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Unit 1 Criminal Justice Notes

by: Julia Machuga

Unit 1 Criminal Justice Notes CRJU 20413

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Criminal Justice > CRJU 20413 > Unit 1 Criminal Justice Notes
Julia Machuga
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover chapters 1-4 that are on the first exam.
Intro/Criminal Justice
Criminal, Justice, notes, exam, chapters
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Friday September 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CRJU 20413 at Texas Christian University taught by Hughes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro/Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Julia Machuga Criminal Justice Chapter 1  Bill of Rights addresses many of the most important rights in justice system  Crime control is important to politicians & government leaders around the world  Many changes in criminal justice in 20 & 21 centuries due to terrorism  Many events led to changes in focus of law enforcement o Civil rights movement o “War on Drugs” o Columbine HS shooting o 9/11: Racial profiling, privacy, patriot act o Sarbanes-Oxley Act  Changes in law affects more; if drugs were legal, DEA would be unnecessary  Criminal justice is an institution of social control  Models of CJ system 1. Crime control model 2. Due process model  Justice: principle of fairness, ideal of moral equity  Social justice: how we should interact with others & deal with relationships, fairness & cultural beliefs about right/wrong  Civil justice: fairness in relationships between citizens, gov. agencies & businesses in private matters  Criminal justice: criminal law, law of criminal procedure, & array of procedures/activities having to do with this law enforcement o Linked to social justice because reflects basic American understandings of right/wrong  Models of criminal justice o Consensus model – components work together to achieve social product of justice o Conflict model – components function to serve their own interests, justice is product of conflict rather than cooperation  Police enforce laws  Courts conduct fair trials  Corrections carry out sentences imposed by courts  Probable cause: set of facts/circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent person to believe that a specific person has committed a crime  Miranda rights apply when you are being interrogated or are in custody (handcuffed/arrested) Chapter 2  Statistical picture of crime can be a powerful tool for creating social policy  Officials rely on crime data to… o Analyze & evaluate programs & crime-control techniques o Design new initiatives o Plan new laws o Allocate funding  Crime control: helps with quality of life, choosing where to live, safety  Objectivity of crime data has been questioned  Public opinion of crime is greatly influenced by the media & can cause public demand for “get tough” crime policies Uniform Crime Reports: adopted by FBI, created by IACP  7 crimes in original index, arson added later National Incident-Based Reporting System: began in 1988 by FBI to enhance the UCR  Goals = enhance quality, quantity & timeliness of crime data collection by law enforcement  Improve methodology used for computing, analyzing, auditing & publishing the collected data Crimes  Against persons (violent crime involving physical force)  Against property (property is taken unlawfully)  Against public order (disrupt peace in a civil society) UCR/NIBRS Terminology  Program categories parallel statutory definitions of criminal behavior, but they aren’t legal classifications, only conveniences… Traditional UCR  Consists of aggregate crime counts  Records 1 offence per incident, as determined by hierarchy rule o Suppresses counts of lesser offenses in multiple-offense incidents  Does not distinguish between attempted and completed crimes  Records rape of females only Crime Reporting  In 1990, Crime Awareness & Campus Security Act was passed, which requires colleges to publish annual security reports  College students experience violence at average annual rates that are lower than those for nonstudents in the same age group National Crime Victimization Survey  Ran by Bureau of Justice Statistics & US Census Bureau  Dark figure of crime  People can willingly tell crimes they’ve experienced or witnessed  Findings o Abt. 15% of American households are touched by crime each year o Victims of crime are more often men than women o Younger people are more likely than elderly to be victims of crime o Blacks are more likely than whites to be victims of crimes o Higher violent victimization rates in lower-income families Special Categories of Crime  Crimes against women  Crimes against the elderly  Hate crimes  White-collar crimes  Organized crime  Gun crime  Drug crime  Cybercrime  Terrorism Chapter 3  Theory: A set of interrelated ideas that attempt to describe, explain, predict & ultimately control some class of events o Theories are models that can be tested utilizing a hypotheses o Interdisciplinary theory: integrates a variety of theoretical viewpoints in an attempt to explain something, such as crime & violence  Deviance: violation of social norms defining appropriate behavior under a particular set of circumstances o Not necessarily criminal behavior  Criminal behavior: deviant behavior converted into law, approved by a legislative body, written down & codified Categories of Theory o Classical: people freely choose to engage in crime o “Hedonistic calculus” by Bentham: punishment outweighs the crime o Biological Theories: behavior is predetermined & genetically based o Passed from generation to generation o Lombroso is the father of this theory o Application of scientific techniques to the study of crime o Biosocial theory: interaction between biology & the physical/social environments as key to understanding human behavior o Include brain dysfunction, glucose metabolism, poor nutrition, physiological reactivity o Chromosomes can have gene deficits, enzymes & hormones o Psychological theory: personality is the major motivational element within individuals o Diseased mind, inappropriate learning or improper conditioning, often occurring on early childhood o Conflict theory: •Conflict is a fundamental aspect of social life and can never be fully resolved o Radical criminology: sees crime as engendered by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and other resources o Peacemaking criminology: holds that crime-control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering, and thus reduce crime o Emergent Theory: o Feminist criminology: role of women in both crime causation & crime control might be better appreciated  Understanding women as crime victims o Postmodern criminology: wide variety of novel perspectives that have developed in recent decades… Chapter 4 Nature of Law  Rules of conduct inherent in human nature & in the natural order o 10 Commandments o US Declaration of Independence  English Common Law: originates from usage & custom rather than written statues  Definition of the rule of law Categories of Law  Statutory law: robbery, murder, DUI, assault o Procedural law: how prosecuted  Civil Law: governs relationship between people (suing), rules for contracts, divorces, child support/custody, wills, property transfers…  Administrative law: governing operation of agencies (planes) o Control activities of industry, business & individuals  Criminal law: punishments for offenses of a public nature or for wrongs committed against the state or society  Procedural law: how we carry out our justice system o Constitution through the 4 , 6 , & 8 amendments o Protection against self-incrimination, following rules of reading rights to person  Felony: criminal offense punishable by death or incarceration in a prison facility for at least one year  Misdemeanor: offenses punishable by incarceration local confinement facility, jail, one year or less o Petty theft, simple assault, breaking & entering, being disorderly in public  Offenses/Infractions: minor violations of the law that are less serious than misdemeanors, most about safety o Jaywalking, spitting on sidewalk, littering, certain traffic offenses, normally ticketed & released  Treason: US citizens actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the USA, federal  Inchoate offense: conduct that is a step towards the intended commission of another crime, incomplete or partial  Concurrence: requires that the act & mental state occur together in order for crime to take place o One cannot occur before the other  Elements of a crime: specific legal aspects of a criminal offense that must be proven to obtain a conviction o Ex. first degree murder >>> unlawful killing, of a human being, intentionally, with planning o Ex. assault >>> intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly, causes bodily injury to another o Intentional behavior leads to higher punishment  Mischief: TPing, egging someone’s house, hitting a car with a bat, etc.  Robbery – use of force  Theft – taking something without struggle basically, stealing car  Burglary – taking something in a locked building where you aren’t allowed, breaking in house  Breaking & entering without intent to steal = trespassing  Penalty of capital crime = life without parole or death penalty  4 Types of recognized defenses: o Alibi o Justification o Excuse o Procedural defense  Types of justification defenses: o Self-defense o Defense of others o Defense of home & property o Consent o Necessity o Resisting unlawful arrest  Types of excuse defenses: age, mistake, provocation, insanity, unconsciousness, duress, etc. STUDY GUIDE! Go through book with topics


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