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KIN 306

by: Ixchel Buelna
Ixchel Buelna
California State University, Northridge
GPA 3.16

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About this Document

These notes go over the psychological aspects of athletes before, during, and after sport performance.
Psychological Aspects of Physical Activity
Jacob Jensen
Kinesiology, sports, Psychology
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to KIN 306 at California State University, Northridge taught by Jacob Jensen in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Psychological Aspects of Physical Activity in Kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
KIN 306 (missing some chapters) CH. 4&12 Anxiety  Cognitive o Worry  Somatic (physical) o Sweaty palms o Shaking o Nail biting o Profuse sweating o Butterflies in stomach o Rapid breathing (short and shallow)  Negatively charged emotional state that is characterized by internal discomfort and a feeling of nervousness  Can be viewed as: o State  Depends on environment &/or situation o Trait  Innate (part of personality)  Disorders o Panic o Phobias (extreme fear of things) o Generalized anxiety o OCD o PTSD (traumas)  Causes o Situational sources  Event importance  Uncertainty  Anxiety reduction techniques o Somatic anxiety reduction  Body to mind relaxation  Progressive muscle relaxation  Learn to feel the tension in your muscles and then let go of this tension  Breathe control  Learn to control breathing in stressful situations  Biofeedback  Learn to regulate physiological functions  Relaxation response  Teaches individuals to quiet the mind, concentrate, and reduce muscle tension by applying the basic elements of meditation (Herbert Benson)  Repeat calming word (5 min a day)  Autogenic training  A series of self-hypnosis exercises designed to produce two physical sensation - warmth and heaviness - and produces a relaxed state  Lying down on back Arousal  Neutral state  Inclusive continuum of physiological and psychological  Drive theory o As arousal goes up, performance goes up (linear relationship)  no end point  Inverted U o Performance goes up as arousal goes up to a certain point, then arousal declines, and so does performance  Individualized zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) o Low, middle, and high zone of arousal  Low - golf  Moderate - basketball  High - football o Depending on sport involved in  Catastrophe (almost like the inverted U) o Instead of gradual, if arousal gets too high, performance can dramatically decrease o Over exert self in the beginning, but then no more juice for the rest of the game CH. 7&8 Group- includes two or more people  Theories o Linear group development  Shifting within this model  Forming "feeling out"  Storming "conflict and resistance"  Norming "adapting and cooperating"  Performing "bad together for success" o Pendular  Rejects static nature of linear model o Cyclical  Life cycle perspective  Birth, growth, death  Breakup of group is always on the horizon  Useful for groups who have a known lifespan Team- a group that must work together to achieve common objectives  Collective sense of ID  Distinct roles and norms  Structured modes of communication "all team are groups, but not all groups are teams" Roles  Requirements or expectations for a person, who occupies a certain position in a group  Roles can depend on position being played  Formal VS. informal o Team captains o Person that hypes everyone up o The ice breaker/clown  Aspects of roles o Clarity  Important for everyone to know that the role taken on is important o Acceptance o Conflict Norms  Influence roles  Level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief  rookies  Can bond groups together  Provide rewards and consequences to create norms Ringlemann effect  Rope pulling task  The rope was attached to a strain gauge to assess force  Individual performance decreased as group size increased o The whole was worse than the sum of the parts  Social loafing o When individuals in a group give less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation o Occurs because of:  Lack of independent evaluation  Task not perceived as meaningful  Low individual involvement  Teaming with strangers  Perception of having high ability teammates o Implications for coaches and teachers? (try not to have this happen as much)  Knowing/understanding people's potential and treating everyone the same way  ID individual performances  Switch roles  Form subgroups Team cohesion  Dynamic process for how team/groups stay together  Task o The degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals  Social o The degree to which members of a group like each other and enjoy one another's company  Individual factors o Similarities in