Human Geography up to first test
Human Geography up to first test Geog 1101
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Popular in Geography
This 29 page Bundle was uploaded by Hannah Ahmed on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geog 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rice in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Human Geography Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context Globalization “The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.” – Knox and Marston p. 51 In order to understand globalization, must understand the history Defining Human Geography “The field of Human Geography focuses on how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places across space, and how we make sense of ourselves and our localities, regions and the world.” None of this can be done without putting human geography in a historical context to understand how places change through time, what major events and relations have produced the world we know today, and the fundamental social/ economic/ political patterns of the modern world system. Hearth Areas Geographic settings where new practices have developed and from which they have spread. The main agricultural hearth areas were situated in four broad regions: o The Middle East o South Asia o China o The Americas The Transition to Food- Producing Systems What were the implications for: o Population density? o Social organization? o Specialization? o Economy and trade? Colonization Colonization: the physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state- Was in part an indirect consequence of the operations of the Law of Diminishing Returns A Move towards Urbanization Human Geography Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context Towns and cities became essential as centers of administration for early empires As empires were established, they developed more complex systems of production and trade. Africa had its own systems of trade * Place making and human relations were fundamentally transform with the rise of agriculture. * * Trade between empires and regions brought about early forms of economic specialization* Law of Diminishing Returns: “The tendency for productivity to decline after a certain point with the continues addition of capital and/ or labor to a given resource base.” Ideological ideas / ways to justify taking over a place ... largely violent take overs The “Scramble for Africa” British Empire (1497-1945) Can go basically anywhere and people speak English because of British colonization * The history and legacy of colonization is one of the most important factors underlying the current socio-economic patterns we see today. * What were the effects of colonialism? Export driven economies vs. self-sufficiency o Shifted the colonized to export driven economies o Sets up dependency/ reliant on imports o Example Cotton in India Sugar in Caribbean Colonial boundaries promoted political instability o No regard to ethnic/ social/ religious groups set in these political boundaries Human Geography Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context o Imposed artificially on these ethnic groups New physical and cultural infrastructure that promoted the culture on the colonizers o Largely imposing colonizers culture o Shifts in language and schooling o Offering healthcare/ other infrastructures *By enforcing the norms and customs of colonizers’ cultures, schools, housing and religious institutions, and doctors reinforced the cultural hegemony of colonization* The outcome of colonization was an international division of labor Where an established demand existed in the industrial core Where colonies had a comparative advantage in specializations that did not duplicate or compete with domestic suppliers within core countries During the 20 century, many colonies achieved independence from their colonizers. How did their relationships with each other change? Neocolonialism “Economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain their influence over other areas or people.” (Page 49) Shift from direct control to indirect control o No military control but controlled through various economic and political relationships How does neocolonialism work? By late 1950s many colonies were able to achieve political independence Old patterns of colonization have been replaced by increasing complex patterns of economic and political influence o Old patterns as in colonizer/ colonized relationship restructured Rise of transnational corporations has increased economic integration in uneven ways Third party institutions now set terms of global trade and development o World Trade Organization Human Geography Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context Create trade rules that promote “free” trade Association of countries that helps “facilitate” trade Oversees trade agreements o The World Bank / International Monetary Fund Multinational businesses, want their money back with interest Make international loans to “help” engage world markets into struggling/ undeveloped countries Loans for profit, usually screw small countries Neocolonialism… Life and Debt Jamaica accepts IMF loan Don’t have economic strength after decolonization due to specialization during colonizing years o Infrastructure leave when colonizers leave Short-term high interest loans with various string attached o Makes them an economic slave/ colony to IMF and “developed” countries The Rise of Transnational Corporations Operate globally like McDonalds, Starbucks Corporate headquarters in economic dominant countries o Profits goes back these economic dominant countries New land and recourse grabs by companies, not countries o Transnational companies buying up land rights in Africa The Core and Periphery relationship The core countries dominate trade, have