Ideological Criticism (Part I & II)
Ideological Criticism (Part I & II) JAC 420
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Date Created: 09/24/16
P R E S E N T I N G IDEOLOGICAL CRITICISM P A R T I M A N N H E I M ' S I D E O L O G Y & U T O P I A IDEOLOGICAL REFERS TO AN ALL-INCLUSIVE SOCIO POLITICAL EXPLANATION OF WHAT GOES ON IN A SOCIETY Karl Mannheim constructed one of the more classic studies of ideological thinkingKarl Mannheim. IDEOLOGY 1 known to force the readers to recognize that all cultures have their own biases, interests, and values’. 2 just because they may not be conscious beliefs or although theyand might not be able to articulate their beliefs people still have them. The term was coined in the 1840’s to describe the 3 dominant ideas and representations in a social order MARXIST CRITISIM All ideological critics, including Marxist critics, point out the hidden ideological messages in media and other communication platforms. Marx argued that all media shapes the consciousness of the viewers and makes them who they are. Marxists believe there is political significance in every part of culture and as critics they point out the ideological content in everything. G L A M O U R JOHNBURGER(BRITISHMARXISTWRITER) Advertisingandpublicityonlyworksbecauseitfeedsoffofthedesirefor pleasure. InBurger’sbookWaysofSeeing(1972),hebelievesadvertisingoffersusanimage of1glamourbytheproductitsells. Advertisingusesthepowerofenvy. Publicityworksbecauseitstealsthelovethatwehaveforourselvesandoffersit backtousforwhateverpricewearewillingtopay. M I M E T I C D E S I R E RENEGIRAD(FRENCHLITERARYSCHOLAR) Mimesismeansdesire Girardbelievesthatimitationplaysamajorroleonsocialrelationship Whenwepurchasegoodsandservicesweimitatethedesireofcelebritiesand othersweseeinadvertisementsusingvariousproduct I D E N T I F Y P O L I T I C S RENEGIRAD(FRENCHLITERARYSCHOLAR) Societycomestogetherforallconsumingpassionsaboutspecificsituations, problems,andneeds WhenpersonscometogetherthiscommongroundistheirUtopia Mostconcernslikesocialjustice,queermovements,orpoliticsbasedonraceand ethnicgroupssolutionsaretocreateajustsociety/ POST -SOVIET MARXST CRITICISM Againstatotalitariansocietyand believesclassconflictisabasicforcein history. US MARXIST CRITICS FOCUS THEIR ATTENTION ON: 01 INEQUALITY IN THE US AND ALL PROBLEMS STEMMING FROM IT There is a division of class: Proletariat= Working Classs Petty Bourgeois= Does task to support the Bourgeois THE WAY THE WEALTH 02 DOMINATE THE POLITICAL AGENDA The wealthy own the media and use it to maintain dominance Media is used to spread the ruling class’ capitalist ideology Media spreads consumer lust: a desire for goods instilled in people via film, television, communication. and other forms of mass Institutions such as art, religion, education shape consciousness THE MEDIA BECOMING CENTRALIZED AND 03 FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR THE RULING CLASS First world nations unite multinational corporations, whose media is seen all over the world, to dictate media Bourgeois maintain dominance by generating a false consciousness Argue that success is a function of willpower and those who are successful earn and deserve it while those who fail have only themselves to blame Globalization of media allows the ruling class to spread their ideology “Cultural Imperialism” P R E S E N T I N G IDEOLOGICAL CRITICISM P A R T I I F E M I N I S T C R I T I C I S M O F M E D I A & C O M M U N I C A T I O N S Text Business Sexplotation World Everyday lifein the media FEMINIST CRITICISM INVOLVES THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER, GOALS: Developing consciousness & being proactive politically FEMINISTS 1 2 3 LIBERAL SOCIALIST MARXISTS The class system under Focus on how the capitalism is fundamentallyalism is the core of media affects responsible for women’she problem. Also individuals and their oppression. “Patriarchy” iszes the effects of behaviors. right.ental in its ownthe media. The Social Conception of Knowledge Recognizes that education, the media, our families, and other parts of society play a major role in giving people the ideas they hold. SOCIALIZATION to live within it.rning one’s culture and how SUBCULTURES A cultural subgroup differentiated by status, ethnic backgroun group and act collectively on each member. functionally unify the PHALLOCENTRIC THEORY Menassumethatthepowerrelationshipsthey naturalandareunabletorecognizethefactthat womenaresubordinated,treatedunfairly,andso on. G R I D G R O U P T H E O R Y MaryDouglas