KIN232 Final Review
KIN232 Final Review KIN232
Popular in Basic Human Physiology
Popular in Education and Human Development
verified elite notetaker
AST 1002-Section 3
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by askcch on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to KIN232 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Wesley Smith in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Basic Human Physiology in Education and Human Development at University of Miami.
Reviews for KIN232 Final Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/25/16
1. Know how one can use renal mechanisms to cause a sodium deficit and water loss. 2. Know the segments of the nephron and the key role of each. Bowman's Capsule Proximal Tubule: Most of the absorption occurs here (100% AA & Glucose, 66% Na&Cl, 50% ) Descending Loop of Henle: H2O out, concentrating Ascending oop of enle: Particle ut, iluting Distal ubule: Reabsorption Collecting Duct: ADH receptor, 2O 3. Be aware of the adrenergic receptors throughout the body Alpha 1, rterialwalls, aintaining one Alpha Beta 1, myocardium and kidney, for renin and heart contractility Beta 2, smooth muscle, vasodilation and relaxation of muscle Beta 3, adipose tissue, when bond to adrenaline trigger lipolysis 4. Be able to explain how the lungs and kidneys maintain pH in an integrative way COPD > ^CO2 (dec. pH) > Renal Compensation (^Reabsorption of HCO3) > ^pH Metabolic Acidosis > ^H+ (dec. pH) > Respiratory (Hyperventilation) > dec. CO2 ^O2 Psychogenic Hyperventilation > dec. CO2 (^pH) > Renal (Excretion of HCO3) > dec. pH Metabolic Alkalosis > dec. H+ (^pH) > Respiratory (Hypoventilation) > ^CO2 6. echanisms of intra nd extracellular edema. Intra: Depression of metabolism/nutrients > no energy to do Na/K pump > hyponatremia Inflammation of tissues directly increases permeability of cell membrane Extra Heart Failure > ^CVP > ^Capillary pressure > Fluid goes out to tissue spaces Kidney Failure/Malnutrition > vPlasma protein > Fluid goes to extracellular spaces coz of higher osmotic pressure inside the cells Allergic Reaction (Histamine) > ^Cap Permeability > Local extracellular edema Cancer/Surgery > Lymph Blockage > Local extracellular edema 7. rotection factors against extracellular edema. Needs 17 mmHg of pressure to correct Extracellular Edema 8. ReninAngiotensinAldosterone System and the effects of the hormones involved. JG cells in the kidney produce Renin > combine with angiotensinogen from the Liver to form Angiotensin I> through A.C.E. become Angiotensin II (Vasoconstrict efferent arteriole ^BP) > Adrenal Cortex > Aldosterone (^Na reabsorption, ^K excretion, ^BV) 9. icroabuminuria and disease. Level of albumin in the urine >200 = kidney dysfunction 20200 = microabuminuria, high isk isease 10. Effects of exhaustive exercise on renal function. 11. Be able to trace the events that occur along the nephron. 13. echanism of heart failure. 14. Hemostasis and key components of the clotting cascade as discussed in class. FA (omega 3&6) in platelets help hemostasis (regulation of blood) Platelets ~2wks of half life)cascade: Injury Vasoconstriction (serotonin) Platelets plug (platelet ggregation) Clot formation (prothrombin activator time) Prothrombin from liver > thrombin through prothrombin activator Thrombin turns fibrinogen from the liver into fibrin Fibrin re he titches > Clotting 15. Humoral versus cellmediated immunity in the adaptive immune system. Humoral: something in the blood attacks pathogen (antibody, hormones, B cells) Cellmediated: Cell to cell attack (T cells attack) 16. rythropoiesis making of RBC). Reduce in oxygen level in the body > H.I.F.s > EPO release from kidney > bone marrow roduce RBC Without EPO, arrow produces no BC I there isextra EPO, there is up to 10x ^ in RBC production Reticulocytes = immature RBC, can be used to determine ifan athlete is on drug 17. Mechanisms the inflammatory response. a. Area of infection sends out signal (through cytokines) to attract immune cells (chemotaxis). Release istamine & prostaglandins b. Platelets walling off the area to prevent infected blood from spreading out. Capillaries dilate, clotting begins c. Neutrophils Monocytes are 1st n the cene i. Neutrophils begin hagocytosis immediately ii. Monocytes grow up to 500% & become macrophages, eat pathogen Neutrophils & Monocytes > Peroxisomes > Bleach IL1 + IL6 TNF lpha > Fever 18. Methods of blood oping Take out some blood, refrigerate it,and inject it later (before competition) ^ performance, but ^ work of heart Risk to die at night, because low CO and too much blood in the body, not enough Q to brain 19. Blood types. AB have both A&B antigens, no antibodies (can get blood from everything) A has A antigen, B antibodies (can’t get blood from B) B has B antigen, A antibodies (can’t get blood from A) O has no antigen, but both A&B antibodies (can’t get blood from both AB, can only be O) 20. Hemoglobin A1C, ickle Cell Anemia. Hemoglobin isglycosylated by glucose = Hb A1C (8wks, marker of diabetes/glucose stress) <5% is kay, nondiabetic, 810% is angerous