advanced economies and technolsties, high standard of living 1 world countries “Developed” Semi-periphery have some control over periphery countries but still anderes to core countries 2 world countries The periphery countries are the most dependent, less developed economies, lower standard of living rd 3 world countries “Developing” *Look at the maps * World system in 1900 World System in 2010 The Development of a “World System” Human Geography Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context With increased social, economic, and political interactions associated with colonization, now neo-colonization, and capitalism, a world-system has been developed. o This is a set of interdependent countries, linked by political and economic competition o What about globalization? Key Issues in a Globalizing World Environmental Issues Health Issues Security Issues Westernization and Cultural Imperialism Human Geo Chapter 7: Interpreting Places & Landscapes 3 key concepts 1. People make places but they’re also shaped by these places 2. Concept of power a. Who has the ability to get things done? 3. Challenging these notions Anti-tourism Practice of visiting the “forgotten” places that are less exciting and attractive, to experience real world places. o People who want to visit the less popular places of a city, like going to Queens not Time Square Do this to experience the actual culture of the city not the “best foot forward” of the culture Place-Making: Territoriality How you make an inside and outside of a place Process of inclusion and exclusion 3 characteristics o Regulates social interaction o Regulating access to people or resources o Provides focus and symbol of group membership/ identity Example: o Gated community o Group identity o “if you can afford to purchase a house here, you belong.” o Homeowner’s association Power/ rules Place-Making: Cognitive Images Process of simplification, this then distorts the places Information -> perception -> cognation -> recall o Creates transformed cognitive image o Gives place meaning How people sort through a place o Path, edge, node, district, landmark Your mental map: UGA o Paths Broad street, bridge from Arch to Tate o Edges Arch (end of campus), railroad to stadium, divide between north/ south campus Human Geo Chapter 7: Interpreting Places & Landscapes o Districts North campus, East campus, South.. o Nodes Tate bus stop, the Arch o Landmarks Arch, Stadium, Ramsey, Tate, MLC Socio-economic status can affect cognitive images Socio-Spatial Dialect Places are never “neutral containers” of social process Yet, at the same time, people respond to their environments and the people around them. A continuous two-way process Example: o Tailgating o Sense of belonging/ social norm o Shaped by this Sometimes place are understood as “landscapes” Landscapes of Power o The White House o Reminds you who is in charge Ordinary Landscapes o Things we see everyday o Neighborhoods Derelict Landscape o Associated with danger and despair o College Park Place and Space in Modern Society Modernity o Emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, technology, and progress o Airports, subways, computers See this through landscapes o Highways in Beijing vs. traditional neighborhood in Beijing Example: Zoning o Regulates land use o Rationalizes where things should be Chicken plants not by houses Spaces are ALWAYS CODED Human Geo Chapter 7: Interpreting Places & Landscapes Landscapes can be read as texts for who or what is important, not important, values, desires, etc. Places as Objects of Consumption Example: Hellen, GA o Tubing, shopping, eating Malls o Have codes of conduct o Getting lost makes you buy more stuff Walk by every store Globalization and Place-Making Spread of Modernity to peripheral regions Commonalities of a shared, global consciousness While globalization makes things similar, at the same time there are place-making processes that make places unique Human Geography Chapter 3: Population Growth 7.45 billion people on earth 1.13% growth rate Peak growth rate 2% in 60’s o How do we facilitate growth? Industrialization caused jump from 2 to 6 billion Trends in Population Growth Rate o U.S. on decline Age groups Infant mortality rates o Undeveloped countries have higher mortality rates and lower life expectances rates, vise versa for developed countries Demography “The study of characteristics of human populations.” – Knox and Marston Spatial patterns of human population is important Where do people live? Fundamental locational questions Where do people go? Were always moving, one data is published it is most likely incorrect Refugee crisis for example Where are people born? Where do they die? Global average versus country average Prenatal/ postnatal care o Why is infant mortality so high or low? Developed/ Developing o Correlation between higher economies and lower infant mortality versus lower economies and higher infant mortality o Pattern seen throughout Population Distribution Population density 95% of the world lives on 10% of the earth Where does population data come from? The government is a BIG source of information Human Geography Chapter 3: Population Growth Census Data o Government must count every human being in U.S. boarders every 10 years o Legislative representation Districts are redrawn to have same amount of people in each district o Resource distribution o Taxes o Name, Sex, Age, Race Racial categories changed over time o American Community Survey (ACS) 3.5 million people each year Randomly sent out for subset of U.S. population Vital Records o Birth Certificate o Death Certificate o Marriage Certificate Problems with demographic data Cost Underreporting o Homeless people Transient group o Undocumented aliens o Minorities, children, lower income 6.4 million people underrated in these categories o