Chapter 8 Revised version
Chapter 8 Revised version PSYC_3150_10
Popular in Psychology of Sex Differences
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Chapter 8 Revised version
-Gabriella de Givenchy
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/28/15
Chapter 8 Love WHAT IS LOVE gt Distinguish between the three phases of romantic love Lust Attraction amp Attachment Stage Characteristics Hormones amp Biological Neural pathways Foundations involved Lust Craving for sexual Androgens and To initiate the grati cation with estrogens mating process any appropriate pheromones and partner the senses Attraction Energy and High dopamine and Allows both attention focused norepinephrine parties to keep on one particular low serotonin focused on each person decreased other in order to attention on other choose and potential partners pursue a partner and to maintain a relationship Attachment Feelings of Oxytocin To sustain the security comfort vasopressin relationship long and emotional enough to union complete parental duties Love emotion or a drive 0 studies of brain activity of people in the early states of passionate love FMRI scans showed increased activity in the areas related to reward and motivational drives Aron and colleagues suggest that early passionate love is not an motion in and of itself rather it is probably characterized as quot a motivation or goaloriented state that leads to various speci c emotions such as euphoria or anxiety 0 gt List and describe the six Lee quotlove styles three primary styles of love 1 eros Romantic or passionate love emphasizes physical attractionadn sexual desire erotic love isheighly idealized which is why purely romantic love cannot last forever aws and shortcomigns exist and erotic Ivoers are quick to fall in and out of love although erotic lovers are more likely than other type sof lovers to be highly satis ed with their relationships 2 storge Deep compassionate attachment or nonsexual affection 0 this is the sot of love that binds parents and children close friends as well as couples whose quite calm love has built overtime o storgic lovers don39t suddenly fall in love with an idealized lover they instead develop feelings of affection for their partner though pleasurable activities Commitment stability and comfort are the goals women often score higher than men on storgic scales 3 ludus A gameplaying style of love 0 Ludic lovers enjoy the game of seduction and do not necessarily value commitment or intimacy sex is for fun not for expressing emotion or commitment and a game player may juggle several relationships at once more common in collegeaged men and in women whose parents are divorced Other forms are 4 mania obsessive jealous love that combines eros and ludus o manic love Characterized by roller coaster highs and lows o Manic lovers may sit by the phone for hours waiting for that all like an erotic lover a manic lover wants an intense physically stimulating relationship but usually chooses inappropriate partners 5 agape altruistic love that combines eros and storge o altruistic and sel ess love 0 nothing is expected in return and the other39s wishes are considered more important than your own 0 an agapic lover may not try to nd a perfect partner for him or herself but instead submit to the will fGod or try to support all those who need their love 0 this sort of love is considered more socially acceptable in women than in men 6 pragma pragmatic love that combines storge and ludus o combines the cold conscious elements of ludic love with the nonsexual affection of storgic love a practical and businesslike partners tend to balance the negative with the positives to get the best relationship quot dealquot that they feel they can 0 pragmatic lovers may plan the best time to get married have children or get divorced based on nancial or social factors 0 Pragmatic love is more often seen in women than men gt Illustrate Sternberg s triangular theory of love 1 Steinberg suggests that love is made up of three components intimacy passion and commitment that combine to form various kinds of love 2 according to the theory the amount of love depends on the absolute strength of each of the components and the kind of love depends on the strengths of the three components relative to each other 3 Couples are wellmatched if their triangles are roughly the same shape an d size ie if they have approximately the same levels of passion and commitment and intimacy o Intimacy involves emotional closeness caring and sharing It includes the desire to give and receive emotional support the feelings of warmth toward another person and the wish to share one39s innermost thoughts with the other 0 Passion describes an intense romantic or sexual desire for another person and is usually accompanied by physical attraction and physiological arousal Involves a deep desire to form a union with the object of your affection This quothot componentquot of love is often the rst element in a romantic relationship as well as the rst to end 0 Commitment called the quotcoldquot conscious component of love involves both a shortterm and a longterm decision the decision that one loves another and the decision t maintain that love a dedication to maintaining the