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Intro to Computer Science

by: Sammi Tai

Intro to Computer Science CS300

Marketplace > Cosumnes River College > Computer science > CS300 > Intro to Computer Science
Sammi Tai
Cosumnes River College

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Notes for every chapter of the Intro to Computer Concepts 2016 Book
Comp Sci 300
Professor Stassi
Comp Sci, Intro to Computer Science; Computer Science, Computer Science
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This 63 page Bundle was uploaded by Sammi Tai on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CS300 at Cosumnes River College taught by Professor Stassi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Comp Sci 300 in Computer science at Cosumnes River College.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Unit 10­ Database I. Database Basics A. A database is a collection of information 1. A simple list of personal things such as an address  book or massive list such as New York City Telephone Numbers B. Tasks associated with creating, maintaining, and accessing info in databases  1. Data Management, File Management, Database  Management a) Collect and Store Data­ can be  collected and entered manually or electronically or removed when  not needed b) Updating Data (1) Data entry can result  in inaccuracies which can be difficult to correct c) Organize and Output Data (1) Data is usually stored in no particular order (2) New data is  appended to the end (3) Output is easy to  organize and reorganize without actually rearranging the  physical data on the disk d) Distribute Data (1) Offers efficient means through mail merge e) Find Data f) Analyze Data 2. Data Mining­ refers to computer algorithms that  analyze info to discover previously unknown and potentially useful  information including relationships and patterns a) Data Warehouse­ a repository for  data from more than one database b) Predictive Analytics refers to a  branch of data mining that analyzes current and historical data to  predict future trends 3. OLAP­ ONline Analysis Technique that allows  decision makers to quickly get their answers to complex queries a) Executive Dashboard Software­  tools for visually displaying query results. 4. Big Data refers to huge collections of data that is  difficult to process, analyze, and manage C. Database Models 1. Unstructured Files­ a filing cabinet full or folders  and papers because every document has a unique structure and contains different kinds of data 2. Structured File­ uses a uniform format to store data  for each person or thing in the file 3. Database model­ underlying structure a) Some models are becoming  obsolete b) SImplest way to store data is a flat  file that consists of a single wo dimensional table of data elements c) A field contains the smallest unit of  meaningful information (1) With a unique field  name that describes the content (a) Can b  variable length or fixed length (i) E xpands to fit the data you enter up to a max (ii) P redetermined number of characters (bytes) (b) Record refers to a collection of data fields (i) T emplate is referred to as a record type (ii) R ecord Occurrence­ a record that contains  data (2) Relationship is an  association between data that is stored in different record  types (a) Cardin ality refers to the number of association that can  exist between two record types (b) When  one record is related to many records­ One to Many Relationship (c) Many  to Many RElationship­ one record in a particular  record type can be related to many records in  another record type and vice versa (d) One to One­ record in one record type is related to only  one record in another record type (e) Entity  Relationship Diagram­ record types can be  depicted graphically  d) Hierarchical Database­ allows one to one and one to many relationships (1) Network Database  uses a mesh­like structure to offer additional capacity to  define many to many relationships (2) Relational Database  stores data in a collection of related tables (a) Table  is a sequence of records  (b) Pros­  essentially independent but can be joined for a  particular task as required. (3) Dimensional  Database organizes relationships over three or more  dimensions (a) Dimen sion is simply a layer based on data element (b) Data  Warehouse where data from operational databases can be aggregated and transformed to make it  more useful (4) Object­ object  oriented­ stores data as objects which can be grouped into classes (a) Object  Relational DAtabase is used to describe a variety of technologies that combine object oriented and  relational concepts II. Database Tools A. Data Management Software 1. Menus that allow you to manipulate data after  entering it 2. Most spreadsheets and word processing software a) Allows one to specify fields, enter  data, manipulate it (1) Usually for hundreds  not thousands of records (a) Ie a  simple addressbook, inventory of household