Higher income people and college students over counted Response rate “Race” Americans are increasingly multi-racial Self-identification o People can identify themselves a million ways Key Take-Aways Population geography is concerned with virtual aspects of a population There are distinct patters in global population geographies Governments generate massive amounts of population data Accurately measuring a population is very difficult and there are patterns about who is more or less likely to be over or under represented Human Geography Chapter 3: Population Growth The way we measure a population also constructs ideas about that population How do we measure population? Crude birth rate o The number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population o Dead babies don’t count o Age and sex of population affect it o Cultural norms of family size o More babies are being born in developing countries Death (Mortality) Rates o Lower in developed world o Healthcare, social class/ income, occupation affect this Infant mortality rate Fertility rate o The number of births expected for childbearing women o 15-45 is childbearing age o Average how many kids a woman will have o 2.1= stable population o As women’s education/ entrance in the work force is increased fertility rates decrease Age-Sex Pyramid Visualizing age distribution Triangle shape See patterns of war or major population issues More pyramid-shaped, the faster the population is growing Can tell you what population type problems a country/ group of people may face o Prenatal or elderly care? The Demographic Transition Theory How can we bring this all together to understand some basic processes of population growth and change? Total population: total number of people in a society, red Death rate: black Birth rate: grey How a population theoretically changes over time Stage 1: o Preindustrial society, hunter/gatherer Stage 2: o Better farming, healthcare, sanitation o Early stages of industrialization Human Geography Chapter 3: Population Growth Stage 3: o People are having less kids, increase use of contraceptives o People working in industries/ wage jobs rather than farms o Increase urbanization/ industrialization Stage 4: Death and birth rates are both low, population levels off o Post industrialization o Smaller families o Fully developed sanitation & infrastructure o Birth rate at 2 Stage 5: birth rate below 2 o Population declining o Birth rate lower than death rate Food and sanitation important in early stages Very hard to get in stages 4 and 5 if woman are not educated o Birth rate declines when woman are more educated Stage Birth Rate Death Rate Population Growth 1 High High Stable or Low 2 High Declining Rapid 3 Declining Declining Moderate to Low 4 Low Low Stable to Low 5 Below Low Decreasing Replacement The Demographic Trap Why are many peripheral and semi-peripheral countries stalled in the transitional phase (2)? o Decline in mortality rates o Continued high birth rates o Getting economic development but not coming within the country so the benefits of economic development do not stay in the country Profits not retained for infrastructure/ social services Is there a population problem? “If population continues to grow we will not be able to sustain the people or environment” Human Geography Chapter 3: Population Growth Thomas Malthus 1790 o Wrote theory that population growth is exponentially but resources grow linearly This causes periods of demographic crisis and correction This is the problem with over population o Suggested solutions to this problem Active population control to poorer/ least educated people o We now have higher outputs of agriculture Also look at distribution o Who is eating what? Calorie intake higher in developed countries o Food waste Most food waste happens in developed world o What do we eat? Developed world eats more meat Production in meat uses more food to feed animals then humans How does this work with standard of living? o Need infrastructure but also don’t need to pollute as much Summary High population does cause challenges o Education, healthcare Not proper infrastructure and economy causes higher population but not necessarily higher consumption Organizations that go to developing world and tell people to limit population growth o Over simplification o Programs actively denying the impact of the developed, first world, and economy and pointing finger on woman having a lot of kids developing countries * Population movement not on test!!!* Chapters 1,2,3 and 7 on test India & China: developing Europe and US: developed Human Geo Chpt. 1 pages 3-6 & 22-29 Chapter 1 “Pop” Quiz 1. China a. 1.4 billion China b. 1.26 billion India c. 323 million USA 2. English a. Mandarin Chinese b. Spanish c. English 3. $35,000 a. $51,000 median b. 31,000 per person white c. 30,000 per person Asian d. 18,000 per person black e. 15,000 per person Hispanic 4. 600 dollars 5. 200,000 a. 21 million refugees b. 65 million forcibly relocated c. Somalia, Syria, Afghanistan 6. 15% a. 54% 7. 75% a. 195 million b. 1 and 7 households in the US food insecure c. Athens Clarke county poorest county in GA 8. 90% a. 33% food wasted 9. 25% a. 40% 10. 