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HK 258 notes up to 9/21

by: Olivia Lee

HK 258 notes up to 9/21 HK 258

Marketplace > Purdue University > HK 258 > HK 258 notes up to 9 21
Olivia Lee
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These notes are from every class period up until 9/21
Foundations of Motor Skill Learning
Howard Zelaznik
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Olivia Lee on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HK 258 at Purdue University taught by Howard Zelaznik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
HK 258 – exam 1 8/22/2106  What does the brain do? o Controls the actions of the body  Lots of actions: breathing ad chewing- will not worry about because it doesn’t require any special practice (unless neurologically damaged)  Interested in actions where practice is required: you are deliberately trying to get better: goal of this class is to understand these actions  We call these actions skills  Skills: are motor that require movement, but more importantly require practice  Concerned about the motor aspects of skills  How to move your arms and legs so you achieve the goal  Not do you understand how to do it, but that you can actually do it  Where to throw it – cognitive skill (NOT LEARNING THIS)  How you orchestrate the skills – motor skill (WHAT WE ARE LEARNING)  Performance graph versus practice graph: will show an increasing line and then plateau.  A lot less time to become average, than it does to become expert: usually 10,000 hours of practice to become an expert: people who start younger tend to become better because they have had mre time 8/24/2016  Skills o Performance of skills- concerned with the principle of well practice skills- how well are the skills performed o Acquisition of skills (the learning) – people learn skills first before the excel at performance- how are new skills acquired o Do something in less time  NEVER USE THE TERM MUSCLE MEMORY- physiologically CAN NOT EXIST: athletes can perform a skill without conscious awareness: ‘specificity’  Scientific method: set of ideas and constructs that explains an observable phenomenon o Leads to a prediction  Prediction=experiment=result=theory is supported o Can either support or not support: proving is difficult  Skill: to bring about an end result with maximum certainty and minimum energy expenditure  Efficiency= work done/ energy expenditure  Work = force x distance  Construct: attribute that cannot be observed directly  class  classifying skills: structure of practice o classify based on what the movement characteristics are  most prevalent classification” known as the discrete (have a definite beginning and end)  continuous skill: hard to skill start and end 8/26/16  serial skills:  open skill: have a changing environment- what information you must pay attention to to be successful o responding to the open flight of the ball  closed skills: relevant environment is fixed o bowling: the pins just sit there are the environment isn’t changing o golf: ball sits there o fixation: everything is the same (free throw shooting)  measuring performance: o behavioral measure  ex: ball went in or it didn’t o central tendency  mean/average o precision  always hit the same area, even if it’s wrong  standard deviation: o accuracy:  average distance of a set of scores is from the target value  error: ten minutes early  bias-ten minutes early-negative ten o precision is respected to mean: can be thought of as error to the mean 8/29/16  -bias: measure whether set of score is ‘prejudice’ : tendency o Tendency: why sports scout to see if a pitcher tends to throw one way over another o Constant error=measure of bias  Precision: measure of consistency= variable error o Bigger the variable error: the less precise the person is o Measured in standard deviation (SD) o Will never need calculators on exams o Example  Mean=99.2  96,95,95,105,105  SD from above: -3.2,-4.2,-4.2,5.8,5.8  Sum of deviations from set of data is ALWAYS ZERO  Sum of deviations is a measure is precision- can’t help because you will always get zero  Find precision by SQUARING the scores  10.24, 17.64, 17.64, 30.25, 30.25= sum of deviation squared  this equals 106.2/5=21.2, then take square root  =4.6 o Example A  119,119,119,119,119 & the target was 100  SD=zero, mean=119, 19 is the target error  Precision is with respect to the average  Very consistent o Example B  96,95,95,105,105 & target is 100  Compared with above:  Always shows some inconsistently  Variable error=0 DO NOT KNOW HOW ACCURATE, BUT YOU KNOW HOW PRECISE THEY ARE  Causation doesn’t occur with just one event  Tracking: o Ex: driving: must keep the car in the lane  Root Mean Square Error o Take the score at the assigned interval minues where you should have been (target) o (Xi-T)^2 add all together, divide by the number, and take the square root 8/31/2016  Information processing: o Visual information is transferred into a motor response (like hitting a baseball) o Visual information can be called a stimulus – goes to brain- gets processed- and out comes a response o Response selection & response execution o Reaction time: when gun goes of o Reaction time reduction is not important for a marathon runner, but is important for a sprinter  Variables that efect reaction time o Stimulus response alternatives o Simple reaction time; o Choice reaction time: more than one stimulus and a unique response associated with each stimulus o Reaction time increases gets smallers and smaller as the reaction time gets larger and larger (graph)- can use logs to figure it out o HICKS LAW: 1948 o RT on the Y axis, Log2(N) on the X axis o Information is not facts: it just reduces your uncertainty o Binary questions  2 blocks = 1 questions o Elmhurtst school o Lower north5 hall 190 prospect ave elmhurst 60261  Cycle number 209  9/2/2016 o Reaction time increases as the scores increase o Reaction time increases with number of choices in a curvilinear fashion, not at equal increments o SR compatibility: naturalness of the relation between A and the nature of the response o Simple: pressing your left index finger on the key, and right index finger on the key  Smallest reaction time when it lines up on the body, but cross body stimulus makes it more confusing o The brain thinks about movement in external space o American journal of psychology o Compatibilities: population stereotypes  9/7/2016 o Relationship between the log to the base 2 for number of alternatives & reaction time= relationship is linear.  