Geology Notes Chapters 1-6
Geology Notes Chapters 1-6 Geol 10113
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Geology Notes INTRO Geology: science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth Physical geology: examines materials processes that operate on the Earth Historical geology: seeks an understanding of the origin and development of the Earth Bishop James Ussher – thought he could resolve the age of the earth, found lies in the bible, says earth is 6000 years old (1654, 4004 BC) Cuvier – lead Catastrophism (a bunch of catastrophies made the whole earth in 6000 years) (1769-1832_ Hutton – lead Uniformitarianism, “The Present is the Key to the Past”, father of our geological thought, interested in time (1726-1797) Da Vince found fossils & wrote book about them, Origin of Fossils (1480) Hutton wrote Origin of Rocks (1780s) These ideas and books brought controversy over age & origin of the Earth Charles Darwin – discovered adaptation, survival of the fittest, & evolution writes Origin of Species (1809-1882) Charles Lyell – first scientific book about geology, Principles of Geology, explained processes occur at different speeds & intensities, “Father of Modern Geology” (1797-1875) 3 more giants in Geology: o Nicholas Steno o Madam Curie o Norman Bowen Magnitude of geologic time – an appreciation for the magnitude of geologic time is important because many processes are very gradual Scientific method involves o Gathering facts through observations o Formulation of hypotheses & theories There is no fixed path that scientists follow that leads to scientific knowledge Earth system is powered by the sun that drives external processes in Atmosphere, Hydrosphere & Earth’s surface Earth system is also powered by Earth’s interior & our moon SOLAR SYSTEM Solar system = sun & nine planets, moons, asteroids, comets, meteoroids 2 kinds of planets o Terrestrial planets: earth-like, mercury through mars, small & dense, rocky surface o Jovian planets: Jupiter-like, Jupiter through Neptune, large, low density, gaseous, massive, many moons o Pluto isn’t in either group Nebular hypothesis: planets formed a long time ago, condense (some are still trying) from gaseous nebula When planets form, materials that compose them are separated Mercury: innermost planet, second smallest, no atmosphere, dense, cratered highlands, looks like our moon Venus: similar size & density to Earth, lightning storms, yellowy, gases, mountains, atmosphere is 97% carbon dioxide, atmosphere pressure on surface is 90x of Earth Earth’s moon: 2150 mile diameter, large compared to us, no atmosphere, meteorites, rocks similar to Earth o Moon has lunar surface Terrain types: Maria (“sea” lava), Craters (impact features from meteorites), Ejects (light colored spray) o 2 lunar history theories: capture theory (too large), collision theory (very similar rocks) o Importance of moon: lunar ice, moon helps control earth’s ocean tides, rotation speed of Earth & the 23 degree tilt of Earth Mars: rocky red planet, thin CO2 atmosphere, large volcanoes & canyons Jupiter: largest planet, rapid rotation, banded appearance, giant red spot, atm storms, gaseous-liquid hydrogen Saturn: similar to Jupiter (Gaseous), rings of rock debris, 30 moons, would float in a lake Uranus: icy, rotates on side, small rings, several large moons Neptune: icy gases, dynamic atmosphere, one of the windiest places in solar system, 8 moons Pluto: not visible with unaided eye, -210 Celsius average temp. Comets: not well known origin, form far from the Sun, dirty snowballs, Halley’s comet is famous short-period comet Asteroids/asteroid belt: most lie between Mars & Jupiter, irregular sizes, uncertain origins Meteorites: people didn’t really care about them, simply were just events o Mr. Monnie had meteorites collection o Types Irons – 6%, mostly iron, 5-20% nickel Stony Meteorites: 93%, silicate minerals with inclusions of other minerals Stone-irons – 1%, mix of irons & stony meteorites War Oil & Geology - 30 August 2016 Global Dilemma: you need food, water, and energy o US imports energy 1700s-1850s: industrial revolution, wood was running low because everyone was using it o If you have iron, and