 1 Prehistory of Texas (aka before Spanish Explorers) Geography of Texas Matters! The regions include: th 1. Southern High Plains- flat area, open spaces, thin topsoil, on the 100 Meridian so less rain than other regions in texas 2. Eastern Piney Woods- east texas, trees, good soil, get rekt 3. East Cross Timbers- b/w the top 2, halfway plains and wooded region. Plenty of rain, but flat th 4. Gulf Coastal Plains- rainy, humid, swamp, East of the 100 Meridian, 5. Rio Grande Plain- humid, “The Valley” of South Texas, scrubbier natural fauna, closer to a desert 6. Trans- Pecos- Mountains of West Texas-dry, arid, desert End of the Last Ice Age-it was still cold, the glaciers of North America ran south, and Texas is south, so a lot of river systems. the regions are defined by the rivers there LARGE animals, Mastadons, Giant Sloths, no people yet, they had to cross the Bering Strait first. First People in Texas- 12,000 BC-they followed the herding animals to eat, and to follow the weather- settled in the plains region of Texas 8000 years ago- Giant Animals dying off of the plains region of texas 7000 years ago- drought in texas for 3000 years 600 AD- Natives farming corn in North America-hunting smaller animals-they left the plains regions of north America because of the lack of large herding animals- they were bigger than the modern buffalo 1500 AD Indian Groups: Apaches (coming South), Witchitas further east, Caddos in the Eastern Piney oods, Atakapas further south, Karankawas on the Coast, Cohuiltecans in the Valley, Jumanos in West Texas, and Pueblos in Far west into New Mexico Caddos: East TX Piney woods, green and lush area, focused on agriculture and trade. They had a surplus of food, but for Texas, that isn’t saying much. Caddo Empire of Trade, large villages around 200,000 people in 1500, militarized kinda Atakapas: Louisiana/TX Border, not as hip with it as the Caddos because of their geography. Seasonal villages for hunting and gathering, and raids Karankawas: the assholes, they were very militaristic, into raiding, down on the Gulf Coast, hunting and gathering, farming, a lot of family units with a similar language, “Dog Lover”, had dogs (Domesticated coyotes) Cohuiltecans: everybody else that got pushed into the less fertile region of Texas. Not an actual tribe, just a collection of losers from Cohuila Mexico and Texans (Cohuil+Texans=Cohuiltecans) Jumanos:Adobe homes, small bison, hunted to death by the apaches coming south by 1730s Apaches: Recent arrivals to the Texas scene from Oklahoma, fierce and warlike culture, but not as great as the Caddos until the arrival of the Spanish with their horses, followed bison for food Witchitas: Between the Apaches and caddos, N TX, went into the plains for hunting No Comanches on the scene until horses, from Colorado Population Estimates for 1500 AD: 1. US+Canada-12 million people 2. Mexico-35 million people 3. South America- 60 million people because of the Equator thus more food Mayans collapse in Mexico in 900 AD, causing a power vacuum into Mexico Aztecs 1300-1500 in Mexico (Tenochtitlan) roman style expansion Spanish Explorations 1490’s- Europeans appear in the carribean 1519- Governor of Cuba-Expedition to go West, into the Gulf, but they didn’t know that that is what it was, that though it was a whole ocean. Hernan Cortes- Forced to go West, officer, deeply ambitious, gets fired? He left before the courier could reach him from the Gov telling him do NOT leave, but he did. He is a fugitive from the Crown. -Crashed near Vera Cruz, Mexico-dismantles his ships Communicating with the local natives was a mess. Hand Signals? Gold? The native peoples pointed to their enemy for the gold because ethey didn’t want these pasty weirdos riding large deer staying around too long. They were pointed to Tenochtitlan. The alarm was raised in Tenochtitlan to the Govenor, Montezuma, and send a convoy of gold to welcome these new people in a hand of friendship. This enticed the Spanish because that is what they were looking for! They rode into Tenochtitlan. The white people went in, kidnapped Montezuma, posted ransom to give him back, and were thrown out of the city 1521- Siege of Tenochtitlan. They blocked all routes in and out of the city, starving them out. They surrendered after 80 days because of an outbreak of small pox in the city, decimating it and the food supply August 1521-Collapse of Tenochtitlan-Spainiards took over Temple of the Sun and built a Catholic Basilica on top of it to show them who’s boss round these parts now. They sent the gold and silver to Havana, en route to the crown, and Cortez was forgiven. THUS STARTS EXPLORATION IN THE AMERICAS! Enter Panfilo de Narvarez- the enemy of Cortez. Begs the king to go west and succeeds, they want gold, he wants glory. Brings his second in command, Cabeza de Vaca, and they go to Florida (?) They crash in Tampa Bay, send ships back to Havana. They get shot at, they get killed off, they get malaria, its not good. They did not prepare for a swamp. They head north, because they believe that they crashed on the Yucatan, but are really in Alabama at this point. They make rafts out of their horses hides, 50 men per raft, 5 rafts September 1528- they drift around the coast, and get pushed further into the middle by the Mississippi Delta. November 1528-Whoever was left crashed into Texas because of a storm. FIRST EUROPEANS IN TEXAS. They land in Galveston, and the Karankawas took pity on them because they were naked and dying. 48 land, only 6 are strong enough to stand, completely defenseless. Spring 1529- 16 survive the winter, including our hero Cabeza de Vaca. July 1529-they are enslaved to the Cocos. 1534- Cabeza de Vaca escapes. They run into 3 other survivors from other rafts that were captured and made into slaves also. They walk to Mexico City (Tenochtitlan) arrive in 1536. Cabeza de Vaca tells about all the different Indian Tribes, but all they want to know about is the gold, or lack thereof 1540-They send another expedition north! Forst Europeans to see the Rio Grande. They send Francisco Coronado. 400 Spainiards and 1000 Indians. The “Turk” is they guide. They end up in Kansas. The kill the Turk and head home to Mexico City. They sent 3 more expeditions into Texas. Hernando DeSoto- looked for gold, and spent time all over the South (of modern USA) Consequences! 1. No Gold, No Silver 2. They left behind their horses, changing Indian cultures forever 3. They left behind their European diseases Only 10% of Indian population form 1500 survive until the Spanish come back to Texas, decimanted by smallpox and cholera and tuberculosis. The Spanish head frther south for gol and are more successful with the Incas in Peru


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