Part 7, 8, 9 Theory Outline
Part 7, 8, 9 Theory Outline CRJ 308
Popular in Advanced Criminological Theory
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Part VII I. Labeling Theory a. Contemporary i. The revisionist position emerged and with contact with the criminal justice system it increased recidivism ii. 3 theoretical developments 1. Informal Reactions Matsueda a. Focused on the informal social reactions i. Ex) families reaction to criminal behavior b. Argued the main immediate cause of delinquent behavior is the “ reflected appraisals of others” i. Delinquents think people see them as delinquents so they do delinquent things 2. Reintegrative Shaming Braithwaite a. Argues that when criminal act occurs, attempts are made to “shame” the person b. Two types of shaming i. Stigmatizing shaming = increased criminal behavior ii. Reintegrative Shaming = reduces criminal behavior 1. More likely when individuals are enmeshed in multiple relationships of interdependency and live in a communitarian society 3. Defiance Theory Sherman a. Comprehensive theory of criminal sanctions b. Incorporates 3 theories i. Reintegrative shaming ii. Tyler’s procedural justice iii. Scheff and Retzinger’s “Master emotions” c. Defiance = net increase in prevalence, incidence, or seriousness of future offending against sanctioning community caused by proud, shameless reaction to the administration of criminal sanction i. Specific vs. general ii. Direst vs. indirect d. Conditions of defiance (Concepts of defiance) i. Offender defines criminal sanctions as unfair (Legitimacy) ii. Offender is poorly bonded to or alienated from the sanctioning agent or community the agent represents (Social Bonds) iii. Offender defines sanctions as stigmatizing (Shame) iv. Offender defines or refuses to acknowledge the shame the sanction as caused (Pride) b. Policy implication i. Restorative Justice 1. Backed by Braithwaite and Sherman 2. Key Components a. Everybody involve attended including the families of the victim and offender, community members, and a mediator b. Come up with a plan to restore the harm that has been caused c. No incarceration for the offender 3. Research a. The victims have more satisfaction b. It lessens recidivism The labeling theory discusses how criminals are more likely to stay criminals and commit more crimes if they are constantly labeled and stigmatized as criminals. There is a higher chance of recidivism if they are excluded from the normal social roles. Criminals who find it hard to find housing and jobs because of their criminal records they are more likely go back to the criminal life. This is known as stigmatized shaming. Reintegrative shaming, on the other hand, can reduce recidivism. Reintegrative shaming is the opposite of stigmatized shaming. Part VIII I. Critical Criminology (aka Conflict, radical, or Marxian) a. Build of the work of Karl Marx believed that capitalism enriched some but impoverishes many and there was a wide economic gap. b. Crime is political i. Crime should be defined as a violation of human rights c. CJ system serves the interest of the capitalist class d. Capitalism is the root cause of criminal behavior (according to bonger it breeds crime and crime is also caused by egoism) i. The human rights of the poor people are ignored ii. Fertile environments for corporate crimes e. The solution to crime is a more equitable society i. More support for humane polices ii. Advocate for fair distribution of wealth and power f. Capitalism and crime i. Bonger applied the Marxist thought to crime 1. Marx and capitalism in the demoralization of working classs 2. Economy play major role in crime 3. Capitalism weakens social bonds a. Bourgeoisie exploit the Proletariat 4. Socialism should replace capitalism g. Currie: Crime in the Market Society i. Multiple forms of capitalism 1. Compassionate/ Parternalistic/ Contingent ii. Market society pursuit of personal economic gain becomes increasingly dominate organizing principle of society 1. 7 pathway that lead to crime a. Breed violant crime by destroying livlihood b. Inherent tendency towards extremes of inequality and material deprivation c. Weakens the different kinds of public support d. Takes away public support and wears down the informal social support e. Promotes a culture that exalts individual competition and consumption over community values f. Deregulates technology of violence g. Weakens and erodes alternative political values and institutions h. Colvin: Crime and Coercion i. Differential Coercion Theory integrated theory of chronic criminality 1. Coercion is where a person is forced to act in a certain way through either direct force and intimidation or through pressure of impersonal economic and social forces a. The more coercion= greater criminal involvement 2. Consistency ranges from highly consistent to highly erratic 3. 