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GEOL 105 Test 1 Notes

by: Alaina Notetaker

GEOL 105 Test 1 Notes Geology 105

Alaina Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.5

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Covers: Chapter 1 - Understanding Earth Chapter 2 - Plate Tectonics Chapter 3 - Minerals
Geology and man
Elisabeth Boudreaux
Geology, EARTH, minerals, plate, tectonics
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Alaina Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geology 105 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Elisabeth Boudreaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Geology and man in Geology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
UNDERSTANDING EARTH • Earth is dynamic ⿞constantly changing ⿞Characterized by constant change, activity, etc. • Earth subsystems ⿞Atmosphere ⿞Biosphere ⿞Hydrosphere ‣ has to do with earth's water ‣ Majority is salt water ⿞Lithosphere ⿞Mantle ⿞Core • What is geology? ⿞comes from Greek words "geo" (earth) and "logos" (study) ⿞The study of earth • Divisions ⿞Physical geology ⿞Historical geology • Geology and the Formulation of Theories ⿞scientific theory- explanation of some aspect of the natural world acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly confirmed through observation and experimentation ‣ plate tectonics theory ‣ The rock cycle ‣ Organic evolution ‣ Geologic time and uniformitarianism • Scientific Method (steps) ⿞accumulate observations ⿞Make one or more hypothesis ⿞Test the hypothesis by experiment of additional observations ⿞If one hypothesis is confirmed as the probable explanation it is called a scientific theory • Why study earth? ⿞understanding our surroundings ‣ "if it can't be grown, it has to be mined" ⿞Predicting, controlling, avoiding geological hazards ⿞Advancement of civilization ‣ economics, politics ⿞Protect our environment • How does Geology affect our everyday lives? ⿞natural events ⿞Economics and politics ⿞Our role as decision makers ⿞Consumers and citizens ⿞Sustainable development • Global Geological and environmental issues facing mankind ⿞overpopulation ‣ 2014 - 7.1billion ‣ 2045 ~ 9 billion ⿞Global warming ⿞Temperature change ⿞Increase in sea level ⿞Significance of shorelines • Origin of the universe and solar system, and earth's place in them ⿞BIG questions ‣ what's the origin of the universe? ‣ What has been its history? ‣ What is its eventual fate or will it go on forever? ‣ How common are planets around other stars? ‣ Is there life elsewhere? ‣ Is life rare, usual, or even unique? • origin of the universe ⿞the Big Bang model ‣ 14 billion years ago ‣ hot, dense state, expansion, cooling and a less dense state ‣ Evidence: • expanding universe • Background radiation = faint afterglow ‣ Universe continued expanding and cooling ‣ Stars and galaxies formed, and chemical makeup was changed by matter given off as stars die • Origin of the solar system ⿞Solar Nebula Theory (4.6BYA) ‣ condensation and collapse of gas and dust in an arm of the Milky Way Galaxy ‣ Cloud of material formed a counter-clockwise rotation disk ‣ Material concentrated in center - formed the Sun and surrounding solar nebula ‣ Rotation within the solar nebula formed localized eddies where material concentrated into planetesimals that eventually formed into planets • Why is Earth a dynamic planet? ⿞The core ‣ solid inner ‣ Liquid outer ‣ 16%of earth's volume ⿞The mantle ‣ surrounds the core ‣ About 83% of earth's volume ‣ 3 distinct zones • Lower mantle ‣ Asthenosphere • surrounds lower mantle • Behaves plastically - flows slowly • Surrounded by solid, upper mantle ‣ Upper mantle ⿞Lithosphere = solid upper mantle + crust ‣ broken into plates ‣ Plates float on asthenosphere ⿞The crust ‣ Oceanic (thinner) ‣ Continental (thicker) • Plate