When changing 1 AA, glutamate > valine, RBC turns to a sickled shape (weaker) > higher risk of anemia 21. Types of nemia. Anemia > Increased CO to meet oxygen demand ^ 3DPG Redistribution of rom l ess essential reas ^ CO in xtreme conditions) Microcytic Anemia: v RBC (Hemolysis due to heat/contact) Hypochromic nemia: v Iron content Pernicious Anemia: Gastric parietal = v intrinsic factor = v B12 absorption & lack of protein ynthesis > v RBC production Megaloblastic Anemia: (Excessive xrays/cancer patients) slow synthesized RBC due to malnutrition, or alcoholic; those RBC are big and weaker Polycythemia: Blood viscousness 22. Types of WBCs and the relative normal distribution and function of each. Lymphocytes (2025%): B Cells, T Cells, Natural Killer Cells Monocytes (38%): Basophils (.51%): around capillaries, fight allergy Neutrophils (6070%): Eosinophils (24%): llergies & sthma 23. Innate and daptive immune esponses. Innate: nonspecific, allconstant immunity, more cellmediated response Adaptive: specific, vaccine, etc, more humoral response 24. Functions of he CD4 and D8 cells. CD4 Tcells go out and trigger more immune responses (macrophage, NK, CD8, B cells, etc.) CD8 Tcells (Tccell) puncture/poison and kil pathogens 25. Types of neurotransmitters used by pre & post synaptic neurons of the divisions of the peripheral nervous system. Ach and NEpi 26. Know the general processes involved with the execution of human movement. Signal from premotor & motor cortex > Basal Ganglia > Corticospinal Tract > Ventral horn in spinal cord > Motor units > Contraction 27. Be able to describe the functions of motor units and the size principle of recruitment. Motor units help coordinate the contraction of a muscle, greater work loa1d = greater recruitment of motor units and faster motor units 28. Know the steps of ec coupling and the cross bridge cycle. Signal from spinal cord > release of Ach > Ach receptors in the neuromuscular junction changes shape and open up Na channels > Depolarization leads to release of action potential down the sarcolemma > AP travels down the muscles through Ttubules, DHP and RYR receptors > release of Ca from the SR > Ca binds to Troponin C and relocates tropomyosin for myosin to bind to actin > Muscle Contraction > SERCA Pump o pump Ca back into the SR 29. Muscle proprioceptive reflexes: muscle spindles, GTOs, and the crossed extensor and flexorwithdrawl reflexes. Muscle spindles: senses stretch and contract the muscle back to normal length GTOs: senses tension and relax the muscle and tendons Crossed extensor and flexorwithdrawal reflexes: Fast retreat from pain 30. Differences between the types of photoreceptors in the retina. Rods: Numerous amount in the retina, very sensitive to light (shapes, B&W vision) Cones: Fewer in number, color sensitive, require more light for activation (Color vision) 31. Functions of PSNS and SNS activity; the pre and postganglionic neurons and their neurotransmitters. PSNS: SLUDD Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Digestion, Defecation SNS: ight or Flight (SNS) Preganglionic ses ch, Post uses NEpi xcept Sweat lands ses ch Adrenal glands only have preganglionic neuron all the way to the organ 32. Be able to describe the grey and white matter within the spinal cord, interneurons, ascending, descending, pyramidal, and extrapyramidal tracts. Grey matter: Ventral Horns (motor) vs. Dorsal Horns (sensory) White matter: ontains myelinated axons Ascending tract: ensory back to the rain Descending tract: otor from the brain 33. The cranial nerves: name, number and function. I Olfactory erve Smell II Optic Nerve Vision III Oculomotor Eye ovement; pupil constriction Nerve IV Trochlear Eye ovement Nerve V Trigeminal Sensory (touch, pain) from the face and head; Nerve muscles or chewing. VI Abducens Eye ovement Nerve VII Facial Nerve Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); sensory from ear; controls muscles used i acial xpression. VIII Vestibulocochle Hearing; balance ar Nerve IX Glossopharyng Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); Baroreceptors; eal Nerve controls some muscles used in swallowing. X Vagus Nerve Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate) XI Accessory Controls muscles used in head movement. Nerve XII Hypoglossal Controls muscles of tongue Nerve 34. Be able to define the extrapyramidal system. A tract that is part of the motor system to control involuntary motor movements, e.g. posture and uscle tone 35. Differentiate between the 2 main divisions of the pyramidal system Corticospinal Tract: Brain to spinal nerves (Contain lateral & anterior tract) Corticobulbar Tract: rain to cranial nerves 36. echanisms of motion sickness. Eyes telling the brain that you’re not moving, but ears senses otherwise. The contradiction causes brain to assume you’re poisoned, thus throwing up 37. Functions of the reticular system and the general anatomy and physiology of the brain, as discussed in class. Muscle one, osture, gaze Cardiovascular control enters Sleep & consciousness Habituation (adapting) Pain dampening 38. Be able