something to melt it, you can create steel (how industrial revolution began) o Coal was plentiful for steel production 1850: wanted to distil liquid to make vodka in Poland, but instead produced Kerosene John D. Rockefeller was committed to get oil (ended up owning over 90% refineries) o Sold kerosene under a different name, “Standard Oil” o Invented the word, monopoly 1900: Coal was still the “King of Energy” (not kerosene), but it can be dangerous to work in & very polluting Henry Ford: created Model T (1908), “you can paint it any color as long as it’s black” o Gasoline combustible engines are going to take over Teddy Roosevelt: progressive movement, too few people getting too rich (1911), trust busting Oliver Wendell Holmes: first truly powerful supreme court justice New names for standard oil like Mobil, Chevron… Texas wouldn’t let Rockefeller oil sell here but someone found oil from drilling in Beaumont (Spindletop) o Created Texaco & Gulf Five oil companies controlling everything: Standard Oil, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, Gulf WW1 started: 1914-1918, country with oil has advantage because it can produce so much energy World Oil Discoveries: o Saudi Arabia & Iraq, etc Stock Market Crash: can buy $100 worth of stocks for $10, October 1929 o Economic crash and food disaster combined Pearl Harbor (Dec 7, 1941): WW2, fight over Indonesian oil fields, battle for middle east, Nimitz and Yamanoto will clash Stalin – Russian ruler, paranoid schizophrenic 7 Sisters: World oil cartel after WW2, 6 powerful monopolies, owned the world o Exxon, Mobil, Texaco, Gulf, BP, Shell OPEC: organization of petroleum exporting countries 50s-70s: massive economic growth, cheap oil and gas US was importing 54%, Europe 90%, Japan 100% As we go green, we could be facing another dilemma Rare earth elements >> problems, create TONS of radioactive waste liquids, waste gas, mine tailings o Gets into air & water Chapter 4: Igneous (Fire) Rocks Melt minerals (solid > liquid), & mix them together, then let them harden again, creates rock Igneous rocks: fire rocks, must be on a planet that has heat or once had heat (we have volcanoes) Magma: molten minerals If there are volcanoes or hot springs, underneath you could be magma boiling, magma chambers Underground magma in chambers could stay there or explode Bowen experiments with heating minerals o Realizes minerals have their own boiling & freezing points (points where they will either liquefy or crystallize) o Slow cooling leads to large crystals o Quick cooling leads to small crystals Intrusives: all granite, Mt. Rushmore, boiled and solidifies miles below surface, slow cooling o Granite: you can see quartz o Diorite: looks like a granite but no quartz, white, salt/peppery o Gabbro: looks black, no quartz Extrusives: quick cooling o Phyolite: spewed granite, same chemistry but different process, boring sand color o Andesite: no quartz, would be diorite but spewed to surface, medium colored o Basalt: dark lava, like gabbro but boiled to surface Phaneritic: describes large crystals Aphanitic: describes tiny crystals Glassy: smoky, obsidian, super small crystals because very fast crystallize, looks like glass Porphyritic: 2 stages of cooling, like raisin bread because chunks inside the rest that was liquid Pegmatitic: gigantic crystals size of your hand or larger, super slow cooling Obsidian: glassy Pumice: sponge looking, (in lava soap) lava with no quartz in it are likely to spew Igneous rocks tell us about deep earth processes, they are useful in industry, give us good insight into the history of our planet, other planets, moons, etc. Chapter 5: Volcanoes The ring of fire(volcanoes): holds the answer to so many things we want to learn about the earth Volcanic eruptions Basalt flows from the volcanoes and builds them up over time Pyroclastic: means fire fragments There’s enough pressure to form a hole and enough gas pressure to push everything out Volcanic bombs: travel at 500 mph Dikes: the rocks on display (the wall) hardened material from an eruption Sills: Some lava trying to go out the top gets squeezed out the horizontal layers along the side of the volcano Shiprock in New