Tectonic Theory ⿞movement of the plates is caused by convection in the mantle ‣ Divergent: move apart • Mid-Atlantic ridge ‣ Convergent: move together • volcanoes and earthquakes • Mountain ranges ‣ Transform: move along ⿞Where does the heat come from? ‣ Radioactive decay (e.g., uranium) ‣ Earth loses 5 million kW every hour (or 44.2 trillion kW per year) - enough to keep 50 million lightbulbs burning for an hour • The Rock Cycle ⿞a rock is an aggregate of minerals ⿞There are 3 main types of rock: ‣ Igneous • form from melted rock material (lava or magma) ‣ Sedimentary • pieces of other rocks (sediments) ‣ Metamorphic • have been exposed to heat/pressure ⿞Any rock type can come from any rock type • Organic Evolution ⿞All present day organisms have descended from earlier forms ‣ suggests that all present day organisms are related to organisms in the past ‣ Natural selection results in the survival of those best suited to their environment ("survival of the fittest") ⿞Fossils ‣ document changes in life forms over time • Geologic Time ⿞Earth is about 4.6 billion years old ⿞Oldest rocks are about 4 billion years old ⿞Oldest fossils are about 3.7 years old ⿞Changes took place over long periods of time ⿞Geologic Time • Millions and billions of years • Time is measured ⿞Relative ⿞Absolute (years) ⿞Relative ‣ Bottom layer: older ‣ Top layer: younger ⿞Absolute ‣ Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896 ‣ Ernest Rutherford discovered half-life and age dating of rocks • Absolute Age Dating ⿞Radiometric dating ‣ Uses the fact that some elements (like Uranium) are not stable and they decay over time ‣ Decay is constant • Geological Time Scale ⿞Originally based on relative age dates and fossil evidence ⿞Numerical dates from Radiometric dating ⿞Divisions are different lengths ⿞Eon, Era, Period, Epoch • Principle of Uniformitarianism • Why Study Geology? ⿞Natural resources ‣ if it can't be grown, it has to be mined ⿞Protect our environment ⿞Predict, control, and avoid geological hazards ⿞Understand our surroundings ‣ We're part of it! • Plate tectonics ⿞Dominant process affecting the evolution of our planet ⿞Lithosphere = rigid plates ⿞Plates are created and destroyed at plate boundaries ⿞The center of plates tend to be stable • Early Ideas - Plate Tectonics ⿞Continental Fit ‣ 1620 - Sir Francis Bacon • Noticed the continents fit together like a puzzle ⿞The crust was locating on a fluid interior ‣ 1782 - Benjamin Franklin ⿞Edward Suess (1885) ⿞Fossil evidence - Glossopteris ‣ India, Australia, South Africa, South America ⿞Supercontinent Gondwana = all southern continents ‣ Gondwana: province in India with Glosspteris ⿞Suess thought continents were connected by land bridges ⿞Frank Taylor (1910) ‣ Continental drift theory ‣ Mountains originate as result of lateral movement of continents ‣ Larger continent broke apart and formed present-day continents ‣ Mechanism: gigantic tidal forces ⿞Continental Drift (1915) ‣ Alfred Wegener (1880-1930): Origin of Continents • History of Plate Tectonics ⿞Continental drift: Pangea • The Evidence ⿞Continental Fit ‣ Not perfect because of erosion and deposition ‣ Bullard (1965): best fit at depth of 2000m ⿞Rocks ⿞Mountain Ranges ⿞Climate ‣ Coal in Artic and Antartic ‣ Glacial Evidence • Striations ⿞Rock fragments scrape and polish bedrock: Striations (scratches) ⿞Direction of ice movement • Glacial till ⿞If continents did not move in the past: ‣ Ice moved from the oceans onto land- unlikely ‣ Ice formed in tropical to subtropical climate- impossible ⿞Fossils ‣ Glossopteris flora and other land plants ‣ Seeds too large to be transported across oceans ‣ Today's climate of South America, Africa, India, Antartica, and Australia much too diverse to support the Glossopteris flora ⿞Mesosaurus ‣ Freshwater reptile - couldn't have survived in oceans ‣ Found