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Notes for Midterm

by: Dae 'Janae Anderson

Notes for Midterm POL_S 102

Dae 'Janae Anderson
GPA 3.5

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These notes cover chapters 1-5 for the midterm exam in 2 weeks!
Comparative Politics
Pip Cawley
comparative, Politics
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Dae 'Janae Anderson on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POL_S 102 at Washington State University taught by Pip Cawley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Sciene at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
What is politics about?  The transformation of private preferences into public choices  What is comparative politics about?  The systematic study of how people around the world make and contest authoritative public choices  The foundations of comparative politics  Comparative politics focuses on: o Patterns concerning political events   i.e. campaigns or elections o Patterns pertaining to historical eras  i.e. the enlightenment or the Cold War  we are still dealing with the ramifications of the Cold War o Patterns concerning recently relevant events  i.e. democratization in the Muslim countries The comparative Method  Asking questions o About real world events  Formulating hypotheses o Link cause and effect o Can be tested across multiple cases o Should e falsifiable  Formulated to allow for the possibility that they hypothesized relationship can be shown  to be incorrect  o The method of agreement  o The method of difference  Challenges of comparative research  Evidence: is unclear or subject to multiple interpretations  The object of study: changes often   Data: is not obtained through replicable lad experiments, but under changing circumstances  Conclusion: all arguments in comparative politics are necessarily provisional   Separating correlation from causation: correlation does not equal causation (one does not cause the  other), we rely on comparison in the order to discern patterns across cases   Identify causation: can be achieved by finding a logical explanation for patterns and correlations  Assessing unreliable information: importance of clear definitions. Challenges in finding or collecting  reliable data and information   Quantitative Research o Computer analysis of statistical data o Precise cause­effect assessment  o Challenge: emphasis on breadth over depth  Looks at multiple countries, therefore the depth is sacrificed because they are looking at  such a large sample   Qualitative Research o In­depth understanding of events and phenomena o Challenges:  Little generalization  Detail trap (follow details that are not causal of what you’re looking for)  Erroneous over­emphasis of one causal factor  Mixed Method Research o Employs both quantitative and qualitative studies  Conclusion  Comparative politic: o The systematic study of a complex, fast changing world  Book structure and chapters overview o Focus on interesting and important questions o Real world examples and politics puzzles o Presentation and discussion of competing hypotheses o Critical thinking and analysis exercises o Conclusion: in­depth discussion and review material  Assignment: Due by Friday 11:55 PM Email her with a picture of ourselves Hey this is my name, major & why I took/want to learn in your class  8.26.2016 How to think critically  Isn’t it all just a matter of opinion? o Some opinions are well formed and intelligently reasoned o Om opinions are off­the­cuff or ignorant  How do you tell which is which?  What is an argument? o An argument is a conclusion supported by one or more premises o In other words, it is any statement that attempts to link causes   Aristotle wrote that an argument is good if:  It is self­evidently true  It is proven by other statements   Argument from induction o Induction means arguing from the specific to the general o Example: does raising the minimum wage increase unemployment?  Argument from deduction o Deduction means arguing from the general to the specific o Example: Sherlock Holmes often connected general rules, probabilities, and regularities  Argument of fortiori o An argument a fortiori is one in which someone argues that if a quality does not exist where it is  likely to exist, it certainly does not exist where it is unlikely to exist   Appeal to consequences o Usually used to counter another person’s argument o You can show that the consequences of someone else’s position are either false or inconsistent o You can show that the consequences of an argument would undermine the initial intent of the  argument    Don’t have an argument o Make a list o Even if you don’t have a polished argument, begin by making a list of reasons why you think A  is the case and B is not  Is critiquing easier?  It is easier to demolish someone else’s argument than build you own? Critiquing  Is the argument self­evidently false? o Is the Earth flat? o Does the argument use selective examples? o Especially troublesome in social sciences. o Which examples are left out?  Logical fallacies o Is the argument tautological?  Is it a circular argument? o Is the conclusion included in the premises?  Is it even an argument or simply disguised as such? o Is the argument an appeal to history?  “but we have always done it this way.” o Is the argument an appeal to authority?  My mom says that… o Is the argument an ad hominem attack?  His testimony is unreliable because he is a convict  Attack on their character not on the politics  o Is the argument a straw man?  President Obama wants to take away your guns   False representation of someone’s argument The state The ability to step outside our own stereotypes and preconceptions in politics is the most important step toward comparative political research. The state  A state is a political and legal entity maintains sovereignty   States hold as central role in global politics o States have held this role since the Treaty of Westphalia that ended the 30 years war in 1648  Success and stability of a state rests on: o Legitimacy  The degree to which citizens willingly accept the state’s sovereign authority to use power o Sovereignty  The ultimate responsibility for and legal authority over the conduct of internal affairs  o Efficiency   The ability of states to maintain effective order   Determines if a state is successful or failing  Sovereignty  Is the supreme authority within a given territory   Ultimate responsibility   Sovereignty has an international component as well o The international community must view the state as legitimate  o To be sovereign is to be “equal aboard, master at home” History of sovereignty  Sovereignty was originally a Christian notion  During the Middle Ages the concept of christ’s body became two fold o Corpus naturale: host consecrated on the alter o Corpus mysticum: the social body of the church   The second notion was taken and transferred to the political body  The idea of the intangible, eternal authority became the early modem European polity  o The state became single, unified, confined within territorial borders, possessing a single set of  interests  Why form a state?  Thomas Hobbes, the Leviathan, 1651 o He argued that popular consent was the key to a state o Previous thinkers relied on the “Divine Right” of kings or coercion to explain the formation of  political societies o He approached the question by imagining life before organized societies  State of nature  “solitary, nasty, brutish, short”  War of all against all  o Anarchy is worse for everyone (no government)   Willing to give up some freedoms to achieve safety and order   Social contract theory  Terminology  Government: a tangible indicator of the state o A physical thing  State: an intangible essence o Concept more than a physical thing  Nation: a cultural group with which members primarily identify   Nationalism: the feeling of belonging to a particular nation and identifying with its goals and symbols  States vs. nations o States exist that are multinational o Nations exist without states  Nation state: a political entity wherein a state contains only one nation of people o Ex. Iceland and japan  Civil society: all groups, individuals, or movements that seek to aggregate people with similar interests  or ideologies  o Ex. Professional org’s, youth and religious org’s (invite people to the org’s to promote their  interest) The Kurds  Single largest nation without a state  o Spread out between several different countries Treaty of Westphalia 1648  Ends the 30 years war o Ends dominance of Papal authority in Europe  Divides pre­modern and modern states o Not instantaneous; states emerged slowly  Shift from sovereignty by Divine Right to secular and popular support o Released from the Church’s claim of temporal power, allowing for the pursuit of self­interest by  leaders, merchants, Political interests and Early state formation  Military context: competition over territory o “war makes the state” o A vicious cycle: increase the warfare led to increase in military expenditure to an increase in  taxation extraction needs, best achieved from larger territory  Economic context: the rise of cities   The cultural identity context o Declined of feudalism, individual self­interest replaces notion of predestination o Protestant reformation challenges Papal authority o The Age of Enlightenment   The natural environment and early state of formation o Population density, more people requires better gov’t o The environment lottery: domesticatable animals/crops o Guns, germs, and steel by Jared Diamond   Political interest and late state formation  The military context o Post 1945: few interstate wars o High incidence of civil wars o Lack of military pressure= lack of incentive for the creation of a strong state  The economic context o DEBT= the legacy of European colonialism   Monoculture, economic colonialism  o Lack of experience with independent economic development  Natural environment and late state formation  Difficult territories make the reach of the state more expensive and less efficient o Hypothesis testing: Botswana and Zimbabwe  Geography does not predetermine outcomes  Consequences of late state formation o Weak or failing state Increases likelihood of corruption and civil wars Democratic Political Regimes What is democracy?  