History Week 1-4 Notes
History Week 1-4 Notes HIST 2620
Popular in History from 1865
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by josephrauchwerger on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 2620 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Rachel Louise Moran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see History from 1865 in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
9/2/16 Testable Terms: 10% Plan (1863) – 10% of voters in the seceded states must swear loyalty under oath to the Union. The seceded states must abolish slavery. Wade-Davis Bill [Iron Clad Oath] (1864) – o The majority of white men from formerly Confederate states must swear loyalty to the United States. o The seceded states must abolish slavery. o Former Confederate soldiers or volunteers cannot hold office or vote. Presidential Reconstruction (Johnson Plan) – o The majority of white men from formerly Confederate states must swear loyalty to the United States. o Formerly Confederate states must ratify the 13 Amendment. o Former Confederate officials may hold office and vote. Congressional Reconstruction (Radical Republicans in Congress) – o Formerly Confederate states must disband their state governments. o Formerly Confederate states must write new state constitutions. o Formerly Confederate states must ratify the 14 Amendment. o Formerly Confederate states must allow African Americans to vote. o Intentionally puts the South into Martial Law until things are ‘sorted out’ due to violence. 13 Amendment - o Freedom of Black Slaves. Tenure of Office Act – o Anytime you have someone in government approved by senate, that person can’t be fired by the president unless the senate is also on board. o Can be used to impeach president. (Impeachment Crisis) Agenda: Logistics Big Q – Did Recon Succeed or Fail? Reconstruction plans, before end of war o 10% plan (Lincoln) o Congressional plan (Wade Davis) Reconstruction plans, at end of war o Johnson’s plan o Radical Republicans Plans to reality (if time) o Reconstruction act o Impeachment Was reconstruction a success? “Project to re-unify the nation and move forwards”. Who designed reconstruction? A. Lincoln’s plan/Wade-Davis B. Johnson’s plan C. Congressional Radical Republicans th th th Reconstruction amendments: 13 , 14 , 15 . 13 - 14 - 15 Free-Citizens-Vote Civil War: 1861 – 1865 Reconstruction: 1865-1877 ‘Redemption’ (in South): 1870s-1910 Republican o Moderate – Represented by Lincoln, got the respect of other parties. o Radical – Mostly congress members. Democrat Lincoln: “I want to cushion the shock.” Lets the states decide what to do about Slaves after they’re free, giving them rights, etc. rd 2/3 majority in congress. Enough to veto everything Johnson puts out. Puts Johnson as an ‘impotent leader’. 9/7/16 Wednesday Testable Terms: (Sherman’s) Special Field Order 15 – Gives each black freedman family 40 acres of recaptured land. “Old plantation land”. 14 Amendment th 15 Amendment Freedman’s Bureau – Helps freedmen transition to freedom. Sell your labor and live that way. Provide medical aid, help settle labor disputes, help freedmen write new contracts for their labor. Helps found a bunch of schools. Help reunite families, etc. Sharecropping – Contracts with farmers to work their fields. o Gives freedmen ‘some rule’ of land. o Not farming for sustenance; growing a cash crop. o Uses tools provided by the plantation owner. At the end of the season, you owe money for borrowing the tools and sometimes don’t even break even. Black Codes – Civil rights of freedmen on a state-by-state basis. o State laws put in place to restrict what blacks can do. o Can’t take away 14 amendment, but can restrict their rights. o Includes anti-vagrancy laws. Apposed to black people without jobs. Illegal to be unemployed. If you become unemployed, you can be put into prison. Agenda: Logistics Discuss Quiz 1 Freedmen and Reconstruction o Opportunities for Freedmen o Obstacles for Freedmen White Man’s Government, Worse Than Slavery o New legislation + the plight of freedmen? First Vote o Did Recon succeed or fail? Freedman = Ex-slave. Sherman goes to plantations and frees slaves, but slaves don’t know where to go. o