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Engineering Ethics Notes Weeks 1-5

by: Gabe Hedges

Engineering Ethics Notes Weeks 1-5 Philos 1332 (Philosophy, Lindsey Mason, Engineering Ethics)

Gabe Hedges

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About this Document

These notes cover everything gone over in the first 5 weeks, including Kantian Ethics, Utilitarianism, and many other theories.
Engineering Ethics (Philos 1332, Lindsey Mason, Engineering Ethics)
Lindsey Mason
philosophy, Kant, Utilitarianism
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Gabe Hedges on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Philos 1332 (Philosophy, Lindsey Mason, Engineering Ethics) at Ohio State University taught by Lindsey Mason in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Engineering Ethics (Philos 1332, Lindsey Mason, Engineering Ethics) in Political Science, Philosophy & Religion at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Logic is the study of argument  Argument- Set of Statements o Premises  Conclusion o Statement- True of False Declarative Sentence Truth Value- How true something is Deductively Valid- if it’s not possible for all premises to be true and the conclusion false Sound Argument= True Premises and Conclusion- Thus Deductively Valid Belief- Something you find true- something you feel about the world A belief is true when it corresponds to the way the world is HARRIS-Cultural Relativism- The facts of what’s right and wrong change with where you live Arguments are not a shouting match Thinking logically makes us more confident in ourselves- self-doubt happens when you disagree with the crowd. Do this. 1. Look for common sense statements. 2. Look for exceptions. 3. If exception exists, statement is False or Invalid. 4. Try to fix initial statement to cover exception. 5. Repeat Truth is impossible to prove wrong Just because a majority supports an opinion doesn’t mean it’s right. Whether an argument is logical/reasonable is what we should believe. Majority opinion is not always right. Utilitarianism- Each person counts the same. Philosophy- Thinking Critically___ Philosopher- Expert on how to think about moral views Social Contract- Obey the rules of society- people made up rules Divine Command Theory- Whatever God commands is right and whatever God forbids is wrong.  A- X is right therefore God commands it o Negative implications: Morality is independent of God o God didn’t create morality  B- God Commands X therefore X is right o Completely dependent on God’s will Subjectivism- The truth or falsity of moral judgements is relative to the outlook and attitude of individuals.  “When I say something is right it is right relative to what I think, believe, or feel.”  Morality is subjective to the individual  Only right for ME- NO ACCOUNTABILITY Cultural Relativism: The truth or falsity of moral judgements is relative to the traditions, convictions, and practices of a group of persons.  Enables you to hold people accountable to THEIR society. Not Universal.  Can’t be tolerant of intolerance  Can’t hold other cultures accountable  No grounds to criticize your own society, because “society” is always correct  Nothing to compare your culture to(because it’s “correct”) Thus, no moral progress  No philosopher excepts Cultural Relativism as true Situationalism: Truth or Falsity of moral judgements is relative to the situation  Universal Metaethics: BIG- What is morality? Where does morality come from? What do the terms right and wrong mean?  Divine Command  Subjectivism  Cultural Relativism Normative Ethics: What should I do and why?  Utilitarianism  Kantian Ethics  Virtue Ethics Applied Ethics: What should the engineer do and why? Utilitarianism: 1 Rule Answers Everything  Principle of Utility o The morally best or better alternative is that which produces the greatest net utility o Net Utility= Pleasure/Happiness (minus) Pain/Suffering  Choosing the lesser of two evils is the RIGHT thing to do  Consequntialism: Only the consequences(results, effects) of an action determine whether it’s right or wrong. Only consequences matter.  Hedonism: The sole intrinsic good is pleasure or happiness and the sole intrinsic bad is pain or suffering. o Extrinsic Good: Good only because it brings about something good o Intrinsic Good: Good in & of itself  Happiness is the only thing that is intrinsically good  Impartialism: When you’re thinking about those affected by your action you can’t be biased. o No favor shown towards family! CAN’T BE BIASED Hypocratic Oath: DO no harm Mill recognizes that there is a limit to Ultilitarianism. It’s good until it comes to the point of killing someone to save others. Kantian Ethics: Morality is all about developing your will  Each part of the brain has different faculty(purpose)  These are 1. Reason 2. Passion- Emotions, Appetites, Desires 3. Will- Decisions  Cause Actions  A good will: Fully influenced by reasons, not at all influence by passion 1. Full and only based on reason 2. Informed by reason alone  Passion can’t be considered in morality because you have no control of it  Kant is a control freak. Reason Will DecisionsAction ALL CONTROLLED  All Kant cares about is the reasoning for doing something- the consequences are out of your control and thus don’t matter.  All reason is independent of emotion  Sole intrinsic good 1. Utilitarianism- Happiness/pleasure 2. Kantian- having a good will, which means no emotion  Deontilogical- Something other than the consequences of an aciotn determine right or wrongness  1 Rule- The Categorical Imperitive- 4 different paths to the same location 1. Universal Law Formulation: Act only according to those maxims by which you can at the same time will to be universal laws.  Maxim- Rule of thumb that guides behavior  Form: Whenever I am in situation X I will Y  Action: One thing that you did one time  Maxim: Whenever this happens I will do that. 2. Universal Law- Moral rule binding everyone  Whenever one is in situation X, one should do Y  Core Kant Intuition- What if everyone did it?  Act only according to the processes that you can will to be universal law.  Process of Willing 1. Start with personal maxim-Whenever X happens I will do Y 2. Change to a general maxim- Whenever X happens one will do Y 3. Visualize what the world would be like if everyone followed that general maxim.  Analyze: What would it be like if…. To me? To grandma? 4. See of general maxim passes ‘Kant’s Test’  No contradiction involved  X and not X at the same time- cannot possibly be true  No self-defeat involved  A lying promise o I promise to pay you back but have of intention of doing so  Your goal in doing A is to get B but if everyone is does A no one will getB o To justify, you have to say, “No one get’s the GOAL.” o B=The goal  No compromise of the general desire for happiness- Golden Rule  Do unto others as you would have them do unto you(Golden Rule)  Good Samaritan- What if I were them? What if I were the person injured by the road?  It would make me happy if someone helped me  You(person on the side of the road) are like me  Thus, I should stop and help you  If maxim is something I’d want someone to do to me it passes. If not, it fails.  If maxim passes are 4 conditions of ‘Kant’s Test’ it can be will to be a universal law, and thus is your duty. In other words, it’s the right thing to do.  If it fails any of the conditions, it cannot be willed to be universal law and is the wrong thing to do.


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