45% a. 34% Defining Geography Geo: “earth”, graphy: “to describe (or write) “…Science that studies the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities and the interdependence of all these over space.” Space, Spatial Interested in the relationship between people and the space How spatial context affects the contents Human Geo Chpt. 1 pages 3-6 & 22-29 Geography is not only descriptive but considers: Why are places/people where they are? How is a place changing (over time, across space? How do humans influence their environment? (And vice versa) How and why are resources (of all types, not just natural) unevenly distributed? How and why are socio-economic characteristics… Geography is INTERDISCIPLINARY Span physical sciences and social sciences o on test Human geography, Physical geography, Geographic techniques Geography Matters Geography matters because it is specific places that provide the settings for people’s daily lives. Provide opportunities and constraints for people Places and regions are highly interdependent, each playing specialized roles in complex networks of interaction and change. At the same time, specific places are unique Places Are specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes How we put meaning into places o We socially construct this as humans o Not just there, but made o Constantly changing and contested Places reflect difference/ inequality Example o The UGA arch is a place o Socially constructed has a lot of meaning o Students don’t walk through unless you don’t want to graduate in time o Also “contested”- who gets to enter? o UGA desegregation 1961 Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes first to desegregate UGA Example o “Downtown Athens” Human Geo Chpt. 1 pages 3-6 & 22-29 o Non white students discriminated against at the bars/ downtown Example o Haiti & Dominican Republic: one island two worlds o Haiti very improvised and DR is pretty well off o Has to do with colonization of the island Why hold the 1963 civil rights march at the Lincoln Memorial? o Symbolic o Produces memories Places can be specific or generalized o This type of place is found across Georgia Places influences people’s well-being and their opportunity Places are controlled o Most of DT Athens is on camera Regions Are territories that encompass many places, all of most which share attributes different from the attributes of places elsewhere. Landscape Visual representations of society o Murals, parks Sense of place Feelings associated with a place How we feel about a place / how a place makes us feel Maps Matter! Simplified the world o Choice of what to map makes it a reality Gall-Peters Projection o Created to make more accurate representation of continents Mercator Projection o Not relative to size of countries o Makes things bottom and top larger Projection takes 3D surface and makes it flat o Causes distortion Spatial Scale What is the spatial extent What happens on one scale does effect other scales Human Geo Chpt. 1 pages 3-6 & 22-29 What is important and the outcome of things differ from scales Developing a Geographical Imagination It is useful to think of places and regions as representing the cumulative legacy of successive periods of change Human Geography T est 1 09/13/2016 ▯ Geography “… Science that studies the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities and the interdependence of all these over space.” Key Questions o Why are places/ people where they are? o How is a place changing (over time, across space)? o How do humans influence their environment (vice versa) o How and why are resources (all types, not just natural) unevenly distributed? ▯ ▯ Spatial Interested in the relationship between people and space How spatial context affects the contents Spatial scale o What is the spatial extent o What happens on one scale does affect other scales o What is important and the outcome of things differ from scales ▯ ▯ Interdisciplinary Geography spans physical and social sciences Human geography, physical geography, geographic techniques ▯ ▯ Key ways geographical thinking is important Specific places provide the settings for people’s daily lives Provide opportunities and constraints for people Places and regions are highly interdependent, each playing specialized roles in complex networks of interaction and change Place “specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes” socially construct places as humans o not just there, but made constantly changing and contested reflect difference/ inequality influences people’s well-being and opportunity Example o Downtown Athens ▯ ▯ Sense of Place Feelings associated with a place How we feel about a place/ how a place makes us feel Geographic Imagination It is useful to think of places and regions as representing the cumulative legacy of successive periods of change “allows us to understand changing patterns, processes, and relationships among people, places and regions” ▯ ▯ Why maps are important Simplification of the world o choice of what to map makes it a reality “lie” with maps o projection takes 3D surfaces and make it flat which causes distortion o also depending on what you choose to map can affect how a place is received ▯ ▯ Map projections Gall-peters projections o created to make a more accurate representation of continents Mercator projection o Not relative to size of counties o Makes things at bottom and top of map larger ▯ ▯ ▯ Globalization “the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.” – Knox and Marston in order to understand globalization, must understand history Examples: o McDonalds in China ▯ ▯ Evolution of globalization Hearth areas: geographic settings where new practices have developed and from which have spread o Middle East o South Asia o China o The Americas Mini systems: agricultural-based groups that were both more extensive and stable. Has a reciprocal social economy o Everyone specializes in something and gives excess to others for free ▯ ▯ Silk Road a series of overland trade routes between china and Mediterranean Europe ▯ ▯ Colonization “the physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state” Effects of colonialism o Export driven economies Creates dependency/ reliance on imports o Colonial boundaries promoted political instability Boundaries imposed artificially on ethnic groups without any regard to ethnic, social, religious groups in such areas o Infrastructure that promotes the culture of colonizers Cultural hegemony o “by enforcing the