Hick’s law  With practice, you can reduce your reaction time  With lots of practice: simple and choice diference doesn’t go away  Can’t reduce the one to two diference  Simple reaction time: no response selection process o Stimulus identification & response execution  Anticipation: process by which a performance reduces the potential number  Event anticipation: what & when something will occur- spatial  Temporal anticipation  Reaction time on the Y axis, anticipation on the X axis: reduction in reaction time if you anticipate correctly  Reduction in reaction time is a benefit of correctly anticipating  Cost benefit analysis:  9/9/16     Feedback in motor control  o Feedback­ Sensory information about movement, which is produced by the act of movement  What the movement looks, feels, and sounds like  Make sensory info when you move  o Intrinsic feedback  Proprioception­ sensory info about the state of your emotion  Exteroception (made up) – what info you have about the external environment  o Extrinsic feedback   Teacher or coach giving info   Sometimes called Augmented ­> in addition to what you get from the act of movement    Information processing stages  o Stimulus enters information processing box and out comes movement  o Look at notes  o Movement changes the environment internally and externally  o Changes are just like stimuli that can be used by information processing stages ­> to further process or alter  o Seen as “fed back” to the information processing stages AKA feedback  o Closed­loop process   Called closed bc feeback going back into information processing closes the loop   Closing eye and counting steps is an open loop process bc feedback is ignored    Not that its not there, just ignored    Proprioception  o Vestibular   Give info about head acceleration   Tubes in your ear called semicircular canals that have fluid in them  o F=ma    Joint Receptors  o Provide info about joint position    Muscle receptors  o Muscle spindles   First discovered under a microscope they looked like spindles    Muscles contract = shorten    Biceps shorten and triceps lengthen   Provide info about the length of the muscle and how quickly it is lengthening or contracting   They fire and discharge neural signals    Fire more = faster with higher frequency    Source of feedback we can use to see how our muscles move   Give us length and velocity of length    Golgi tendon organs (receptor type)  o Golgi developed a technique for seeing the receptors ­> inject dye   Dye stains the receptor  o Tendons­ muscles are attached to and fixed to bone   Muscle generates force on the tendon which applies pulling force on the bone   Puts pulling forces at the bone  o Lie in series bc muscle and tendon organ in series   Send signals to the CNS to reduce the force    Cutaneous receptors o 9/12/16  Closed loop control: look up diagram in text  This loop is controlling your outcome  Example: thermostat is controlling the air conditioning/heat  Closed loop control and closed skill relationship: no relationship between the two: deal with diferent things  Closed loop control is time consuming: limitation   Rapid proprioceptive control: used to correct for an execution error  Your movement is faster than you wanted  M1 reflex: stretch reflex (monosynaptic stretch reflex) 50- 80milliseconds- can’t change goal of movement  M2 reflex: long loop reflex 120 milliseconds: feedback from muscle spindles goes to lower brain centers - can’t change goal of movement 9/14/16  Visual motor control o Retina(is a mess/image is upside down)-optic nerve(all the information is channeled) -visual cortex-dorsal or ventral o Visual world is impoverished- our brain must add information so we can see the world as it really is o Two visual systems  “what”(perceptual) – ventral system  ‘where’ (motor) – dorsal system  Blindsight-individuals whose eye intact, nothing is locally wrong  Blind individuals are able to avoid foam objects on the ground even though they are legally blind, the dorsal system triggers the brain to avoid the objects  Ventral stream called-focal visions  Ambient vision- dorsal stream o Bridgeman experiment  Light in front of the screen, screen behind it can easily move  Experiments fooled the ventral system o Dissociation: between visual perception and visual motor control  Visual perception: ventral processing  Motor control: dorsal processing 9/16/16  Optical flow: there are principle changes in visual information that are coupled to movement of biological organisms o Very powerful to govern movement  Time to contact (Tau) o Tau is optimal parameter that specifies time to contact  Computations: indirect fashion  Dynamical system approach: 9/19/16  Keetle and Poser: duration of visual processing o Subjects go from a land position o Time goal of 150, 250, 350, 450 milliseconds o Independent variable: movement time goal, other variable is vision (full vision versus no vision) o Variable that’s measured: percent correct hitting the target= dependent variable o Visual processing somewhere between 190 and 260  Zelazik: 50/50 if the subject had the lights on or of  Saccadic suppression:  Because VBR is slow (time consuming), closed time cannot be used, open loop must be used for duration movement 9/21/16  Motor Program- construct – we can’t directly see it  Performers plan a movement and that ‘triggers’ that movement into actions  Movement seems to be executed without awareness  Define motor program as a pre-structured set of motor commands that controls movement in an open loop fashion  Motor program Examples: o athlete often can’t remember what they were thinking about during a final play o Toaster: turn it on with the dial, put a thin piece of bread in there, toaster won’t stop earlier if it senses the toast is burning o With practice, people develop skills automatically in an open loop fashion  Open loop control o Must specify the sequence of the activity o Must specify the timing of the activity o Execute your instructions faithfully, even if its ‘wrong’ o Feedback is ignored, although it is present o You have to predict the future  Evidence for motor program control o Henry & Rogers in books(5.1 in book) all simple reactions- no response selection  Finger lift task: A task 150mS  A task + slap the ball: B Task 195mS  B+ push the strip and grasp the other ball: C task 208mS  150, 195, 208 are the results  Results: A has smallest reaction time, C had the longest reaction time  Reaction time ends when the movement begins, how fast the finger came of  Explanation of result: reaction time increase as the movement complexity increases o Study that Slater-Hamel  Clock hand that swung around once per second, can release finger from the key


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