Part 14, 15, 16 Theory Outline
Part 14, 15, 16 Theory Outline CRJ 308
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Part XIV I. Theory and Race a. Why Race and Crime? i. There are racial disparities in the Criminal Justice System 1. More violent crime occur in segregated Black neighborhoods 2. There is no racial difference in using or selling of drugs b. Most theories argue that people engaged in crime due to exposure to criminogenic social factors and this can lead to race being ignored c. Three major factors used to explain various perspectives i. Structure 1. Blau and Blau (1982) “The Cost of Inequality: Metropolitan Structure and Violent Crime.” a. Linked racial differences to economic inequality (achieved and ascribed) 2. William Julius Wilson (1987) – “The Truly Disadvantaged” a. Spatial arrangement or Black communities is significant 3. Sampson and Wilson (1995) “Toward a Theory of Race, Crime, and Urban Inequality.” a. (More information in Part III outline) b. Argue that if whites and blacks experience equivalent levels of community disadvantage and isolation, then racial differences in culture attenuation and crime would disappear. (Racial invariance hypothesis) c. Cognitive landscapes – ecological structured norms ii. Culture 1. Code of the Street a. Anderson i. (More information in Part IV outline) ii. The street code governs the interaction in socially isolated and disadvantaged neighborhoods. iii. The code is casually related to unconventional behavior b. Kubrin and Weitzer i. Communitylevel concentrated disadvantage positively related to community rates of culturally retaliatory homicide c. Stewart and Simons i. Neighborhood disadvantage positive affected street code beliefs, which was related to violent behavior d. Brezina et al. i. Individual coderelated beliefs related to subsequent violence 2. Miller: Getting played (qualitative study) a. Argued that negative stereotypes and sexual prowess in the street code validate the mistreatment of women b. Black female adolescents are at a higher risk of victimization than girls from other racial groups c. Three facets of violence against women were present i. Exposure to public incidents of physical abuse against women, including domestic violence ii. Young women’s complaints of widespread sexual harassment iii. Sexual assault and coercion d. Three overarching themes: i. Young men more likely to be active participants in street networks ii. facets of neighborhood structured by gender iii. Neighborhood residents’ response to violence against women were unhelpful to victims iii. Perceived discrimination 1. Argue that actual and perceived discrimination can influence criminal behavior (Black and Whites have different world views a. Blacks World view (Unnever and Gabbidon) i. Three main reasons 1. Perceptions of CJ injustices 2. Perceptions of radicalized discrimination and the effects of being negatively stereotyped 3. Racial socialization b. Worldview shared by African Americans causes them to engage in the racial socialization of youth, but racial socialization further reinforces their unique worldview 2. Unnever & Gabbidon (2011) a. Argue that whether or not a person deals with actual or perceived discrimination with crime is due to racial socialization b. Parents teach their children about how their race will cause them to be mistreated and they will teach the kids how to deal with the discrimination. Black parents must racially socialize their children so they understand i. African American culture ii. How to get along with other races iii. How to deal with being a minority c. Four pathways through which racial socialization increase possibility of crime i. Parents who do not racially socialize put children at greater risk for experiencing consequences of racial injustice related to offending ii. Blacks exposed to CJ injustices and discrimination and stereotyped more likely to offend if parents taught them to distrust Whites and Whitedominated institutions iii. Black parents may increase offending if child is inadequately prepared to deal with racial injustices iv. Black youth will develop weak bonds with school or employment if their parents Race is not really discussed in the classic theories. It was not considered as a factor that effected crime rates. This theory describes how race and crime are related. More black live in disadvantaged and isolated communities, and that is usually where most crimes occur. African American people and discriminated against and they know that they will be discriminated against, so parent teach their children how to deal with it. some parent do not teach their children the right way to deal with it and that could lead to the child becoming a criminal. Black and whites have a different view and the world and that also plays a role in the criminogenic risk factors. Part XV I. Integrated Theories of Crime a. Theoretical Integration – formulating a relationship between them i. 3 types (Hirschi,1979) 1. Endtoend The dependent variable of one theory becomes the independent variable of another theory 2. Sidebyside Segregated cases by theory 3. Upanddown Parts of one theory becomes a specific part of a general theory ii. Microlevel (most integrated theories) iii. Macrolevel – EX} Institutional anomie theory iv. Multilevel Describe how macrolevel variables influence the criminal behavior of individuals b. Critics i. Argue that we should focus on the development of individual theories ii. Hirschi Argues that theories being integrated are based on opposing