A political system in which the rulers are accountable to the ruled  This definition continues to evolve and no state fits it perfectly  Defining democracy  Accountability  o A political mechanism that gives citizens opportunities to remove the rules from office  Participation o Electorate: a group of citizens eligible to participate in the election of government leaders o Universal suffrage: all adults citizens have the right to participate in elections   Contestation o Real competition for power among various parties Requirements for democracy  Elected government o Or be accountable to an elected official who is accountable to the people  Civil liberties o Freedom of expression, of assembly, of the press  Fair and frequent elections o Must strike a balance limited and effective government   Assessing the quality of democracy o Freedom house country rankings o Established in 1941: uses answers to a variety of questions about politics and government  Madison’s Dilemma: Balancing limited and Effective government   Addressed through four principles of constitutional design: o Unitarism vs. federalism  o Unitary state (Unitarism)  Concentrates power  The constitution grants the central government exclusive and final authority over policy­ making across the entire national territory  France, UK, Israel o Federal state (Federalism)  Disperses power  The constitution grants two or more governments overlapping political authority over the  same group of people and same piece of territory  US, Brazil, India, Germany, Mexico o Separation or fusion of powers (executive­legislative relations) o Judicial review vs. parliamentary supremacy  o A majoritarian or proportional electoral system (electoral processes)  Presidentialism (Presidential System): US o The executive and legislative branches enjoy both separation of origin and survival   Separation of origin: the voters directly elect the members of the legislature and cast a  separate ballot directly electing the chief executive, the president   Separation of survival: members of both the executive and legislative branches serve for  fixed terms of office  Both branches “survive” until the end of the term  Parliamentarism (Parliamentary System): UK  Lacks separation of origin and separation of survival  o No separation of origin: the executive originated in the legislature. The chief executive (Prime  minister) is elected by the legislators  o No separation of survival: no fixed terms for the legislative or the executive. The prime minister  can be dismissed by the legislator through a vote of no confidence  Hybrid system (Semi­presidential hybrid): France o Combines features of both Presidentialism and Parliamentarism  Separation of origin: for both the president and parliament   Separation of survival: for the president only  The dual executive: authority is divided between a president and a prime minister  Executive – Legislative Relations  Power under Presidentialism  o Checks and balances are in place o Divided government:  Occurs when the president comes from one party, but a different party controls the  legislative branch (gridlock)  Disperses political power  Power under Parliamentary  o No checks and balances o No formal separation of the executive and legislative power  o If unified, more concentrations of power than presidential system o Coalition governments disperse power within the legislature   Power under semi – Presidential system o Depends on the extent of unilateral powers the constitution gives… Judicial Review v. Parliamentary Supremacy   Judicial review o The ability of a country’s high court to invalidate laws the legislature and/or executive have  enacted, by declaring them unconstitutional  o Established the United States by the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803)  Parliamentary supremacy  o Judges’ decisions remain subordinate to decisions of legislative majority Majoritarian v. Proportional Electoral Processes  Electoral Process o Translate citizens’ votes into legislative seats and/or control of a directly elected executive  Plurality Rule o The candidate who receives the largest share of the votes in the electoral district wins the seat,  even if that share is less than a majority of 50percent +1 of the votes  Majority Rule o Requires that candidates obtain an actual majority of 50percent +1 of the votes in an electoral  district to win  o Second round, they run again and 1 by definition has to have majority  Proportional representation o Distributes proportionally to the vote each party receives  Mixed electoral rules o Combine a plurality or majority electoral rule to elect some… Non­democratic Political Regimes Regime: the basic form of a state’s government (democratic and non­democratic) Non­democratic regimes  The government uses institutions of the state to shape citizen’ interests and identities  Absence of free and fair elections Understanding the Principles of Non­democracy   Selectorate (as opposed to electorate) o A small subset of the national population that chooses and removes the leader Differentiating totalitarian and Authoritarian regimes Distinction based on: 1. the use of ideology 2. the extent of coercive mobilization  3. the degree of social and political pluralism permitted Totalitarian Regimes  Shape the interests and identities of their citizens  Articulate a coherent ideology Use of