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Human Anatomy & Physiology

by: Ashley Eller

Human Anatomy & Physiology BIO 1121/1222

Marketplace > Sinclair Community College > Biology > BIO 1121/1222 > Human Anatomy Physiology
Ashley Eller
Sinclair Community College

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About this Document

These notes cover the basics of the cell theory and the plasma membrane
Human Anatomy & Physiology I & II
Eric Geiman
cellular biology, cellular biology, Cytology
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Eller on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1121/1222 at Sinclair Community College taught by Eric Geiman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I & II in Biology at Sinclair Community College.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 3:  The Cellular Level of Organization >A Introduction to Cells ● Cell theory ○ Smallest living unit within the body (performs vital functions) ○ Building blocks of all plants and animals ○ All cells come from the division of preexisting cells ○ Each cell maintains its own homeostasis ● Cells are surrounded by extracellular fluid (EF), which is the fluid outside of the  cell. ● Consists of a plasma membrane or layer surrounding the cytoplasm ○ Cytoplasm consists of cytosol (intracellular fluid; IF or fluid inside  the cell), and organelles suspended in the cytosol ○ Cytosol = fluid; Organelles = solids ● Individual cells link or bind together (by the plasma membrane) to form tissues 3­1  > Introduction to the Plasma Membrane ● Functions: ○ Physical Isolation:  separates cell contents from the extracellular  fluid ○ Structural Support:  plasma membrane binds to other plasma  membranes or extracellular materials to form stable tissues ○ Exchanges with the Environment:  permits passage of ions,  nutrients, waste, or secretions to come and go from the cell ○ Sensitivity to Environment:  detects changes in the extracellular  fluid, such as concentration or pH ● Primary components ○ Lipids ○ Proteins ○ Carbohydrates  > Membrane Lipids ● Makes up most of the surface area of the plasma membrane ● Plasma membrane is often called the phospholipid bilayer ○ Phospholipid bilayer:  double layer of phospholipid chains; each  phospholipid has a hydrophilic (water­loving) head, and two hydrophobic (water­ fearing) tails                                                                  ○ Both layers stand opposite of one another with the tails facing  inward toward each other, and the heads facing outward toward the extracellular  fluid on one side, and the intracellular fluid on the other                                                                       ○ Lipid bilayer also contains cholesterol and a small amount of other lipids. ○ Water and solutes cannot cross the lipid portion of the plasma  membranes because of the hydrophobic tails. ○ Hydrophobic tails effectively isolate the cytosol from the  extracellular fluid; this is very important because cytosol is very different from the  EF. > Membrane Proteins ● Proteins are more dense than lipids ● 2 structural classes of proteins: 1. Integral Proteins:  spans the length of the plasma membrane and  are therefore, called transmembrane proteins; these proteins cannot be removed  from the membrane without causing damage or destroying the membrane 2. Peripheral Proteins:  binds to inner or outer surface of the  membrane and are easily separated ● 6 types of functional proteins: 1. Anchoring Proteins ■ Binds plasma membrane to other cells’ membranes or extracellular protein fibers ■ Binds plasma membrane to intracellular fibers or  the cytoskeleton (a network of supporting filaments in the cytoplasm) to  hold the structure of the cell 2. Recognition Proteins ■ Also called identifiers ■ Recognizes other cells as normal or abnormal  based on the recognition proteins located on the surface of the cell ■ Glycoproteins are important recognition proteins 3. Enzymes ■ Catalyzes chemical reactions in the extracellular  fluid or the cytosol, based on the position of its active site ■ Enzymes in the plasma membrane can be integral  or peripheral 4. Receptor Proteins ■ Sensitive to ligands (extracellular molecules that  can be anything from small ions to large hormones) ■ Ligands bind to the appropriate receptor protein  and can initiate cellular change 5. Carrier Proteins ■ Binds to solutes and transports them across the  plasma membrane ■ May require ATP as an energy source 6. Channels ■ Proteins with a central pore (opening) that forms a  passageway completely across the membrane ■ Permits movement of water and small solutes ■ Many channels are very specific, and allow the  passage of only one particular ion > Membrane Carbohydrates ● Made up of complex molecules, such as: ○ Proteoglycans ○ Glycolipids ○ Glycoproteins  ● Extends out from plasma membrane creating a sticky surface known as  the glycocalyx ● 4 main functions of the glycocalyx: 1. Lubrication & Protection ■ Glycoproteins and glycolipids form a  viscous layer over the surface of the plasma membrane that lubricates  and protects it 2. Anchoring & Locomotion ■ Creates a sticky surface which helps to  keep the cell in place ■ Also takes part in locomotion of specialized  cells 3. Specificity in Binding ■ Glycoproteins and glycolipids act like  receptors to bind specific extracellular compounds.  This can alter the cell surface, and affect the cell’s behavior. 4. Recognition ■ Immune response cells can recognize  glycoproteins and glycolipids as normal or abnormal ■ Characteristics of the glycocalyx are  genetically determined ■ Body’s immune system will recognize its  own glycocalyx as “self” or as “foreign” so that it won’t attack itself, but  can still identify and destroy invading pathogens


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