relationship through good times and bad and can alone sustain a relationship if both intimacy and passion or gone gt Clarify the six different types of love described by the Sternberg Theory 0 Liking involves only emotional intimacy relationships with friends o Infatuation passion without intimacy or commitment quot love at rst sightquot 0 Empty love involves only commitment a couple whose relationship has long since lost any intimacy or passion but who stay together quot for the childrenquot social appearance or other reasons 0 Romantic love combines both passion and intimacy may be present in the rst phase of a relationship or in summer ing characterized by emotional intensity fragility and sexual excitement o Compassionate love intimacy and commitment example marriage in which the passion has faded or a longterm deeply committed friendship Fatuous love you don39t really know the person to whom you39re making a commitment combines passion and commitment without intimacy example whirlwind courtship in which two people meet and decide to get married after spending a weekend together 0 Consummate love combination of passion intimacy and commitment in balance this is the type of relationship most of us are seeking Compare and contrast quotlike quotIo ve and quotin lo ve Liking Love In Love Most common Positive mood when Positive mood Arousal wl characteristic thinking about or when thinking thinking a being with the other about or being with the o with the other Distinctive Desire for Trust Arousal characteristic interaction with the Tolerance and Thinking a that differentiate other altruistic the other the emotions Attribution of behavior toward Behaviort positive the other the other characteristics to Calmness due to inhibited the other the other39s Perception of presence similarities with the other gt Describe what it feels like to fall in lo ve 1 2 3 4 THE ORIGINS OF LOVE complex amalgam of emotions one can experience euphoria or torment sleepless nights or restless day hope or uncertainty a person in love may alternate between soaring ecstasy and crushing fear between feeling invincible and feeling helpless the lover can experience a longing for emotional reciprocity along with a fear of rejection gt The areas of the brain that correspond to the emotion of love 1 2 3 whether romantic or maternal love and attachment stimulate similar neuronal pathways in the brain Romantic love stimulates the hypothalamus which controls among other things sexual arousal Maternal love stimulates the periaqueducta gray a brain area high in oxytocin and endorphins thought to be involved in maternal behaviors and pain reduction during childbirth gt Identify the role that speci c neurotransmitters play in the expression of love 1 4 Dooamine DA and norepinephrine NE are neurotransmitters that are involved in mood motivation attention and excitement thought that the attraction phase of love is associated with physiological arousal as well as an almost obsessive focus on one s beloved Serotonin a neurotransmitter that has been linked to mood obsession sex and sleep 0 Levels decrease during infatuation which may cause the obsession one often feels during this early phase of love Phenvlethvlamine PEA a neurochemical released during infatuation and excitement called the quotlove drugquot because high levels of this substance have been associated with love and orgasm Oxytocin hormone involved in uterine contraction love and bonding causes the uterus to contract during labor and allows for release of breast milk Oxytocin also seems to be important in trust empathy emotional accessibility and pair bonding orgasm increases levels of oxytocin perhaps promoting a desire to be with your partner increasing the likelihood that you will have sex and thus releasing more oxtocin and enhancing the pair bonding process 5 Vasooressin important for bonding and parenting behaviors 6 Endorphins give us feelings of security euphoria and peace Begin separated from your beloved for unusual periods can literally make you lovesick like an addict not getting his or her x gt describe the psychological theories that explain why people fall in love 1 Behavioral Reinforcement Theories suggest that we like or love people because we associate good feelings with them 0 the better the feelings we associate with a person the stronger the feeling ie we like a person that we associate with good feelings and love a person we associate with VERY good feeHngs 2 thsiolooical Arousal theories 0 our bodies experience a physiological change and THEN we assign an emotion to that physical sensann the most commonly described feelings associated with love and infatuation are very similar to our body s stress reaction 3 Evolutionarv Theories love arose due to some basic sociobiological needs the drive to protect offspring the need to be protected from outside threats and the sexualdnve the feeling of love allows us to form the bonds e need to achieve these goals and to successfully pass on our genes gt Recognize the psychological and physiological bene ts that love and friendship bestow 1 People who feel loved and who share close loving relationships with others show lower rates of health problems including heart disease and cancer 2 