personalities, SES, gender, race, background, and attitudes o Satisfaction with team involvement  Group factors o Smaller teams o Level of competition o Closer proximity of members o Equal reward o Clarity and acceptance of roles  Leadership/team factors o Coach behavior  Training and instruction, social support, and positive feedback o Decision making style of the coach  Democratic style  Or autocratic/authoritarian o Coach-athlete relationship o Team stability o Team distinctiveness  Chants  Team wear  Consequences/results o Individual  Increased self-esteem o Group outcomes  Increased group participation  Increased effort  Increased communication and coordination  Increased persistence CH. 11  Systematic, not a onetime thing  First started in the Soviet Union for Olympic Athletes PST neglected  Lack of time  Misunderstanding  Lack of knowledge PST making a difference?  For Olympic teams  Effectiveness of PST enhances sport performance o Intervention must be  Individualized  Employed systematically  Multimodal (combining imagery, self-talk, and goal setting) How to do PST  Education  Acquisition o Teaching skills (imagery)  Practice o Implementing into performance  Self-regulation Implementation problems of PST  Lack of follow-up  Lack of conviction  Lack of time  Lack of education on coaches end  Lack of sport knowledge CH. 16 What is Concentration  Focusing on relevant environmental cues o Selective attention: select what cues to attend to and disregard  Maintaining attentional focus o Shifting attentional focus  Situational awareness ____________________________  Association o Paying attention to bodily functions during sports or exercise o More athletes use this type of method for success o High level of focus  Dissociation o Distraction and tuning out ____________________________  Arousal and concentration o As arousal increases then attentional focus narrows to detrimentally affect performance o Coach's role - help athlete recognize what cues to focus on  Explaining attentional focus o Information processing o Attentional capacity  Can be increased o Attentional selectivity  Choosing what to pay attention to  Internal cues - kinesthetic feedback (thoughts, emotion)  External cues - sensory feedback o Attentional alertness  Trying not to be distracted ____________________________  Divided attention o Ability to concentrate and focus on two or more tasks simultaneously  Focused attention o Spotlight metaphor  Focusing activity with a small object ____________________________  Theory of attentional style o Robert Nideffer o 2D  Direction - internal (imagery, plan, strategy) VS. external (environment)  Width -- broad VS. narrow Attentional problems  Internal distractions o Attending to past/future events  What if? What was? o Choking under pressure o Overanalysis of body mechanics o Inadequate motivation o Fatigue  External distraction o Visual distractions o Auditory distractions ____________________________ Concentration tests  Stroop test (directed attention) Self-talk to enhance concentration  Can be very effective in improving concentration and subsequent performance o Putting into practice can be difficult  Trigger words (cues) o Should be positive in nature/focus on the present/target process of skill rather than outcome o Concentration goal cards  Thought-stopping  Changing negatives to positives Tips to improve concentration  Use simulations in practice (with distractions)  Use cue words to focus (instructional and motivational)  Employ nonjudgmental thinking  Establish routines (before or during the event)  Develop competition plans  Practice eye contact  Learning to shift attention when appropriate  Learn to maintain focus  Search for relevant cues  Rehearse game concentration CH. 13 Imagery  Using all senses o Visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactory  Visualization is different Use of imagery  Improve concentration  Build confidence  Control emotional responses  Acquire and practice sport skills  Solve problems  Acquire and practice strategy  Cope with pain and adversity Functions of imagery  Motivational/cognitive  Specific/general Types  Internal o Imagine the execution of a skill from your own vantage point (first person perspective)  External o View yourself from the perspective of an external observer (watching self on video) CH. 17 & 18 Exercise behavior and adherence  Encourage people to be more physically active o Education (consequences, benefits, methods) o Accessibility (free gyms, community leagues) o Fun factor o Elementary/high school PE changes o Environmental factors (make more PA friendly in all areas, high and low SES)  Upper/middle class more active  Blue collar job requires more PA o Rewards  Intrinsic rewards more valuable than extrinsic/external o Research  Frame PA