assumptions c. Thornberry Interactional theory (combines Social Bond and Differential Association and Learning theory.) (endtoend) i. Argues that Weak social bonds, association with delinquent peers, and delinquent values contribute to delinquent behavior ii. Basic idea is that human behavior occurs in social interaction and can therefore best be explained by models that focus on interactive processes iii. Stresses the fundamental cause of delinquency lies in weakening social constraints over the conduct of the individual, just like traditional theories. iv. Interactional theory focuses on the interrelationship of 6 concepts 1. Attachment to parent 2. Commitment to school Control 3. Belief in conventional values 4. Associations with delinquent peers 5. Adopting delinquent values Learning 6. Engaging in delinquent behavior d. Akers argues his social learning theory is more general than other microlevel theories (upanddown). Claims social learning theory can be used to make predictions about the relationship between these concepts and their effects on deviance e. Cullen social support and crime (Integrates by highlighting and elaborating on a common theme in several crime theories) i. Social support is a direct causal effect on crime and is an organizing concept fro criminology (4 dimensions of support) 1. The distinction between objective delivery and the perception od support 2. Support is usually divided into two categories a. Instrumental support: the use of the relationship as a means to a goal b. Expressive support: use of relationship as an end as well as a means 3. Support occurs on differential social levels (micro and macrolevel support) 4. Support can be delivered through formal agencies and informal relations ii. 10 propositions 1. America has higher rates of serious crime than other industrialized nations because it is a less supportive society 2. The less social support there is in a community the higher the crime rate will be 3. The more support a family provides the less likely it is that a person will engage in crime 4. The more social support in a person’s social network the less crime will occur 5. Social support lessens the effects of exposure to criminogenic strains 6. Across the life cycle, social support increases the likelihood that offenders will turn away from a criminal pathway 7. Anticipation of a lack of social support increases criminal involvement 8. Giving social support lessens involvement in crime 9. Crime is less likely when social support for conformity exceeds social support for crime 10. Social support often is a precondition for effective social control f. Tittle Control Balance Theory i. Argues 1. The central causal process for crime is the amount of control imbalance experience by the individual 2. Control imbalance affects crime for reasons related to several theories, especially strain, control, and deterrence/rational choice theories 3. his theory can explain the known facts about crime such as the relationship between sex, age, race, and marital status on crime ii. Control imbalance occurs when individuals are subject to more or less control than they exercise over others 1. Control deficit and surpluses g. Agnew: A general Theory (VariableCentered Approach) i. Argues clusters of variables affect crime related to all of the leading theories of crime ii. Argues Clusters are Reciprocally related and each cluster of variables are related to one another and work together to affect crime iii. Crime is most likely when the constraints (Factors that hold individuals back or restrain them from committed crime) against crime are low and the motivations for crime are high. 3 types 1. External control Likelihood that others will detect and sanction criminal behavior 2. Stake in conformity Amount one has to lose if caught 3. Internal control taught from an early age the crime is wrong. Internalized beliefs. High selfcontrol iv. Groups causes into clusters organized around five domains that generally have large effect on individual’s level of offending 1. Personality traits of lowself control and irritability (self) 2. Peer parenting practices and no/bad marriages (family) 3. Negative school experiences and limited education (school) 4. Peer delinquency (peer) 5. Unemployment and work in “bad” jobs (work) v. Causes of crime interact with one another and tend to have a nonlinear effect on crime and one another Integrated theories piece together the already existing theories to create a new theory and help create a better understanding of crime. Most of these theories are micro, but there are a few that are macro. There are even some theories that incorporate both macro and micro. Integrated theories are usually pieced from strain theory, control theory, and social learning theory. There are three main types of integration; endto end, sidebyside, and upanddown. Most integrated theories are lifecourse theories that explain that the causes of crime happen over time during a persons life. Part XVI I. Theory and Policy a. Getting tough on crime i. Some argued the crime was a matter of choice and the best way to control it was through punishment ii. Others argued offenders chose crime because of their moral poverty iii. The is little evidence that punishing offenders or punishing them more severely reduces their level of subsequent offending and Some studies have actually found that punishment increases likelihood of subsequent offending iv. Challenging Getting Tough 1. Reasons that increasing severity of punishment