those with commitments to and relationships with other people tend to eat better and take fewer risks 3 companionship can affect the way our bodies respond to stress 4 Being in love can make us more creative even WITH WHOM DO WE FALL IN LOVE gt Understand the factors that affect whom we fall in love with 0 Ph vsica attractiveness According to the matching hypothesis people are more likely to form longterm relationships with partners who match the in physical attractiveness May be due to tendency of people to avoid being rejected by someone more attractive than themselves when we see couples in which the man is signi cantly less attractive than the female we tend to assume that the man is wealthy intelligent andor successful 0 Reciprocity another s feelings toward us we like people who like us if we discover that someone likes us we appreciate their good taste and give them a second look Relationships in which only one person is expressive and complimentary are unlikely to last 0 proximity the more we are exposed to something the more we like it quothigh preselection localesquot locations in which people gather who share common interests 0 Similarities shared traits and values When dealing with the complexities involved with humanlove it is much more likely that quotbirds of a feather ock together most married couples in the USgt share the same race and religion and are similar in terms of age socioeconomic class intelligence education and physical attractiveness study newlyweds showed people tend to marry those with similar attitude religion and values though these factors did not correlate with satisfaction in marriage Similarities in personality that appear to be more important in marital happiness gt Recognize that love occurs at all stages of the life span 0 an infant39s relationship with his or her primary caregiver can in uence attachment styles later in life 0 Infant Studies securely attached 0 infants happily explored the new environment while using mom as a quothome basequot engaged with strangers and appeared to feel safe 0 showed some distress when their mother left but when reunited infants sought contact but then continued to explore their environment anxiousambivalent Less likely to disengage from their mothers t explore fearful of strangers and very distressed when their mothers left the room 0 upon returns infants often responded to her with rage or indifference avoidant May show little emotion to the mother or the stranger and may not react when the mother leaves the room or upon her return 0 3 rami cations these styles can have in our adult behavior 5 Securely attached adults nd it relatively easy to get close to others and have others get close to them without smothering their partner don39t over worry about emotional intimacy 6 Anxiousambivalent adults are often more insecure in relationships and they may want to merge completely in efforts to become close to their partner 7 Avoidant adults may nd it dif cult to trust their partners to depend on others and to share intimacy In the United States about 56 of subjects classi ed themselves as securely attached 19 as anxious ambivalent and 25 as avoidant Hazan amp Shaver 1987 0 Divorce Women whose parents were divorced showed more avoidant and less secure attachments as adults Males from divorced homes scored higher on eros or romantic love scales and men who grew up on families in which the parents remained married but were unhappy scored lowest on Eros scales evidence it might not be the actual divorce but rather the quality of relationship a person has with his or her parents that affects the person39s intimate relationships 0 NO age limit on love falling in love at a young age vs older age older people are secure of who they are what th3y want in a patner already achieved success in their lives may feel less pressure to score and focus more on being with a partner with whom they can be themselves WHEN LOVE GOES BAD About 1525 of all homicides in the US involve intimate partners about 1000 women are killed each year by current or exhusbands The decreased incidence of spousal murder may be due to the increased availability of abused women39s shelters Also decrease in men killed by their spouses when women have options for escaping their abusive spouses they are less likely to kill them gt De ne unrequited love and recognize its relationship to obsessive or even violent behaviors 0 Unreduited Love love that is not reciprocated associated with negative emotions such as pain suffering jealousy disappointment anger and frustrations can become obsessive relational intrusion Similar to stalking it is the willful and continued intrusion into the personal life of a former partner 1 million American women and 370000 American men are followed and harassed by rejected lovers 10of men and 235 of women report having experienced intrusion behavior including receiving unwanted communication visits or gifts being followed or monitored or family being pursued relational stalking can also become more serious when one makes verbal or physical threats against target or loved ones damages property or invades personalwork space 0 eaousy A state of envy fear or suspicion caused by a real or imagined threat to an existing