Mexico: was a volcano that looks like a ship wedged into the ground The volcano itself is gone but the central vent is still there 3 types of volcanos: cinder: small Nicaragua composite: medium: tend to be in the middle of the extrusive rocks Mt. Shasta, California shield: large: like a roman shield gently bent but HUGE made of liquid lava (basalt) hawaii examples of volcanos vesuvious, Pompeii: exploded and fore everyone in their spot Krakatoa: when it blew 36,000 drowned because it sent out a tsunami Mt. Pelee: killed 30,000 people Mt. St Helens: we knew she was going to blow so there was camera up and the whole thing was recorded St. Helens was the first volcano really recorded and watched in the US Extreme volcanoes: Ex Yellowstone Average 80-200 quakes every year Eruptions occur every 600,000 years We’ve never seen anything like in human history · Granite · Diorite · Gabbro · Rhyolite · Andesite · Basalt · Felsic · Intermediate · Mafic · Chapter 6: Sedimentary Environments Types o Continental o Shorelines o Marine Sed. Features: graded bedding, cross beds, ripple marks, mud cracks Clastic/Detrital Sed Rocks: particles or fragments cemented together o Made of bits & pieces that were part of some rockface o Shale, sandstone, conglomerate, breccia o Shale is combination of flakes of clay & water/mud that have combined o Sandstone is sand/quartz made into rock, sand on beach is quartz, where there is sandstone a beach used to be at some point Chemical/biochemical sedimentary rocks: precipitated rocks o Hose down a car and leave it to dry, leaves a film that’s hard to get rid of = precipitated rocks o Calcite, CO3, (non cilicate) is in all igneous rocks o Limestone: o Coquina: bunch of little shells o Chert: liquid precipitated silica, used for arrowheads, flint (sparks) o Chalk: TONS of little critters made of calcium carbonate that died in ocean o Coal: deposit that occurs in swamp, mostly made of wood & plant matter Chemical sedimentary rocks… common = COAL Coal is composed of organic material o Stages in coal formation in order 1. Swamp 2. Peat 3. Lignite 4. Bituminous 5. Anthracite Oil: oceanic plankton, basically tiny, tiny shrimp o A ton of plankton, when they die they fall to the floor carrying carbon with them Sedimentary facies o Transgression: when sea level rises, deeper in ocean (old) Sandstone ^^ Shale ^^ Limestone (young) o Regression: (old) Limestone ^^ Shale ^^ Sandstone (young) o Sandstone = environment of a beach>>>means shallow water o Shale = moderate water depth o Limestone = deep water o Sandstone is sand, shale layers on top, then later limestone on top Importance of sedimentary socks: o Tell us how things were deposited on top of earth (depositional history) o Surface processes o Fossils (animals & plants) o Transgression & regression o Resources: coal and … o Record time: Rio Grande, Gulf of Mexico to fill up Chapter 6: Weathering & Soils Soil – a history of weathering & erosion of rocks Physical weathering – Ex. cracks in rocks, root systems, weeds in concrete, water can freeze & thaw in holes Water expanding 9% is one of the strongest natural forces on the plane 2 types: 1. Mechanical/Physical weathering – freeze, thaw 2. Chemical weathering – things push & things dissolve, never stops Oxidation (oxidizing & breakdown of oxygen attacking) Leaching Hydrolysis Soil formation Factors controlling soil formation o Parent material – mixture of minerals that have been oxidized, removed, and now they’re just sitting there o Time o Climate – soils form slower in Canada than Florida, cold/dry = slow o Plants & animals o Topography – lay of the land, valleys = soil, carry soil from high areas to low areas Soil survey – find right kind of survey for the area General soil groups (Ped = latin for soil) Pedocals – ??? Pedalfers – ??? Soil Erosion – Sedimentary Rocks – layered rocks, all have origins from other rocks & eventually river systems took them out… Diagensis – history of sedimentary rock Erode Transport Deposit Solidify Rock Sedimentary rocks are a vertical record of our geologic history Law of superposition = bottom is the oldest rocks, top are the youngest
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