goods b) Custom Software (1) Requires skilled  programmers but is tailored to the exact needs of a  business 3. Data Dependence refers to data and program  modules being so tightly interrelated that they become difficult to modify a) Data Independence­ separating data from the programs that manipulate data B. DM Systems 1. DBMS­ database management system refers to  software that is designed to manage data stored in a database a) XML DBMS­ optimized for handling  data that exists in XML format b) ODBMS­ object database  management system­ allows one to store and manipulate data  classes c) RDBMS­ relational­ create a  relational database t handle object classes 2. Needs to be located on a network for multiple users to access the database at the same time a) Database client software allows any  remote computer or network workstation to access data in a  database b) Database server software is  designed to manage billions of records and several hundred  transactions every second (1) Distributed database­  stored on several computers on multiple networks C. Databases and the Web 1. Databases provide the foundation for online access to course registration systems, yellow pages, real estate listings, and so  much more a) Pro­ open to a lot of people (1) Static Web Publishing is a simple way to display data in a db by converting a  report to an HTML document (2) Dynamic­ generates  customized Web Pages as needed or “on the fly” (a) Relies  on a program or script aka server side program that resides on a Web Server and acts as an  intermediary between the DBMS and your browser (i) C an range from a few simple lines or code to  full blown programs (ii) H TML can collect data and the specifications  for query (iii) R equires several handoffs D. XML 1. A markup language that allows field tag, data, and  tables to be incorporated in a Web Document a) Adds context to the info in a pool of  documents b) Specifies a standard structure of  fields and records 2. Pros­ exists in a human readable format a) Portable 3. Cons­ are not optimized for many operations a) Ie fast sorts, searches, and updates III. Database Design A. Defining Fields 1. Database structure refers to the arrangement of  fields, tables, and relationships in a database a) Determines what data needs to be  collected and stored b) Primary Key­ a field that contains  data unique to a record (1) Data Type­ specifies  the way data is represented on the disk and in RAM (a) Deter mines the way data can be manipulated (b) Numeri c or character 2. Real Data Types­ several numeric data types  contain numbers with decimals a) Integer Dta­ whole numbers b) Date Data­ stores dates in a format  that allows them to be manipulated c) Text data is normally assigned to  fixed length fields d) Memo data­ a variable length field  for entering comments e) Logical data­ Boolean or yes/No  data­ used to minimal storage space. (1) BLOB­ binary large  object f) Hyperlink­stores URL’s used to link  directly from database to web page 3. How does it handle computations a) A computed field­ a calculation that  a DBMS performs during processing (1) No disk storage  space b) There is always a potential for error  in dealing with data entry errors (1) Case sensitive  database= uppercase letters are not the equivalent of  lowercase counterparts (2) Field format­ a  template that adds the correct formatting as data is  entered (a) Errors  can be caught with field validation rules ie specifies  that the database designer sets up to filter data  entered into a particular field (b) Or with limited items on a list (c) Looku p routine validates entry by checking data in a file  or database table B. Normalization 1. Helps database designers create a DB structure  that minimizes storage space and increases processing efficiency a) Data redundancy­ the amount of  data that is duplicated in a database C. Organizing Records 1. Sort Order­ the order in which records are stored  on disks a) Using clever algorithms to quickly  pinpoint records b) Sort Key is one or more fields used  to specify where new records are inserted in a table 2. Indexing­ organizes data in alphabetical or  numerical order a) Database index contains a list of  keys and each key provides a pointer to the record that contains  the rest of the fields related to that key (1) Multiple indexes D. Designing the Interface 1. Large databases might even require a group of  user interface designers 2. A well defined user interface should be clear,  intuitive, and efficient E. Designing Report Templates­ 1. A report template contains the outline or general  specifications for a report 2. DBMSs include a report generator which specifying the content and format for a database report F. Loading Data 1. Can be loaded manually by using a generic data  entry tool supplied with the DBMS or by using a customized data entry  module 2. It’s possible to transfer data using a custom written  conversion routine IV. SQL A. Structured