does not lead to a decrease in crime a. Specific deterrence assumes people are rational, however there is reason to question the rationality of many offenders b. Punishment does little to address most causes of crime c. Punishment does not reduce strain, minimize social learning, or increase control d. Punishment may make many causes of crime worse e. The CJ system does not punish in an effective way f. Increasing certainty of punishment reduces offending for general population, but reduction is modest and smaller than effect than other causes of crime g. Difficult to increase certainty of punishment 2. Prison was expected to stop a great deal of crime, but it has not 3. Incarceration has negative consequences a. Harsh stigma, Reduces employment prospects, Very expensive, Concentrated among poor, minority males in impoverished neighborhoods b. Todd Clear (2007) Imprisoning Communities i. 4 central Points 1. Growth in U.S. prison system, sustained over 30 years, has had a small effect on crime 2. Growth in imprisonment has been concentrated among poor, minority males who live in impoverished communities 3. Concentrated incarceration in impoverished communities has broken families, weakened social control capacity of parents, eroded economic strength, soured attitudes toward society, and distorted politics as well as increasing, rather than decreasing crime 4. Any attempt to overcome the problems of crime will have to encompass a combination of sentencing reforms and philosophical realignment ii. Argues neighborhoods suffer from host of problems when there are high incarceration rates Consequences of imprisonment to the community are embedded in three important legitimate systems of neighborhood order 1. More singleparent families (Family) 2. Creates economic problems (Economic) 3. Reduces respect for legal system (Political) 4. All reduce level of control in community. iii. Coercive Mobility Hypothesis High rates of incarceration in poor communities will destabilize social networks in those communities, thereby undermining informal social control and leading to more crime iv. Policy Implication 1. Solution begins with recognition of two threshold points a. Programmatic tinkering has not reduced the prison population to date b. To overcome mass incarceration requires that we incarcerate fewer people 2. To reduce crime, implement community justice a. Justice system should contribute to the quality of life in communities—to help make places where people work, live, and raise their families good places i. 3 elements 1. Emphasis on restoration 2. Emphasis on maintain those who are convicted of crime within their communities 3. Purely punitive sanctions are deemphasized in favor of ameliorative sanctions such as community service 3. Some have responded to criticisms of gettough approaches by exploring how to make sanctions more effective a. Increasing certainty, Crack down on individuals at high risk, Restorative Justice approach, Focus on rational choice and routine activities, and Situational crime prevention c. Cullen, Eck, & Lowenkamp (2002) Environmental Corrections i. Rehabilitation can be effective when following principles of effective intervention works for the Propensity ii. Core proposition of environmental corrections is that the effectiveness of parole and probation will be increased to the extent that officers systematically work with offenders, family and community members, and the police to reduce the extent to which offenders are tempted by and come into contact with opportunities for crime iii. Stress importance of probation and parole officers taking steps to reduce supervisees’ criminogenic propensity and opportunity (Problem Solvers) 1. Informed by opportunity assessment, officers should focus on three tasks a. Try to disrupt routine activities that increase crime opportunities b. Develop daily activity calendars scheduling prosocial activities c. Become handlers for offenders, not just enforcers of supervision 2. Officers should enlist help of offender’s family, prosocial friends, and community members 3. Officers should develop relationships with place managers in the community d. Farrington and Welsh (2007) Saving Children from a Life of Crime i. Argue that it is best to address these causes early in life and Focus mainly on prevention rather than rehabilitation ii. 4 stages of prevention 1. Developmental prevention or riskfocused prevention 2. Community prevention 3. Situational prevention 4. Criminal justice prevention iii. Presents comprehensive national prevention strategy 1. Focus should be on intervening early to save children from a life of crime 2. Grounded in the leading scientific evidence on the causes of offending and what works to prevent delinquency and later offending 3. Needs a clear vision of intent that early prevention of delinquency saves lives All of the theories that are known to us and all of the theories that have yet to be created all help find the right kind of policies to enforce. These polices help create laws to punish crime and help create laws to prevent crime. These theories also help create programs to deter, rehabilitate, and prevent crime. they also help us understand the pros and the cons of policies. Through much research and studying of theories we have learned that more severe crimes do not necessarily work, they actually can cause more crime to occur. It has also helped us make the role of a probation and parole officer more effective.
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