norms and customs of the colonizers’ cultures, schools, housing, religious institutions, and doctors reinforced the cultural hegemony of colonization” ▯ ▯ Neocolonialism “economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain their influence over other areas or people” shift from direct control to indirect control ▯ ▯ Classifying Countries Core, 1 world, Developed o Dominate trade, have advanced economies and technologies, high standard of living Semi- Periphery, 2 nd world o Have some control over periphery countries but still adheres to corerdountries Periphery, 3 world, Developing o Most dependent, less developed economies, lower standard of living ▯ ▯ Transnational Corporation Operate globally like McDonalds or Starbucks but corporate headquarters in economic dominant countries o Majority of profits going back to developed countries not necessarily countries the stores are in Land Grab o New land and resources bought by transnational companies rather than countries Corporations currently buying land in Africa/ South America ▯ ▯ Commodity Chain Networks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials and whose end result is the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity ▯ ▯ World System With increased social, economic, and political interactions associated with colonization, neocolonialism, and capitalism, a world- system has been developed o this is a set of interdependent countries, linked by political and economic competition ▯ ▯ Population Geography Why is it important? o Concerned with virtual aspects of a populations o There are distinct patterns in global population geography o Way we measure a population also constructs ideas about that population Current World Population o 7.45 billion people ▯ ▯ Demography “the study of characteristics of human populations.” Knox and Marston Problems with demographic data o Cost o Under/over reporting Minorities, children, lower income, undocumented aliens all underreported Higher income people and college students counted twice sometimes o Response rate ▯ ▯ Population Distribution Population density o 95% od the world lives on 10% of the earth ▯ ▯ Census Government must count every human being in U.S. boarders every 10 years Why do this? o Legislative representation Districts are redrawn to have same amount of people in each district o Resource distribution o Taxes How has it changed through time? o Asks name, sex, age, race Racial category changed over time Racial classification in U.S. o American are increasingly multi-racial o People can identify themselves millions of ways ▯ ▯ Vital Records Birth Certificate Death Certificate Marriage Certificate ▯ ▯ Population Statistics Crude birth rate o Number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 Total fertility rate o Number of births expected for childbearing (15-45) women Infant mortality rate o Number of deaths under one year of age occurring among live births during a given year, per 1,000 Rate of natural increase Population patterns o Developed countries have lower crude birth/ infant mortality rates o Developing countries have higher crude birth/ infant mortality rates o As women’s education/ entrance in the work force is increased fertility rates decrease ▯ ▯ Age-Sex Pyramid Visualizing age distribution Pyramid shaped o more triangular shaped, the faster the population is growing See patters of war or population issues ▯ ▯ Demographic Transition Model How a population theoretically changes over time Stage Birth Rate Death Rate Population Growth 1 High High Stable or low 2 High Declining Rapid 3 Declining Declining Moderate to low 4 Low Low Stable to Low 5 Below Low Decreasing replacement Stage 1: preindustrial society, hunter/ gatherer Stage 2: early stages of industrialization o better farming, healthcare and sanitation Stage 3: increase urbanization/ industrialization o Increase use of contraceptives, more infrastructure Stage 4: post industrialization o Fully developed sanitation and infrastructure o Birth rate at 2 Stage 5: o Birth rate below 2 ▯ ▯ Malthusian View Thomas Malthus wrote a theory that because population growth is exponential and resource growth is linear, periods of crisis and correction is caused to deal with overpopulation Suggests population control to poorest/ least educated people o Just because more people are born in developing world doesn’t mean they consume more of earths resources Developing world consumes more ▯ ▯ 5 Key Functions of Space ▯ ▯ Place Reflects power Produced, experienced, contested Perception or understanding ▯ ▯ Territoriality Process of inclusion and exclusion 3 characteristics o regulates social interaction o regulating access to people or resources o provides focus and symbol of group membership/ identity ▯ ▯ Cognitive Images Process of simplification that distorts places 5 elements of simplification o Paths o Edge o Districts o Nodes o Landmarks Mental Maps o These 5 things help create a mental map of a place o Socio-economic status can affect cognitive images ▯ ▯ Landscape Landscapes of power o The white house Ordinary landscapes o Neighborhoods Derelict Landscapes o Associated with danger and despair College Park ▯ ▯ Coded Space Landscapes can be read as texts for who or what is important, not important, values, desires, etc. ▯ ▯ Modernity & Place-making Modernity: emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, technology and progress o Can be seen through landscapes Highways in Beijing vs. traditional neighborhood in Beijing Globalization & Place-Making o spread of modernity to peripheral regions o commonalities of shared, global consciousness o while globalization makes things similar, at the same time there are place-making process that make places unique ▯ ▯ How do places reflect or contest consumption? 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