Query Language­ an intermediary between database  client software for users and the database 1. SQL Query which can operate directly on the  database to carry out instructions 2. Utilizes special command words IE Keywords a) Create, delete, insert, join, select,  update b) Parameters are detailed  specifications for a command B. Adding Records 1. INSERT C. Searching for Info 1. SELECT a) Can perform complex queries (1) AND­ for records with multiple critera (2) OR­ meet one or both criteria D. Updating Fields 1. UPDATE a) Global update that changes the data in more than one record at a time E. Joining tables 1. Creating a relationship between tables a) JOIN­ temp join and simultaneously  access the data in more than one table V. Big Data Unit 8 ICT Industry I. ICT Industry Basics A. Made of businesses that focus on digital equipment,software,  communications technology 1. ICT is classified into economic sectors according to types of goods and services they provide 2. Information­ Content, Computers, and  telecommunication a) Largest Economic Sector B. Most dynamic and prosperous but still affected 1. Stock Market Bubble­ refers to the sharp rise in  stock values that is later followed by a sudden decline 2. Dot Coms wre fueled by a frenzy of online business start ups C. ICT Goods and Services 1. Outsourcing is the use of components or labor from outside suppliers 2. Offshoring relocates business processes to lower  cost locations D. Technology Life Cycle 1. Moore’s Law­ cofounder of Intel­ Gordon Moore  predicts that technological innovation would double the number of  transistors in an integrated every two years 2. Roger’s Bell Curve­ Everett M. Rogers developed a model to explain how products diffuse through the marketplace 3. Gartner Hype Cycle­  Technology Trigger, peak of  inflated expectations, trough of disillusionment, slope of enlightenment,  plateau of productivity E. Disruptive Technology displaces an existing business process,  market,industry, or product 1. Are beneficial to businesses when they produce  cos savings, better service, save time, increase productivity. 2. Flat LCD replaces CRT 3. Computers replaced typewriters F. National Security 1. Cyberwarfare is the use of ICT technology to carry  out politically motivated attacks designed to infiltrate, sabotage 2. Talinn Manual like the Geneva Convention­ sets  out rules for conducting and responding to cyber warefare II. The Computer Industry A. Manual Calculators aka the abacus compared to mechanical  calculators 1. Implements algorithms autonomously 2. Developed as early as 1623­ Schickard’s Calculator a) 1642­ Pascaline b) 1820­ Arithmometer 3. Herman Hollerith­ electric calculator. IBM­  International Business Machines B. Computer Prototypes 1. ABC­ Atanasoff Berry Computer known as the first  Computer, made in Iowa 2. z3 ­ in Germany used vacuum tubes and binary.  During WW2 3. Harvard Mark I was digital but used deimal rather  than binary representation 4. 1943­ Colossus was invented to decode messages 5. ENIAC­ Electronic NUmerical Integrator and  COmputer meant to calculate trajectory tables for the US Army a) Aka the von Neumann Architecture 6. UNIVAC­ the first commercially successful digital  computer C. Changes 1. First Generation­ Heavy, huge, used vacuum tubes  that wasted a lot of power and burned out fast 2. Second Generation­ smaller, cheaper, less power  hungry a) Inefficient software 3. Third Generation­ developed integrated circuits  creating IBM 360 a) 1965­ DEC PDP 8 a successful  microcomputer 4. Fourth generation­ 1971 Ted Hoff developed the  first general purpose microprocessor­ Intel 4004 D. Personal Computers­ Jonathan A Titus developed the Mark 8 by  himself 1. Ed Roberts and MITS announced the MIT Altair­  the first commercial microcomputer 2. 1976 Apple Computer Co released Apple I then  Apple II which had COLOR GRAPHICS a) Successful because of VisiCalc­  electronic spreadsheets b) Lead to Apple Lisa and Apple  Macintosh 3. IBM PC III. The Telecom Industry A. Telegraphy­ transmitting text or symbolic information 1. Telegraph­ electrical telegraphy uses a cable and  dials marked with letters of the alphabet 2. Semaphores to differentiate from telegraphs from  flags 3. Morse Code was invented by Samuel Morse a  binar encoding system based on dots and dashes 4. It spanned oceans through the use of gutta percha  a rubber like substance that covered underwater cables… it failed until  1866 a) New one had a speed of 8 words per minutes B. Telephone­ a device that transmits human voices over a distance  using cables or a airborne signal 1. Created by Alexander Graham Bell  in 1876 a) The Bell Telephone Company would become AT&T (1) Needed a transmitter  and reciever b) Primitive telephones has rotary dials  then touchtone keypads (1) Connected with point  to point networks (2) Switchboard  operators would transfer calls 2. Common Carrier is any person or company that  transports goods, passengers, or electric signals a) 1976 a digital switchboard was  activated by AT&T C. Radio­ a device that sends and receives sound as  electromagnetic waves 1. Meant to transmit wireless telegraph messages by  Guglielmo Marconi a) Reginald Fessenden broadcasted  voice and music over long distances. b) 1920­1960= the golden age of radio D. Cellular Phones­ uses a low power radio transmitter to carry out  two way communications 1. Developed for military and law enforcement 2. Motorola DynaTAC­ was almost two pounds, 12  inches long, and only had one hour of talk time. E. Television­ sends moving informations over a distance 1. First mass produced TV’s were in 1946­ used CRT 2. Required a screen and antenna 3. 