ideology  Ideology is a set of political beliefs or ideas that structures political interests and that motivates people  to act politically in particular ways Authoritarian regimes  Not focused on promoting an ideology Extent of coercive mobilization  Authoritarian regimes: limited  Totalitarian regimes: extensive  Communism   Classical Marxism o Emphasized class solidarity over nationalism   Proletariat (working class)  Bourgeoisie (property & industry owners) o Capitalism inevitably leads to imperialismthat is why it is wrong  Increasing profits requires reducing costs  Reducing costs means reducing wages  Lower wages mean less of a home market  Need for new markets leads to expansion  Colonial possessions provide new markets and free or cheap labor   Marx and Engel’s Vision o Not a totalitarian ideology o A system that eliminates private property  o Economic hierarchies no longer exist in society  Lenin’s Vision o A communist revolution led by one elite of party leaders o A totalitarian regime  o Creation of a Soviet Union  o Cuba & North Korea Fascism   Totalitarian ideology based on: o Social Darwinism   Notion that certain races are inherently superior and would inevitable conquer the weaker ones o Extreme forms of nationalism  o Charismatic, personalist leaders o Use of violence  Monarchies  Absolute monarchy o No Selectorate exists, thus the ruler answers to no one  Constitutional monarchy  o Formal limits on the monarch’s powers o Protects citizens from abuse of the monarch   Single party regimes o A single political dominates all government institutions and restricts political competition to  maintain itself in power Comparing Institutions of Non­Democratic Regimes Military regimes  Non­democratic regime where the Selectorate is typically limited to the highest ranks of the military  officer corps  Junta: the group of leaders of a military regime Oligarchies  “Rule by the law”  The Selectorate consists of a small social, economic, or political elite, who select a leader to represent  their interests  Unstructured  Theocracies  Are distinct from all other forms of non­democracy discussed thus far  Their leaders claim divine guidance to hold the authority to rule Personalistic Regimes   System built around the glorification and empowerment of a single individual  Conclusion  Totalitarian regimes dominate, coerce, mobilize, and indoctrinate their citizens to accept the official  state ideology   Authoritarian leaders are mainly preoccupied with de­mobilizing citizens to solidify their hold on power   Communism and fascism were the dominate totalitarian ideologies of the twentieth century  Regime Change Historical Trends  Historical trends help us understand the causes of regime change o The first waves have been followed by ‘reverse waves’ democracies collapsed into dictatorships o First wave: 1825­1925  First wave reverse: 1925­1945 o Second wave: 1945­1960  Second wave reserve: 1960­1974 o Third wave: 1974­1995  Started in the middle of the cold war Domestic cause of Regime change   The Civic Culture Argument o “No democrats? Then no democracy.”  Civic culture: an aspect of culture identity involving high civic engagement, the degree to which citizens participate in public affairs   Political equality: both equal rights and equal obligations  Solidarity: a general trust and respect among citizens   How do we measure civic culture? o Key indicator: individuals’ willingness to for and join social and political organizations   Problems o The “density of organization membership” problem: “good” and “bad” social engagements o The chicken­or­egg problem: does “civic­ness” lead to democracy, or the other way around?  The economic Change Argument o First approach focuses on interests   Economic development can bring about new social classes with interests in political  power  Economic development can cause the emergence of a sizeable middle class  Regime change depends on the strength of the emerging class v. established class  Change requires both sizeable middle class and a weakened wealthy land owning  elite  During the first wave of democratization, non­democratic regimes evolved into stable  democracies in the UK, Sweden, and the Netherlands  o Second approach focuses on identity   Modernization theory  Democracy is not a function of economic growth, but a function of the culture  changes that accompany economic growth o Strong empirical evidence  Resource Curse o Economic growth that relies on only one valuable resource may have a  problematic political consequence  o Oil, coffee, diamonds, etc.  The Role of the Military o Military Coup: occurs when elements in a country’s armed forced overthrow a civilian  government and take control  Most target non­democracies and result in non­democracies  Key factors: o What is the militaries political identity?  Independent or subordinate to the civilian government o Does it view itself as serving a higher power (the nation)? o How does the military view the government/politicians?  2006 Thailand military coup overthrew democratically elected Prime Minister 


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Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


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