to identify the functions of the Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, and Heschl’s Gyri n the rain. Heschl’s Gyri: First area for auditory processing Wernicke’s Area: Understanding written & spoken language Broca’s Area: Speech production 39. Know the main areas and functions of the limbic system, such as the hippocampus , amillary odies, and he mygdala. Hippocampus: Convert shortterm memories into longterm ones Mamillary bodies: stores memories Amygdala: Memory processing & emotional reactions. Also receives input from olfactory nerve (hence why smells remind you of memory most) 40. What procedure has been used to combat severe epilepsy (seizure disorder)? Corpus Callosotomy, as Corpus Callosum is the white matter that attaches left& right hemispheres 41. Describe the physiological etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease. Dysfunction of Hippocampus, can’t convert shortterm memories to longterm 42. Describe the physiological etiology of Parkinson’s Disease. Atrophy of dopamine producing neurons in the Basal Ganglia leads to reduced dopamine level, ysfunction in he basal ganglia 43. Be able to describe the brain’s “adrenal gland.” Locus Coeruleus, secret NEpi, panic & stress 44. Be able to differentiate between features of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, such as the glial cells, regenerative ability, neurotransmitters, etc.. CNS: Brain and pinal Cord Has wn blood low Cerebrospinal Fluid Oligodendrocytes Myelin, Don’t regenerate PNS: ther than CNS Has Automatic NS and Somatic NS Automatic NS has SNS and NS Has schwann cells Myelin, Can egenerate repair euron 45. Know the mechanisms of increasing surface area for absorption for digestion in the oral cavity. Chewing and saliva (98% H2O, IgA antibodies, antibacterial isozyme, salivary amylase) 46. Know the enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Carbohydrates: mylase (Saliva Pancrea) Proteins: Pepsin Lipids: Lipase 47. 3 components of gastric juices and their function. HCA (pH1): Kills bacteria, denatures roteins Mucus: Protects tomach l inin from acid Pepsin: reakdown proteins into Amino cids 48. The 2 main divisions of the enteric nervous system, their function, and ANS effects. Myenteric Plexus: Controls both layers of muscle of the GI tract Both PSNS SNS Feedback Sensory) Interstitial cells Pacemakers) Submucosal Plexus: Intestinal ecretion of nzymes and tc. Absorption of utrients PSNS only Inner muscle layer 49. Know he main GI gut eflexes. Food eing present (stretch) > Contraction Gastrocolic Reflex: Stomach > vacuation f gut Colon Full > Inhibition of motility (prevent more stuff going into the colon) Pain eflexes > nhibition entire GI ract Defecation Reflex > Powerful contractions to push feces out 50. What is the function of the appendix? Stores a large portion of our bacteria and probiotic 51. Secretion that occurs n the duodenum. Bile and carbonate CCK, Secretin 52. Define CCK, Gastrin, Secretin, and hrelin. CCK: causes release of digestive enzymes and bile, also a hunger suppressant Gastrin: ^ gastric acid secretion, ^ gastric motility Secretin: ^ secretion of pancreatic juice Ghrelin: “hunger hormone” 53. What is the function of bile? Where is itproduced? Where is it stored and secreted? Bile surrounds A and break hem own I is produced in the liver but stored by gall bladder 54. What is the mechanism of DPP4 inhibitors in type II diabetes therapy? 55. Be able to describe the key steps involved in nutrient absorption. Mouth (chewing and saliva) Stomach (chyme) Intestines vil and microvilli) 56. Testosterone formation. LH > Testosterone 57. perm count and motility. 15,000,000/ml or more = normal <32% sperm don’t swim orward progressively, motility = l ow 58. permatogenesis Happens below core temperature FSH, GH > permatogenesis 59. Fertilization nd sex determination Sperm penetrates the zona pellucida (membrane of egg cell) and gets into the ovum Activation of the ovum Fusion of the egg and sperm uclei Sex is determined by sperm (with either X or Y chromosome); egg is only X 60. Know the difference between fetal and maternal blood with regard to the Oxyhemoglobin Curve Fetal has no 2,3DPG, stronger binding to oxygen 61. What are the glucose transporters of the placenta? Glut 3 transporter 62. What are some causes of emale sterility? Inflammation of the fallopian tube, Hormonal issues, cervix issues 63. Understand the key events regarding the orgasm in the male and female. Male: Erection (PSNS) > Lubrication, Emission & Ejaculation, Resolution Female: Combination of psychic & physical stimulation, Erection, Orgasm (^fertilization) 65. Be able to describe the key events during the ovarian cycle. a. Follicles b. Follicles grow (15days) c. Matured follicle ith econdary ocyte d. Rupture of follicle outburst of egg(s) ~day 14) rop i body temp, LH surge e. Follicle collapses > orpus l uteum f. Corpus l uteum ies (~day 25) ^ strogen hrough day 114 Follicular phase) ^ LH Inhibin) ay 14: Ovulation ^ Progesterone hrough day 1428 (Luteal phase)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'