Special Field Order 15 happens and freedmen get their own lands and can rebuild their life o “Reconstruct” their life. St. Catherine’s Island o Black separatist colony. o Creates own mini city. o Lasts for about 2 years. o After the war, whites want their land back o Both Freedmen and ex-confederates claiming they own the same land. o Government intervenes. “Doesn’t give out free land.” Orders for the land to be returned to the ex-confederates. Sends black union soldiers to the Island to evict the freedmen. Freedman’s Borough o Highly controversial agency. o Hated by Andrew Johnson and white southerners. Political opportunities o Reconstruction Amendments. 14 Amendment 15 Amendment o Windows of Opportunity Short Windows Special Field Order 15 Black men outnumbered white men in some states for voting. Lots of black men are voted into office. 2 Black Senators. o Not another black senator until 1967. 9/9/16 Testable Terms President Grant Colfax Massacre – A large group of white men attack Colfax, and 150 negroes were slain to 3 white men. Compromise of 1877 – End of reconstruction. Deal made where Democrats are going to get money for railroads, end of reconstruction, and the South is going to get money for rebuilding. “Lost Cause” - Redeemers – Governments that want to redeem the South. Jim Crow Laws – Black codes were a warm-up to these laws. Very aggressively about segregation. Blacks and whites need to go to separate schools, hospitals, transportation systems, etc. Agenda Logistics Ending Reconstruction – (Politics) Southern Rebellion Again – “The Lost Cause” narrative o KKK + violence o A new history of Reconstruction o The redeemer government Reflecting: Did Recon succeed or fail? o If time – outlining an essay. Lincoln (1860 – 1865) Johnson (1865 – 1868) Grant (1868 – 1876) Panic of 1873 9/12/16 Testable Terms Indian Country – “Uninhabitable country” Exodusters – Blacks who move from the South to the West hoping to avoid some of the problems of the deep south as the ex confeds slowly re-assert power. The Homestead Act – 1862. Rules set in place in order to get a plot of land: o Be a free citizen o 18 years or older o Never have taken up arms against the US Not a confederate o Pay $18 in fees o Promise to improve the land with buildings, wells, and crops over a five-year period. Transcontinental Railroad Time Zones Agenda Logistics Thesis writing What is the “west”? Western settlement John Gast, “American Progress” 1872 o American Indians and blacks are in the darkest part of the painting o Everyone else is calm and laid back other than those in the west. o Telegraph lines and transcontinental railroad are the beginnings of progress. Great American Desert o “Indian Country” o Upwards of Texas. Right of Oregon Country, left of Michigan Territory. Why go west? o Economics of factory life in the North. o Religious reasons Mormons leave because the practice of polygamy is being cracked down on by the government o Black Americans being pushed out of the south Exodusters. 9/14/16 Testable terms: Ghost Towns – Towns left abandoned as people leave for other opportunities for gold and silver. Cowboys – Vecheros from Mexico coming over to make money off of cheap cattle. ¼ of cowboys were black, and even more were Mexican. Sand Creek Massacre – One of many Indian wars. Sometimes called Chivington’s Massacre. Grant’s Peace Policy Carlisle Indian School Dawes Severalty Act Agenda Logistics Finish discussion of RR if necessary Econ. Of West continued o Mining o Cattle ranching/cowboys American Indians after the Civil War o Indian Wars o Assimilation o Reservatird Life Only about 1/3 of the people that tried to farm the land made it habitable. Transcontinental Railroad (1869 built). o Have to think if it’s even possible. Surveyors Expensive as hell Economic Risk They go through with it o Inventions to help Dynamite o 32 ndparallel o Two companies working on railroads Union Pacific Railroad Central Pacific Railroad Plan to meet in the middle o East has immigrant labor. o West has Chinese labor. o Problems Hostilities from American Indians Feeding all the men Weather o Built it in 1869 o Allows for continental transport of people, materials, etc much quicker Timezones