situation or relationship de ned as an emotional state quot that is aroused by a perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and motivates behavior aimed at countering the threatquot prodcues feelings of anxiety and insecurity mistrust and rejection one of the most commonly mentioned reasons why a relationship fails can hurt a relationship but can also be a sign of how important a person39s partner is to him or her gt Evaluate the ndings regarding gender differences in jealousy 0 study men said they would be more upset when imagining their partner having sex with someone else if a man s wife has sex with another he may unwillingly end up supporting another man s child women were more upset at emotional in delity o if a woman39s husband falls in love with someone else her child may suffer from the loss of his resources Gender differences disappeared when a partner has an affair with someone of the same sex 0 Both men and women report less jealousy in response to a samesex in delity than to an oppositesex in delity May be because the evolutionary threat of impregnation is removed or because the injured part consoles him or herself with the idea that they aren39t competing on the same playing eld CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS OF LOVE gt understand that love is universal 1 love is universal but there are differences in in the way men and women of different cultures value or express their love 2 Fischer study 1992 examined 166 tribal cultures and found that passionate love existed in at least 147 of them 3 men vs women men fall in love faster and take longer to give up at the end of a relationship men most likely to have a ludic or game playing style of love storgic agapic or pragmatic love styles are more characteristic of women both men and women value communication commitment and intimacy in loving relationships gt consider how Io ve is expressed differently by disparate groups ofpeople 1 throughout history those in political and religious power have viewed passionate lovers powerful feelings as a threat to the social order 2 for 1500 years the Catholic Church proclaimed passionate love and sex for any purpose other than procreation to be a moral sin 3 differences in basic de ning characteristics between Western and other cultures determine variations in how we View love US Canada and Western Europe cultures are individualistic in which individual goas are emphasized over group goals in these cultures it is not only acceptable but often encouraged to deviate and identify one s self outside of the group identity 0 American society values passionate love as a basis for marriage Collectivist cultures such as China Africa and Southeast Asia emphasize collective goals and duties over individual rights self is de ned by group membership and by one s relationship with others 0 In these cultures conformity and harmony are valued a person is encouraged to choose partners based on the family s wishes Companionate respectful friendly partnerships are valued over passionate ones gt Analyze the messages about love that are disseminated by the media 1 The media presents us with a number of myths about love which we incorporate into our expectations Dr Galician your soul mate is cosmically predestined so nothing and no one can ultimately separate you There is a such thing as quotlove at rst sightquot your perfect partner should know what you39re thinking or feeling without you having to tell them to attract and keep a man a woman should look like a model while the man must be taller stronger older and richer than the woman Bickering and ghting a lot is a sign that a man and woman really love each other passionately all you need is love so it doesn39t matter if you and your love have different values and they lived happily ever after 1 Lamar and Cherise stay together for the sake of the children Though their marriage no longer has intimacy or passion they feel a deep sense of commitment to raising their children in a twoparent household Empty love involves only commitment a couple whose relationship has long since lost any intimacy or passion but who stay together quot for the childrenquot social appearance or other reasons 2 Betty and Barney met in Las Vegas and fell quotin love at rst sightquot they spent 24 hours a day together for a week eating laughing gambling and having amazing sex At the end of the week they go to the Graceland chapel where they are legally married by an Elvis impersonator lnfatuation passion without intimacy or commitment quot love at rst sightquot 3Tom and Mark have been together for 40 years they are open and loving but no longer have sex Compassionate love intimacy and commitment Example marriage in which the passion has faded or a longterm deeply committed friendship 4Shane and Carson met while they were on a service learning trip to the DR While there they shared a passionate connection both emotional and physical When the trip was over both went back to their partners in the states Romantic love combines both passion and intimacy may be present in the rst phase of a relationship or in summer ing characterized by emotional intensity fragility and sexual excitement
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'