1954­ the first color television but even in the 60’s  most programs were black and white 4. Pay Television­ a subscription service in which  consumers pay to receive a selection of TV shows IV. Tech Careers A. Jobs and Salaries 1. Tech sector jobs are those that work in the  computer industry­ technology workers encompasses jobs such as  telephone cable installers to computer programs a) STEM­ Science, Engineering,  Technology, Math b) Computer Professionals primary  occupation is to design or configure hardware or software 2. IT Department­ the wing of a business of an  organization responsible for computer, data, software, and support  services a) Chief information Officer who reports directly to the chief executive officer or president 3. Examples of JObs a) System analyst, computer  programmer,security specialist, database administrator, network  administrator, computer operator,technical support specialists,  website developer, social networking analyst b) Contract worker­ a consultant who  are paid by jobs not the hours. c) Telecommuter who uses available  technology to work from home or an offsite location B. Education 1. There are 5 degrees­ a) Computer engineering, Computer  Science, Information Systems, Information Technology, Software  Engineering 2. Requires some type of Bachelor's Degree or  certification C. Certification 1. Paired with a college degree or extensive  experience improves your chances for employment a) Completion of a multiple choice test (1) Several hours long,  substantial testing fees 2. Types­ a) General Computer Knowledge b) Software Applications c) Database Administration d) Networking e) Computer Hardware f) Computer security 3. Also try taking AP exams, open source projects,  internships, badges, nanodegrees D. Resume 1. Format­ Print, Email, HTML, LinkedIn, ONline Job  Services, Web Portfolios a) Be CLear, concise, place the most  important points first, use language effectively V. Laws and Ethics A. ICT Laws 1. INformation Technology Law is the legal framework that applies to the collection, storage, and distribution of digital info 2. Laws on page 572 B. Ethics­ what to eat, not to eat, what not to do with pencil,  brochures 1. Professional ethics refers to the on the job choices a) Confidentiality­ not disclosing  information b) Proprietary information­knowledge  about company finances (1) Non compete clause c) Don’t use work for personal issues 2. Whistleblowing­ the disclosing by an employee or  professional of confidential information like fraud  Unit 11 Programming I. Project Development A. Computer programming encompasses a broad set of activities  that include planning,coding, etc 1. Computer Engineering 2. Application programmer's­ productivity applications 3. Systems Programmers B. Problem Statement defines certain elements that must be  manipulated to achieve a result or goal 1. Specifies any assumptions that define the scope of  the problem 2. Clearly specifies when the problem has been  solved a) Know Info in a problem statement is  the info that is supplied to the computer to help solve a problem C. Methodologies 1. Predictive Methodology (Agile) requires extensive  planning and documentation up front a) Program Coding­ core of a computer program’s sequence of instructions (1) Key Word­ a  command (a) Input,  Print, While, Break , If, Else, Def, Return (2) Variable­ a value that  can change (3) Constant­ remains  the same b) Syntax­ program instructions­ the set of rules that specify the sequence (1) Text Editors­ any type of word processor for basic text edit tasks ie emails,  documents (2) Program Editors 2. Errors a) Runtime Error­ occurs when a  program runs instructions that the computer can’t execute b) Logic Error­ a type of runtime error c) Syntax Error­ (1) Omitting a keyword,  incorrect punctuation, forgetting to close a parenthesis D. Testing and Documentation 1. Performance­ carry out real world tests 2. Usability­ easy to learn and use 3. Security a) Defence Programming Includes (1) Source code walk  throughs (2) Simplification (3) Filtering Input II. Programming Tools A. Language Evolution 1. Abstraction­ inserts a buffer between programmers  and the chip level details of instruction sets and binary data  representation a) Low Level Language­ low level  abstraction. Hardware LEvel Tasks b) High Level Language­  2. Languages­ a) First Generation­ first machine  language b) Second Gen­ machine language and abbreviated command words c) Third Gen­ 1950’s easy commands  like print d) Assembly Language­ classified as a  low level language because it is machine specific e) Fourth Gen­ HIgh Level LAnguage ie human lang and simple syntax f) Fifth Gen 3. Source Code   III. Procedural Programming A. Algorithm 1. Procedural Paradigm or an Imperative Paradigm­  conceptualizes the solution to a problem as a sequence of steps a) Supported by procedural language (1) Easily solved with  linear, step by step algorithm 2. Algorithm is a set of steps for carrying out a task  that can be written down and implemented a) Explains how to begin with known  info specified in a problem statement (1) Not specific to a  particular programming language B. Pseudocodes and FLowcharts 1. Structured English­ subset of English 2. Pseudocodes­ notational system for algorithms that is less formal than a programming Language 3. Flowchart­ graphical representation of the way a  computer should progress C. Flow Control 1. Refers to the sequence of how the computer  executes the steps a) Sequential execution  b) Sequence control structure changes  the order in which instructions are carried out by directing the  computer to execute an task 2. Function­ needs to take place but not in the main  sequential execution path 3. Selection control structure­ tells a computer what to do based  on whether a condition is true or false a) Repetition Control Structure directs  the computer to repeat one or more instructions until a certain  condition is met (1) The code that repeats is called a loop D. Procedure Application 1. PRocedural languages encourage programmers to  approach problems by breaking down the solution IV. Object Oriented Code A. Objects and Classes 1. Based on objects and classes that can be defined  and manipulated by program code a) A solution for a problem can be  visualized in terms of objects that interact with each other 2. Object is a unit of data that represents an abstract  or real world entity such as a person, place, or thing a) Class is a template for the objects b) Class attribute define the  characteristics of a set of objects (a) Has a  name, scope, and data type (2) Public Attribute­  available for use by any routine in the program (3) Private attribute­  accessed only from the routine it is defined. c) UML or Unified Modeling Language  diagrams to plan the classes for a program B. Inheritance 1. Inherited attributes create a class hierarchy 2. Passing certain characteristics from one class to  other classes a) Superclass­ any class from which  attributes can be inherited b) Subclasses or derived class­ any  class that inherits attributes from a superclass C. Methods and MEssages 1. Method is a segment of code that defines an action a) Contained in a method maybe a  series of steps similar to code segments b) Can perform a variety of tasks such  as collecting input, performing calculations, making comparisons,  exceuting decisions, producing an output 2. Methods are activated by messages which is  included as a line of program code that is sometimes referred to as a call a) Methods can be defined along with  the class they affect 3. Polymorphism sometimes called overloading­ the  ability to redefine a method in a subclass a) Create a single generic name for a  procedure b) Easy extensibility and can help  simplify program code D. OO Program Structure 1. Java program by locating a standard method called main() E. OO Applications 1. SIMULA­ simulation Language was the first  computer language to work with objects, classes, inheritance, and  methods a) It was incorporated into Smalltalk,  C++ and Java b) Java was supposed to be a  programming language for consumer electronics but it evolved  into a OO platform 2. Encapsulation refers to the process of hiding the  internal details of objects and their methods a) Becomes black box which hides  details from other objects and allows data to be accessed using  methods (1) Can be reused,  modified, repurposed V. Declarative Programming A. Describes aspects of a problem that lead to a solution 1. Efficient for processing words and language B. Prolog Programing­ punctuation consists of periods, commas, and parentheses 1. Arguments­ placed within parentheses 2. Facts­ a) The word outside the parentheses is called a predicates because it describes the relationship of the  arguments b) Goal­ query a prolog program data  base by asking it a question 3. Rules­ nothing more than a data base but rules  give programmers an additional set of tools to manipulate the facts a) Decision table is a tabular method  for visualizing and specifying rules based on multiple factors b) Instantiation­ finding the value for a  variable  C. Input Capabilities 1. Collecting input from the user and storing it in  variables or by asserting new facts at runtime D. Declarative Language and Applications 1. Offers flexibility for querying a set of facts and rules a) Not used for production applications b) Reputation for providing minimal  input and output capbilities (1) Popular in several  niche markets Unit 2 Digital Device I. Digital Devices A. Computer Basics 1. Multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output according to stored instructions 2. Input- Stuff that is super,submitted to a computer system or with a device-keyboard or microphone 3. Output- The result produced by a computer B. Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas which are manipulated by computers- processing which takes place in the CPU 1. Memory is the area that temporarily holds data to be processed 2. Storage is where data is left on a permanent basis 3. A file is a collection of data that exists on a storage medium such as a CD, DVD, Flash Drive C. The series of instructions that tell a computer how to carry out processing tasks- computer program 1. Run software that sets up a computer to do a specific tasks 2. A stored program means that a series of instructions for a computing tasks can be loaded into a computer’s memory a) Application Software= a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task (1)Also referred to as apps b) System Software is to help the computer System monitor itself in order to function efficiently (1)Operating System (OS) the master controller D. Computer Types 1. Mainframes- large closet sized metal frames a) Minicomputers- less expensive/ powerful computers b) Microcomputers- clearly differentiated from computers, dedicated to a single user 2. Personal computer is a microprocessor based computing devices designed to meet the computing needs. 3. Handheld Devices Computers vary in their programmability and their versatility which a) Install apps b) Or do not 4. Video Game Consoles are computers a) Contain microprocessors that are the same as any other PC 5. Workstation- an ordinary PC that is connected to a network a) A powerful desktop computer used for high performance tasks b) Server is meant to serve computers on a network by supplying them with data (1)Client- requests data from a server (2)Download refers to the process of copying a file from a serve to your own client computer (3)Upload refers to the process of copying files from your client computer server 6. Main frame computer is a large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundred or thousands of users a) For businesses or governments 7. Super Computers- the fastest computer in the world a) Compute Intensive Problems are those that require massive amounts of data E. Microcontrollers 1. A special purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls a) It accepts user input and stores them b) It is classified as a computer but is referred to as a processor because it has a dedicated application 2. Can be embedded in everyday devices a) An almost invisible technology II. Device Options III. Processors and Memory A. Microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions 1. It is the largest chip on the system board 2. It affects clock speed, bus speed, word size, cache size B. GHz indicates the speed of the microprocessor clock- a timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions (Gigahertz) 1. Cycle is the smallest unit of time a) Multiple instructions can occur in one cycle but depending on the task it could take more than one cycle C. Multi Core Processor produces faster performance D. Front Side Bus refers to the circuitry that transports data to and from 1. Megahertz (MHz)- one million cycles per second E. CPU Cache- special high speed memory that allows microprocessor to access data more rapidly F. Word Size refers to the number of bits that a microprocessor can manipulate at one time 1. 64 Bit Processor registers 64 Bits 2. CISC- complex instruction set computer 3. RISC- reduced instruction set computer a) Serial Process- must complete all steps in the instruction cycle before it executes the next G. Parallel Processing in which multiple instructions are executed at the same time 1. benchmarks can then compared to other microprocessors IV. Storage A. RAM- Random Access Memory is the temporary holding area for data, instructions, and the Operating System 1. Its the waiting Room- until it can be stored permanently on the hard drive, CD, etc 2. Microscopic Pats called capacitors hold the bits that represent data a) Like a chalkboard- you can change content by changing the charge of the capacitors b) Volatile which means it requires electrical power to hold data (1)Classified as Dynamic RAM 3. Running out of memory- technically possible but rare… a) Virtual Memory- stores parts of programs or data files until needed 4. ROM- Read Only Memory- a type of circuitry housed in a single integrated circuit a) Permanent and nonvolatile 5. EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read ONly