as a lifestyle, rather than behavior  Make it enjoyable  Accessible  PA determinants o Older age = less PA o Blue collar occupation = less PA when compared to white collar occupation o High education = more PA o Males = more PA o Family history of PA = more PA  Role models o Higher SES = more PA ________________ o Perceived barriers = less PA o More enjoyment of PA = more PA o Mood disturbance = less PA o Self-efficacy = more PA  Sense of capability _________________ o Active childhood = more PA o Active young adulthood = more PA o Past exercise program participation = more PA o Smoking = less PA _________________ o Access to facilities = more PA o Weather (good) = more PA  Strongest predictor out of environmental factors o Cost of program (cheaper) = more PA o Disruptions in routine = less PA o Home equipment = more PA (weak association) o Programs that encourage moderate activity have better adherence o Partners who exercise together are more likely to adhere (and they are happier couples)  Reasons to exercise o Weight control o Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease o Reduction in stress and depression  Exercise can be prescribed as a treatment o Enjoyment o Enhanced self-esteem o Opportunities to socialize  Barriers o Lack of time o Lack of energy o Lack of motivation o Lack of knowledge o Childcare issues o Injury o Insecurities o Age o Finances o Disabilities  Problems with exercise adherence o Prescriptions not individualized o Most are overly restrictive o Can be too challenging for most to stick with o Most current prescriptions do not promote self-empowerment Psychological benefit of PA and PA adherence  John Ratey  Chronic exercises and mental health o Reduces anxiety and depression o Mostly aerobic  Enhance mood with exercise  Exercise increase o Academic performance o Assertiveness o Confidence o Emotional stability o Sense of control o Intellectual functioning o Body image o Work efficiency  Exercise decreases o Phobias o Anxiety (disorders) o Hostility o Alcohol abuse o Depression o Headaches o Work errors o Anger o Tension Body image and exercise -clinical disorders Eating disorders  Anorexia nervosa o Extreme weight loss and irrational fears of weight gain o 10-15% die  Related to weakened immune system, gastric ruptures, cardiac arrhythmia, etc.  Bulimia o Eating large amounts of food, followed by purging o 2-3% die  Related to heart failure  Binge-eating disorder o Periodic eating not followed by vomiting or use of laxatives  Female athlete triad o Menstrual disturbances o Bone loss o Energy deficit disordered eating Substance abuse  98% of elite athletes said they would take a banned performance-enhancing substance with two guarantees - they would not be caught and they would win  60% said they would do so even if it meant they would die from the side effects  Drug addiction - discontinuing or continual use of a drug create an overwhelming desire, need, and craving for more of the substance  Alcohol and steroid use o 55-92% of high school students o 87-88% of college athletes o Performance-enhancing drugs - 5% of high school students o Women's use  Bodybuilding steroids to get tones, sculpted look  Preventing and detecting o .. Sport Paradoxes (Moodle reading) 1 Sport mirrors the human experience; what it means to be human 2 Sport mirrors society in other profound ways 3 Combine spectacle with drama 4 Identifying with something larger than oneself  Sports has the ability to build character, as well as encourage bad character  Morally distorted sports world, where winning supersedes all other considerations  Winning at any price  Stacking reinforces negative stereotypes about racial minorities  "in sport, mediocrity is a white luxury" Ethical Dilemmas (Moodle reading)  Glorify winners, and forget losers  Cheating is seen as strategy Aggression  Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment o There is aggressive behavior not intended to harmfully hurt and individual (physically harm)  Hostile/reactive aggression o Primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological  Instrumental aggression o Occurring in the quest of some nonaggressive goal Theories  Instinct theory o People have an instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed o Not much support  Frustration-aggression hypothesis o Aggression is the direct result of a frustration o Not much support  Social learning theory o Aggression is learned through observing others (modeling) and then having similar behavior reinforced o Support for this theory o Starts at a youth sports level  Revised frustration-aggression theory  General aggression model o Aggression is a complex process mediated by one's thought, feelings, and emotions o Has support


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