4 types of Control a. Noncoercive, consistent control b. Noncoercive, erratic control c. Coercive, consistent control d. Coercive, erratic control i. Richard Quinney Peacemaking Criminology i. Attempts to show how individuals and social policies might create conditions in which the sources of crime will not be nourished ii. Suggests that crime is suffering iii. Goal of peacemaking criminology is to seek to end suffering and eliminate crime 1. Argue that when underlying social harms are consistently addressed that individuals who are responsive, mindful, and connected will be less involved in crime 2. Argues that criminologists should use their knowledge to create social justice a. Reject “get tough” responses to crime b. Favor restorative justice programs Critical Criminology started to develop around the same time as the labeling theory. This theory describes how crime occurs because to the disparity of power and material things between the different classes of people. This disparity happened because of capitalism. Capitalism weakened social bonds and disheartened many middle class people. Criminal acts also happened because people had no other choice. they were controlled in the workplace and forced to engage in criminal acts. Part IX I. Feminist Criminology a. Liberal feminism – Had an early influence in the Criminology movement of feminism i. Focuses on the socialization of sexroles and the equality of socialization ii. Adler: sister in crime 1. Argued that social experiences influenced life choices and that gender differences in crime are actually biological and social. a. Size and strength vs. Aggression and dominance 2. Expectation of social role are more important than gender 3. Concluded that Small natural differences between sexes have been polarized and institutionalized to produce gender disparity and that When size and strength are discounted by technology, social expectations and social roles tend to merge 4. Started a movement that said achieving equality between sexes would result in higher female crime (Liberation Thesis) iii. Liberation and crime 1. Crucial in bringing gender into criminology 2. 3 criticisms a. Little to no empirical support b. More common among women who did not achieve gender quality c. Didn’t consider structural roots of inequality – patriarchy b. Patriarchy and Crime i. Radical Feminism Emphasizes role of patriarchy 1. Disparities in sentencing, crime control, and victimization 2. Oppression of women seen as major causes of crime ii. Chesney Lind: Feminist Theory of female Delinquency 1. Disagrees with liberal views a. Argues existing theories do not account for female crime b. Argues that girls are more likely to get sexually abuses i. Most actions of the justice system oppress women and their wrong doings 2. To understand female crime there needs to be more qualitative research done with girls, examination of how families and social settings effect girls, understand how poverty, race and gender effect delinquent girls, and understand how the world reacts to girls’ delinquency c. Gendering traditional Theories i. Many of the variable are the same, but traditional theories do not take into account why there are gender differences ii. Messerschmidt: Masculinities and crime 1. If masculinity is threaten then the likelihood of crime increases and crime happens also to show off masculinity 2. Argues that Feminists have stereotyped men, crime and masculinity are closely related, and gender / race / class create different kinds of masculinities. 3. 3 major critiques: a. Females are Omitted from the analysis b. Listing of the ways men demonstrate masculinity is narrow c. Motivation theory says the need to do masculine things may overpredict many criminal acts that are actually committed because they are fun d. Integrated Theory of Gender and Crime i. Argues that gender affects the factors involved in traditional theories ii. Steffensmeier and Allen 1. Noted the shortcomings of the traditional theories and tried to bring feminist theories and traditional theories 2. Element of a Gendered Approach a. Should explain both female and male criminality by revealing how organized of gender deters or shapes delinquency by female, but encouraged it by males b. Should account not only for gender differences in type and frequency, but also different contexts of offending c. Need to consider ways in which women’s routes to crime differ d. Should Explain Extent to which Gender Differences derive from social, historical, cultural, biological and reproductive differences 3. There are 5 things that slow down crime for females and increase crime for males. These factors account for differences by limiting female access to criminal opportunities and limiting the female’s motivation for crime. a. Greater taboo against female crime b. Moral Development and Amenability to affiliation c. Social control d. Physical strength and aggression e. Sexuality Feminist criminology is when the movement of considering gender in crime started. Women commit crime too, so why were they not considered in the criminological theory research from then past? Adler and ChesneyLind both believe that the traditional theories don’t apply to females and they think new theories need to be created to help criminologist understand crime committed by females. Messerschmidt, Steffensmeier and Allen try to explain how the traditional theories can apply to females, if there is more research done. The elements of life, such as social experiences and power, affect men and women differently. Patriarchy is something that helps outline genderrelate experiences. Men commit crime to showoff their masculinity. Feminist criminology was developed to help us understand the relationship between women, men, and crime, unlike other theory that only focus on men and why they commit crime.
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