Memory- non-volatile but user modifiable a) ROm contains a set of instructions called the bootstrap loader or BIOS (1)Tells the computer how to access the hard disk, operating system B. Storage Medium- disks, tapes, CD’s, DVD’s, other substances that contain data C. Factors that affect Storage Speed 1. Access Time- the average time it takes a computer to locate data on the storage medium and read it a) Lower numbers mean faster 2. Random Access- the ability for a device to “jump” to the requested data 3. Sequential Access- reading through the data from the beginning of the tape. 4. Data Transfer Rate- amount of data a storage device can move per second from the storage medium to the computer D. Storage Density-amount of data that can be stored in a given area of a storage medium aka surface of disk E. Magnetic Storage Technology 1. Stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on a disk or a tape surface a) Easily changed or deleted by changing the magnetic orientation 2. Hard Disk Drive contains one or more platters a) A platter is a flat rigid disk made of aluminum or glass 3. Read- Write Head Mechanism in the disk drive magnetized particles to write data 4. Pros- a) Provides lots of storage capacity and fast access to files, is economical 5. Cons a) Not as durable b) Can be unintentionally altered by magnetic fields, dust, mold c) Head crash F. Get a second External Hard drive to increase storage G. Optical Storage Technology 1. CD- Compact Disk- holds about 74 minutes of recorded music 2. DVD- Digital Video Disc- an alternative to VCR’s a) Two recordable layers b) Roughly 8.5 GB’s 3. Blu Ray- 25 GB Capacity a) All of these use microscopic light and dark spots on the disc surface (1)Pits- dark spots and Lands- lighter, non pitted surfaces H. Rom, R, RW 1. ROM- Read Only Technology 2. R- Recordable Technology 3. RW Technology- Rewritable I. Solid State Storage- a technology that stores data in a erasable, rewritable circuitry gathering than spinning disks or streaming tape. 1. Gridwork circuitry with each cell that contains two transistors that are similar to gates. a) A substitute for a main storage device V. Input and Output A. Computers need keyboards or mouses for basic data input. (or even touch screens) 1. QWERTY Layout with typing keypad, desktop, alt, ctrl, etc 2. Pointing Device = Mouse B. Game Controllers- many styles 1. Trackpag- Laptops C. Device Displays- displays text and images 1. LCD- Liquid Crystal Display produces images by filtering light through a layer of liquid crystal cells a) Display clarity, low radiation emission b) LED- Light Emitting Diode are eco friendly 2. Image Quality is a factor of screen size- the measurement from one corner to the other diagonally a) Dot pitch- measure of image clarity b) Pixels- small dots of light c) Viewing angle Width- indicates how far to the side one can clearly see d) Response Rate- time it takes for one pixel to change from black to white then back to black e) Color Depth or Bit Depth is the number of colors a monitor can display f) Screen Resolution is the number of horizontal and vertical pixels 3. Graphics a) Integrated Graphics are built into a computer’s system board (1)Dedicated Graphics are mounted on a small circuit board (2)Graphics Cards are like video cards (3)Graphics Processing Unit store screen images as they are process before they are displayed 4. Printers are popular output devices a) Ink Jet Printers have a nozzle like print head b) Laser Printers use the same technology as a photocopier which paints dots of light on a sensitive drum c) Dot Matrix Printer produces characters and graphics by us d) Ing a grid of fine wires 5. Features in a printer a) Resolution b) Print Speed c) Duty Cycle- how many pages a printer can churn out in a month usually d) Operating Costs- cost of ink and upkeep e) Duplex Capability- can it print on both sides f) Memory g) Networkability 6. Installing Peripheral Devices a) Data Bus- when data travels from one component to another (1)Expansion Bus or external b) Expansion Slot- a long narrow socket c) Expansion Port is a connector that passes data 7. USB- Universal Serial Bus can be added by using a USB Hub 8. FireWire Ports are also used for storage and transferring data a) ESATA is a high speed port for external storage devices (1)Thunderbolt is for connecting display o storage devices b) Video Graphics Array (VGI) VI. Digital Data Representation A. Data refers to the symbols that represent people events, things, and ideas 1. Data becomes information when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use a) Data is used by machines B. Data Representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, transmitted 1. Digital- text, numbers, graphics, sounds, video converted into discrete digits of 0’s and 1’s a) Switch- on and off 2. Analog is represented using an infinite scale of values a) A dial which controls brightness


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