Fourmutuallyantagonisticlifestylesthatshape people’schoicesinconsumptionandotherareasofsocial andpoliticallife. GROUP I N V O L V E S T H E S T R E N G T H O F T H E B O U N D S I N T H E U N I T S I N W H I C H P E O P L E F I N D T H E M S E L V E S ( S T R O N G O R W E A K ) GRID I N V O L V E S T H E N U M B E R O F R U L E S T H A T T H E Y M U S T O B E Y ( M A N Y O R F E W ) . F O U R P O L I T I C A L C U L T U R E S AARONWILDAUSKY Focusingoninterestgroupsinpoliticswasnotuseful becausethesegroupscan’tdeterminewheretheir interestslie.Hesuggestedthatthebestwaytounderstand politicsistorecognizetheimportanceofpoliticalcultures, whicharetiedtopeople’svaluesandshapeagreatdealof thedecisionmakingandvotingbypeoplewhooftenknow littleabouttheissuestheyvoteon. POLITICAL CULTURES 1 2 3 4 FATALISTS INDIVIDULISTS ELITISTS EGALITARIANS VICTIMS OF BAD LUCKBELIEVE THERE HIERARCHY = SENSE EVERYONE HAS APOLITICAL SHOULD BE FREE OF OBLIGATION TOCERLOOKED ATS TO BE LITTLE GOVERNMENT.THESE BENEATH THEM IS NECESSARY DID YOU KNOW? PEOPLE CAN CHANGE VIEWS BASED ON BENEFITS. 01 PEOPLE WISH TO REINFORCE THEIR BELIEFS MOVIES GAMES BOOKS SPORTS MUSIC MAGAZINES 02 PEOPLE WISH TO AVOID COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEIR BELIEFS.LIKE CHALLENGING W I L D A U S K Y P O L I T I C A L C U L T U R E S O F F E R S INSIGHTS INFORMATION IINFERENCES We can use survey a means of gaining If we find that the same research about people’s information about values and beliefs of one preferences for particular people’s particular political culture texts in media and popular politics indirectly, by seem to be growing culture to find out about studying their taste in stronger or weakening, we which political culture they media and popular can infer that there may belong to, and this may culture. be lead to insights into their significant changes going past or future behavior. on in that society. What P R E S E N T I N G IDEOLOGICAL CRITICISM P A R T I I M E T H O D S O F T E X T U A L A N A L Y S I S Roland Barthes on Mythology All ideological critics, including Marxist critics, point out the hidden ideological messages in media and other communication platforms. Marx argued that all media shapes the consciousness of the viewers and makes them who they are. Marxists believe there is political significance in every part of culture and as critics they point out the ideological content in everything. T h e P r o b l e m w i t h H e g e m o n y Hegemony,wasmadepopularbyaItalianMarxistnamedAntonioGramsci Hegemony-referstothenotionthatideologicaldominationisinvisiblebecauseitis allpervasive. AccordingtoMarxistsitisimpossibletoseethedominationbecausewehave nothingtocompareitto Marxistarguedthattheforcesagainstthisdominationwere“weakand powerless” Marxistsessentiallybelievethatthemediaisusedtomanipulateintoaccepting theeconomicstatusquo,andcontrollingthepocketsofthemasses T H E B A S E A N D T H E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E , F A L S E C O N S C I O U S N E S S , A N D T H E S E L F - M A D E M A N A N D W O M A N ManydevelopmentshavecomealongsinceMarx,butheoriginalmessageisstill acceptedevenafterthenewdevelopments Thisoriginalmessagebeingthattheeconomicrelationsinsociety,shapethe culturalinstitutionsinthatsociety,andoverallshapetheconsciousnessofthe peoplewhoarebroughtupinthatsociety Theprocessofideologicalindoctrinationisknownas“subtleandinvisible”mainly becausepeoplerecognizetheextenttowhichtheirconsciousnesshasbeen shapedbyexternalforces TheMarxistsattacksthisnotionasideologicalasjustifyingthestatusquo,whichis justwhatehrulingclassdesires POST-SOVIET MARXIST CRITICISM REMARXIST CRITICS DID NOT APPROVE OF WHAT WAS TAKING PLACE WITHIN RUSSIA, AND DID NOT REGRET SEEING THE TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA DISAPPEAR InothercountriessuchastheUnitedStatesthe Marxistsfocusedtheirattentiononthefollowing: 1.InequalityintheUnitedStatesandallproblemsthatsternfromit 2.Thewaythewealthyareabletodominancethepoliticalagenda 3.Theextenttowhichthemediaarebecomingmoreandmorecentralizedand function astoolsoftherulingclasses ThewealthyownthemediaandMarxistcriticsargueareabletousethemto maintainandtheirdominance Themediaspreadconsumerlust,adesireforgoodsinstilledinpeoplebyfilm televisionprograms,newspapers,andotherformsofmasscommunication,es advertising BASIC IDEAS IN MARXIST CRITICISM Inallcountriesthemodeofeconomic relations,shapesthesuperstructure. Institutionssuchasart,religion,and educationthatshapepeople’s consciousness
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