COMM 200 Chapter 1 Book & Lecture Notes Bundle
COMM 200 Chapter 1 Book & Lecture Notes Bundle COMM 200
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Samantha Suarez on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COMM 200 at George Mason University taught by Catherine Wright in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Communication Theory in Communications at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
COMM 200 CHAPTER 1 LECTURE Communication Theory What is communication? Social process, employ symbols, establish/interpret meaning (West & Turner, p. ?) Palo Alto Group “one cannot not communicate” people are always communicating in some way Is it intentional? What things include non verbal communication Haptics (touch), paralanguage, kinesics (how you use your body), chronology (use of time, appearance/dress), proxemics (how close we stand to each other) o Ex. Of paralanguage: grammar (commas, question marks) Models Linear model (action) nois Msg. Encoder/send Decoder/receiv o Semantic: personal influence n o External: outside o Psychological: head (ex. Fight) oi o Physiological: body (ex. Hunger) s e Interactional messag model e chann Sourc Shared meanin Receiv e er g nois feedbac Transactional o Similar to interactional and linear in that it shares some qualities o How much of our lives overlap? Ethics SHE SAID TO STUDY THIS Why this class? Self awareness Critical thinking skills What is good/bad research? COMM200 Chapter 1 Thinking About Communication: Definitions, Models, and Ethics Defining Communication There are many ways to interpret and define communication – a result of the complexity and richness of the communication discipline. Communication- social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment. 5 Key elements of communication: social, process, symbols, meaning, environment o Social- the notion that people and interactions are part of the communication process o Process- ongoing, dynamic, and unending occurrence Communication is dynamic, complex, and continually changing Communication has no definable beginning or ending Individual and cultural changes affect communication. o Symbols- arbitrary label or representation of phenomena Ex. Words Usually agreed upon within a group but may not be understood outside of the group. Concrete symbols- symbol represents an object Abstract symbols- the symbol stands for a thought or idea o Meaning- what people extract from a message Messages can have more than one meaning or even multiple layers of meaning Without sharing some meanings, we would all have a difficult time speaking the same language or interpreting the same event o Environment- the situation or context in which communication occurs Includes a number of elements: time, place, historical period, relationship, and speaker and listener’s cultural backgrounds The environment can also be mediated, meaning communication takes place with technological assistance Influence communication between people because they can’t observe each other’s behavior, listen to vocal characteristics, or watch body movement. The Intentionality Debate: Did You Mean That? Debate centers around this question: Is all behavior communication? Different beliefs o Ex. Some believe that if there is no intent, there is no message “you cannot not communicate” o This thinking reflects the notion that all things can be considered communication o Palo Alto team- a group of scholars who believed that a person “cannot not communicate” o According to the Palo Alto team, when two people are together, they constantly communicate because they cannot escape behavior Ex. Silence and avoidance of eye contact This greatly broadens the definition of communication, making it virtually synonymous with behavior “not all behavior is communication, only interactive behavior is; so in non-interactive situations one can indeed ‘not communicate,’ but in interactive situations one indeed cannot communicate” o Michael Motley (1990) o In other words, he believes that one can not communicate o “all behavior is not communicative, although it may be informative” If everything can be thought of as communication, then studying communication in a systematic manner is nearly impossible Models of Understanding: Communication as Action, Interaction, and Transaction Models- simplified representations of the communication process Communication as Action: The Linear Model (Linear model of communication)- One-way view of communication that assumes a message is sent by a source to a receiver through a channel o Includes several key elements: Source- originator of message Message- words, sounds, actions, or gestures in an interaction Receiver- recipient of a message Channel- pathway to communication o A source sends a message to a receiver. The receiver makes sense of the message. This all happens within a channel. o Suggests that a person is only a sender or a receiver o Noise- distortion in channel not intended by the source Four types of Noise Semantic noise- linguistic influences on reception of message o Pertains to the slang, jargon, or specialized language used by individuals or groups. o Outside of a certain group, these words have limited (or no) meaning. Physical (external) noise- bodily influences on reception of message o Exist outside of the receiver Psychological noise- cognitive influences on reception of message o A communicator’s prejudices, biases, and predispositions toward another or the message Physiological noise- biological influences on reception of message o Exist if you or a speaker is ill, fatigued, or hungry o This model presumes that there is only one message in the communication process. Communication as Interaction: The Interaction Model Interactional model of communication- view of communication as the sharing of meaning with feedback that links source and receiver o Emphasizes the two-way communication process between communicators From sender to receiver and from receiver to sender o Suggests that communication is ongoing o Illustrates that a person can perform the role of either sender or receiver during an interaction, but not both roles simultaneously o Feedback- communication given to the source by the receiver to indicate understanding Response to a message May be verbal or nonverbal May be intentional or unintentional Helps communicators know whether or not their message is being received o Field of Experience- overlap of sender’s and receiver’s culture, experiences, and heredity in communication How a person’s culture and experiences influence his or her ability to communicate with another Communication as Transaction: The Transactional Model Transactional model of communication- view of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages o Transactional= process is cooperative. The sender and receiver are mutually responsible for the effect/effectiveness of communication o What they say is greatly influenced by their past experiences o Requires us to recognize the influence of one message on another o We simultaneously send and receive messages, we attend to both verbal and nonverbal elements of a message o Requires each of them to understand and incorporate the other fields of experience into his or her life o SNS= Social Networking Sites Summary: o Linear Model: meaning is sent from one person to another o Interactional Model: meaning is achieved through the feedback of a sender and a receiver o Transactional Model: people build shared meaning Ethics & Communication Ethics- perceived rightness or wrongness of an action or behavior 1. Moral decision making; determining what is right or wrong Ethical decision making is culturally based 1. What we consider to be ethical/appropriate in one society is not necessarily a shared value in another Ethics is part of every decision we make Six important ethical strategies to consider when reading communication theory: 1. Remain open to being persuaded by the statements of others 2. Remain willing to try out new ideas that may be seen by others as mistakes, and invite others to experiment also 3. Accept that multiple perspectives on reality are held as valid by different people, especially in different cultural contexts 4. Attempt to test any tentatively held knowledge 5. Live with ambiguity, but also become less tolerant of contradiction 6. Evaluate knowledge claims against personal experience and the everyday concrete pragmatics of what works The Value of Understanding Communication Theory Understanding communication theory cultivates critical thinking skills Helps you recognize the breadth and depth of research Helps to make sense of personal life experiences Fosters self-awareness
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