o Introduced by railroad companies. o 1883 o Not federal law to follow them until 1918. o Makes times matter when shipping goods. Economics of the west o Mining Pull factor into the West California Gold Rush Requires ‘wildness’ just to go out and take the risk. Someways mining is wild (1850s); Gold runs out real fast. No longer every man for themselves Men forced as laborers for larger mining companies. Lots of people came out there just to sell supplies to miners to make a living. o Cowboys Cattle can be bought for $4 Wildness/Lawlessness Driving cattle north is illegal unsupervised, cowboys do it anyway. Can break every law of the territory/federal government, but took pride in upholding the laws of other cowboys. o “Don’t talk about a man’s past.” o “Don’t talk too much” o “Take another man’s horse and die” o “Don’t take another man’s horse without permission” Lived before barbed wire was invented. o Farming Barbed wire to protect land. Putting cows in railroads instead of driving north. Private rancher is a different kind of cowboy. Empire of the West o Kamanche tribes. o Indians follow buffalo around to migrate Buffalo take a hit Land is taken up by Americans o Indian country gets smaller and smaller Sheriden – “The only good Indian is a dead Indian.” 9/16/16 Testable Terms: Grant’s Peace Policy (1872) – Policy of assimilation. “Kill the Indian” -> “Kill the Indian and save the man.” Conforming Indians to ‘normal people’. Carlisle Indian School – Indian boarding schools. “Saving” the children from their parents’ beliefs. Assimilation of Indian children to normal people standards. Dawes Severalty Act (1887) - Take all the Indian land. “15 million surplus acres.” Instead of moving Indians to land, they encourage them to break from their tribes and move as “nuclear families” on small pieces of land. Wanting to properly “Americanize” these people. Reservations – Places to put American Indians. Ghost Dance Movement (1890s) – Mix of some Christian beliefs and some Native beliefs (Resurrection and forgiveness of God). A dance that shows your contrition to God through your dance. Belief that it will eliminate the white people, bring back the buffalo, and bring back their ancestors. Wounded Knee (1890) – Creek. Army goes in and massacres over 150 Indians, in hopes to ‘stop some sort of war happening.’ Buffalo Bill Cody – ‘Myth Maker.’ Worked for the railroads in the 1860s as a buffalo hunter. Claimed to have killed over 4,000 buffalo. Founded a “Wild West Show.” Travelling circus of all things wild west: Buffalo hunt, staged Indian attack, dramatize a pony express ride, dramatize wars, etc. Agenda: Logistics (finish) End of the Indian Wars Mythologizing the West o How Wild Was the Wild West? o Rubrics/Essays analysis Indians are seen as roadblocks to civilization o Gotta kill them o Killing buffalo 40 million -> 1,000 buffalo by 1895 “A cold wind blew across the prairie when the last buffalo fell, a death wind for my people.” – Sitting bull “To get the Indian out of the blanket and into trousers – and trousers with a pocket in them, with a pocket that aches to be filled with dollars!” – Merrill Gates, Board of Indian Commissioners Just how wild was the “wild west”? o Buffalo Bill o Capitalism and Industry o Role of American Indians o Dawes Act o Cowboy “Codes” o Indian Wars o Mining Towns 9/19/16 Testable Terms Andrew Carnegie – Carnegie and Steel Co. From Scotland, really aggressive and innovative business plan named Vertical Integration. John Rockefeller – Rockefeller and Oil. Wants to own as much oil as possible. Wants a monopoly. Controls 90% of the Countries oil companies. Monopolies and Trusts – Trusts = Holding companies. The Gilded Age – Era that looks golden and shiny, but underneath looks shoddy. Pure Food and Drug Act (1904) – Regulations for foods and drugs Progressive Reformers- Agenda Logistics How did the US become a world power? Industry Industrialism o Growth Railroads Industrial giants o And its problems! Problems of Industrial Boom Big corporations with lots and lots of power Poor working conditions Poor living conditions in growing cities, esp. for immigrants Questionable products
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