ONLY in Brazil and South Africa ‣ If it could swim the oceans, it would be widely found and not just in those two locations ⿞Evidence for Pangea ‣ Continental Fit ‣ Related rocks and mountains ‣ Climate ‣ Animal Habitats ‣ ....but, Wegener had no MECHANISM to move the continents. ‣ Hypothesis rejected.. • Continental Drift ⿞Despite overwhelming evidence not accepted until... ⿞New evidence from ‣ Magnetic field (1950's) ‣ Ocean basins • Topography by sonar • Ocean drilling • Earth's magnetic field ⿞Magnetism - results from the spin of electrons in some solids (especially iron) and moving electricity ⿞Earth is dipolar- strength and location of the poles vary ⿞Field lines coverage where magnetic force is strongest (poles) ‣ Lines spread out where it is weak (equator) • Paleomagnetism ⿞Magnetite, Fe3O4 (found in volcanic rocks) ⿞Orientation and strength ⿞Measure magnetization of rock and determine at which latitude was formed or where the pole was at the time ⿞Paleomagnetism: the study of the magnetic orientation of ancient rocks ⿞Curie Point (@700degrees C or 1400degrees F) ⿞Paleomagnetism in the 1950s - proof of polar wandering? • Magnetic Reversals ⿞Magnetic field weakens, temporarily disappears, and returns with poles reversed ‣ Every 200,000-300,000 years or so ‣ Longer since the last one - more than 700,000 years ago • Mid-Ocean Ridge System • Sea floor Spreading ⿞1962 - Harry Hess; oceans rifting apart at the mid-ocean ridges, new sea floor forms, and continents move apart ⿞Mantle convection proposed as driving mechanism • Confirmation of Seafloor Spreading Deep Sea Drilling ⿞Interpretation of magnetism stripe pattern confirmed by ocean drilling ⿞Oceans are geologically young, younger than 180 million years (oldest continental crust: 4+ billion years) ⿞Sediments are hundreds of meters thick near continents and absent at oceanic ridges ⿞Fossil evidence/age dating = more proof of the age of oceanic crust • Plate Tectonic Theory ⿞Lithosphere is divided into plates - edges are ridges, trenches, and transform faults ⿞Lithosphere overlies a much weaker and hotter (plastic) asthenosphere ⿞Oceanic crust thinner and more dense ⿞Continental crust is thicker and less dense • Supercontinent Cycle ⿞All the land assets come together to form a supercontinent ⿞Break apart ⿞Come together again about every 500 million years • Basic Plate Boundaries ⿞Three types ‣ Divergent • The Wilson Cycle ⿞Rifting ⿞Formation of a linear sea ⿞Full ocean basin ⿞Subduction begins ⿞Closing of an ocean basin ⿞Collision of continents = orogeny ⿞Erosion ‣ Convergent • Plates move towards each other • Deformation, volcanism, earthquakes, metamorphism, economic minerals • 3 types, depending on crust ⿞Oceanic-Oceanic ⿞Oceanic-Continental ⿞Continental-Continental ‣ Transform • San Andreas, California • Transform fault • Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes ⿞Intraplate- within a tectonic plate ⿞Stationary hot spot under the plate ⿞"Records" plate motion • Tectonic Plate Movement ⿞How do we find the speed with which the plates are moving? ‣ Age of sediments ‣ Magnetic anomalies ‣ Direct measurement with Satellite Laser Ranging techniques (SLR) ‣ Hot spots • The driving force ⿞Heat • Convection cells • Hot stuff rises • Cold stuff sinks • Other mechanics for plate movement ⿞Ridge push - slab pull • Plate Tectonics and Natural Resources ⿞Gold, copper, lead, silver, tin, and zinc associated with igneous and hydrothermal processes • Plate Tectonics and Life ⿞Climate and geographic Boundaries ⿞Biotic provinces- areas with distinct assemblages of plants and animals MINERALS • What are minerals? ⿞Solids ⿞Inorganic ⿞Naturally occurring ⿞Crystalline = arranged atoms ⿞Specific chemical composition ⿞Characteristic physical properties • Why study minerals? ⿞Used in: fertilizers, glass, computers, cell phones, paint, make-up, industrial uses, jewelry, etc. • Minerals ⿞Economically important ⿞Valuable as gemstones • What is a rock? ⿞An aggregation of one or more minerals ⿞We will discuss rocks starting Chapter 4 and in later chapters • Building Blocks of minerals ⿞Atoms ‣ Structures of atoms • Electrons: energy/ electron she'll • Limited number allowed in one shell (2,8) • Completely filled outer shell is stable (ex: noble gasses) ⿞Elements ⿞Isotopes ‣ Variations of elements ‣ Different atomic mass numbers (P+N) ‣ Most are stable ‣ Some are unstable = radioactive • Atoms and Elements ⿞Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space ⿞Elements: cannot be split into substances of different composition ⿞Atoms: smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of the element ‣ Protons ‣ Neutrons ‣ Electrons ⿞Atomic Number: determined by the number of protons • Bonding and Compounds ⿞Compounds: formed by the bonding of atoms of two or more elements - interaction between electrons ⿞Two important types of bonds in mineral formation ‣ Ionic • Transfer of electrons ‣ Covalent • Sharing electrons ⿞Other types ‣ Metallic bonding: atoms move freely from one atom to another; occurs in metals; accounts for metallic luster, electrical & thermal conductivity, and malleability ‣ Van der Waals bonding: weak attractive once between atoms that have no electrons available for bonding • Graphite- covenant bonds and Van der Waals bonds • Mineraloid ⿞Same, but different: no systematic internal arrangement of atoms! Amorphous ‣ Example: Opal • Minerals, cont.. ⿞Chemical composition ‣ Shown by a chemical formula such as NaCl (Halite) ⿞More than 3,800 (always growing) identified ‣ Less than 25 are common as rock forming minerals ‣ They are composed of the most abundant elements found in the crust ⿞*Top 8 elements of the periodic table make up 98.5% of the Earth's crust* ⿞Silica Tetrahedra • Mineral Groups ⿞Silicates ‣ Combo between silica tetrahedra and other ions • Mineral Identification ⿞Physical properties of minerals ‣ All minerals have characteristic properties ‣ Determined by the internal structure and chemical composition ‣ Most properties are constant, but some variation exists, especially in color ⿞Color ‣ Impurities ‣ Chemical formula ⿞Luster (quality of reflected light) ‣ Metallic ‣ Non-metallic • Glassy • Earthy • Silky • Pearly • Waxy • Dull ⿞Crystal Form ‣ Can occur in a variety of shapes which reflect the orderly internal arrangement o atoms ‣ Reflects internal geometry and composition ‣ Perfect crystals are rare, but may be useful in identification ⿞Cleavage or Fracture ‣ Cleavage- minerals that break or split alone smooth planes of weakness determined by the strength of their chemical bonds • Quality: perfect, good, poor • Direction • Angles of intersection ‣ Fracture- mineral breakage alone irregular surfaces • Uneven • Conchoidal ⿞Hardness ‣ Internal structure and strength of bonds ‣ Based on the Mohs scale from 1 to 10 • Quartz has a harness of 7 and shows conchoidal fracture ⿞Streak ‣ The color of the powder form of the mineral can help you identify it ⿞Specific Gravity (Density) ⿞Smell ⿞Taste (Halite) ⿞Striations (Plagioclase feldspar) ⿞Magnetic (Magnetite) ⿞Double refraction (Calcite) ⿞Chemical Tests- reaction to HCl • How do we really do it??? ⿞Chemical sets ⿞X-Ray diffraction ⿞Thin sections • How do minerals form? ⿞From molten rock material ⿞Hot water- hydrothermal ⿞From water- evaporation, animals ⿞Chemical weathering- clays ⿞Metamorphism • How important are minerals? ⿞Natural resources ‣ Matallic- copper, tin, iron, ore, etc. ‣ Non-metallic- sand and gravel, stone, salt, etc. ‣ Energy- petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc. ⿞Not all resources are reserves ‣ Accessibility ‣ Cost vs. value


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